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Full text of "An improved system of botanic medicine; founded upon correct physiological principles; embracing a concise view of anatomy and physiology; together with an illustration of the new theory of medicine"

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AN 



IMPROVED SYSTEM 



OF 



BOTANIC MEDICINE, 



FOUNDED 



UPOJV CORRECT PHYSIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES* 

EMBRACING A CONCISE VIEW OF 

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY; 

TOGETHER WITH 

AN ILLUSTRATION 
Of the New Theory of Medicine. 



BY HORTON HOWARD. 



M TWO VOLUMES. 

VOL II. 



COLUMBUS: 

PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR 
Charles Scott, Printer, 

1832. 



- .Mi 



c/ff (/ <r 




B 



DISTRICT OF OHIO, to wit: 

E IT REMEMBERED, that on the fourteenth day of February, Anno 
Domini eighteen hundred and thirty-two, HORTON HOWARD, of 
the said district hath deposited in this Office, the title of a book, which is ia 
the words following, to wit : 

"An Improved System of Botanic Medicine, founded upon cor- 
rect Physiological Principles, embracing a concise view of Anatomy 
and Physiology; together with an Illustration of the New Theory of 
Medicine, By Horton Howard. In two volumes" 

The ri^ht whereof he claims as author and proprietor, in conformity with 
ai> <\ct of Congress, entitled "An act to amend the several acts respecting 
copy rights." 

ATTEST, 

WILLIAM MINER, 

Clerk of the District* 




PART II. 



OF DISEASES, SYMPTOMS, AND METHOD OF CURE. 

The reader will have perceived, that in the first volume we 
have devoted ourselves exclusively to an illustration of the 
general principles of life, of disease, and method ef cure. 
And it will not be at all surprising, if an attentive reader should 
find sume parts too superficially, whilst others may be too 
obscurely, too loosely, or too unconnectedly treated. We say 
it will not be surprising, because it is not only the first work 
attempted of the kind, but many parts of it were hastily writ- 
ten and committed to the press without the opportunity of 
maturing it by reflection, which is so essentially necessary in st 
work embracing so many new views, and so wide a range. True, 
we dwelt long upon but a few of the particular subjects treated 
of under their proper heads, because brevity seemed more 
necessary than a great display of words. We trust, however, 
that the careful reader will readily understand the important 
principles that we have laid down, upon which the healing art 
is based, and on which medicines must act in the restoration 
of health. 

In treating of Disease, we shall also endeavor to be concise 
but comprehensive; and confine ourselves generally to ihose 
complaints which are most common or peculiar. The reader, 
if he has perused the first volume, has no doubt perceived 
that we disregard all the various and contradictory systems of 
nosology which have been offered to the world, and which 
we confidently assert have had no better effect, than to amuse 
the speculative mind, without, in any degree, improving the 
healing art. We believe with Dr. Rush, that disease is an 
unit; or, in other words, that all disease arise from one gen- 
eral cause, and, hence, may be cured, if curable, bv one gene- 
ral remedy or remedies. We do not mean, however, that on* 



4 OF DISEASES, SYMPTOMS, AND METHOD OF CURE. 

single herb or root, will cure all complaints. Disease is caused, 
as in the first volume has been abundantly shown, by a diminu- 
tion of the living power of the system; the consequence of which 
is, a failure of strength, loss of tone of the organs, and foulness 
of the stomach and intestines. The indications of cure are, 
therefore, to restore the strength and tone of the organs, and 
cleanse the stomach by emetics, and the bowels by injections; 
to which we have also added the sparing use of cathartics or 
purges. Now each of these indications may be answered by a 
great variety of articles, adapted to these different purposes. 
And hence, as disease is produced by one general cause, it may, 
in all its varieties, be removed by one general remedy or reme- 
dies. 

And these general remedies are so systematically and harmo- 
niously adapted to each other, and to the human body; and their 
principles and modes of administration, so simplified, that any 
family possessing an ordinary share of common sense, may be- 
come their own physician in almost all cases of disease. We 
very well know, that thvis doctrine is contrary to the common 
ideas of people in general, and of the~medical faculty in partic- 
ular; but it has been verified, especially of late years, on a very- 
extensive scale, and also has the countenance of some of the 
best men who have ever adorned the science of medicine. Dr. 
John Howard, the celebrated English philanthropist, said, that 
"Every man must be his own physician; he must prescribe for, 
and practice on -himself." And Dr. Rush, whose benevolence 
was of the same enlightened and liberal cast with John How- 
ard's, recommends the general diffusion of medical knowledge, 
by an academical education: for the essential principles of medi- 
cine, says he, are very few, and plain. All the morbid effects, 
continues he, of heat and cold, of eating and drinking, and the 
exercises of the body and mind, may be taught with as much 
ease as the multiplication table. 

These are the sentiments of men eminent for their philan- 
thropy and scientific attainment; and the extraordinary success 
attending the botanical practice, in the hands of families, abun- 
dantly confirms their correctness. We boldly challenge the 
world for any instances of success, in the old schools of medicine, 
equal to that which has attended the botanical practice in th& 



OF DISEASES, SYMPTOMS, AND METHOD OF CURE. 5" 

hands of the people themselves. And to this end are we labor- 
ing, to take the practice of medicine out of the hands of the 
physicians, and place it where it ought to be; in short, to pro- 
duce a new and correct order of things, as Dr. Rush also says, 
when the knowledge and use of medicine, by the people, "shall 
be considered amongst the roost essential articles and rights of 
man." 

We boldly and fearlessly proclaim, that families ought to be 
instructed in the knowledge of the means of curing their own 
maladies, as well as preparing their own food. " Let us strip 
our profession," says Dr. Rush, " of every thing that looks like 
mystery and imposition, and clothe medical knowledge in a dress 
so simple and intelligible, that it may become a part of academ- 
ical education in all our seminaries of learning. Truth is simple 
upon all subjects; and upon those essential to the general hap- 
piness of mankind, it is obvious to the meanest capacities. There 
is no man so simple, that cannot be taught to cultivate grain; 
and there is no woman who cannot be taught to make it into 
Dread. And shall the means of preserving our health, by the 
cultivation and preparation of proper aliment, be so intelligible, 
and yet, the means of restoring it, when lost, so abstruse, that 
we must take years of study, to discover and apply them? — 
To suppose this, is to call in question the goodness of Deity; 
and to believe that he acts without system and unity in his 
works." " In thus recommending," continues Dr. Rush, "the 
general diffusion of medical knowledge, by an academical edu- 
cation, let it not be supposed, that I wish to see the exercise of 
medicine abolished as a regular profession. Surgical operations, 
and diseases which rarely occur, may require professional aid; 
but the knowledge necessary for those purposes, is soon acquired ; 
and two or three persons, separated from other pursuits, would 
be sufficient to meet the demands of a city containing forty 
thousand people." 

But how have these benevolent views of the venerable Rush 
been met or complied with? They have been met by prejudices 
the most inveterate, and opposition the most untiring. Instead 
of clothing medical science with simplicity, and making it a 
part of all education, the most unwearied exertions have been 
made to shade it with impenetrable mystery; to bury it in a mass 



9 OF DTSIASES. STHFTOITS. A5TJ METHOD OF CTHE. 

of technical lumber, and pompous, unmeaning, phraseolgv. unin- 
:-. _:ole to r-ersonsof common leisure or learning. How great 
z r may be the fame which Dr. RrsH has so justly acquired, 
b} 'lis scientific attainments: however revered may be his other 
writings; and how much deference soever may have been paid 
to nis sentiments upon other subjects, but very little heed has 
been given to those benevolent designs which are disclosed in the 
ioing quotations. Instead of enlightening the public mir^d, 
by a general meiical education, the faculty have been strength- 
ening all those prejudices which the mysteries of their art had 
very naturally produced. 

. . 3 these prejudices and imsteries, are the engines by which 
the people have been made to forge their own chains, by which 
thev are bound to the car of medical despotism, and scientific 
tvrai . i our grand object, in the present work, is to fur- 

nish the means by which those chains may be broken, and man- 
k : set free from this oppressive bondage. It was in these 
U ;-d States, that the spirit of independence, driven from the 
Oid World, first enkindled the name of civil liberty, and revived 
me principles of self-government. And it is here, too, that the 
desire to throw oiF the yoke of scientific medical oppression, 
:: «o long has rested with res sties weight upon our neck-, 

? first become manifest: and here also have the means been 
furnished by a -benign Providence, to do this work effectually; 
: knowledge whereof we are hereby endeavoring to com- 
minicate to the world. We entreat you. then, as you value 
the inestimable blessing of health for yourselves or your fami- 
lies: or as you vilue your independence of medical nabobs, or 
scientific tyrants, to lay aside your prejudices, and examine this 
interesting sobject tor you r sehes. Honor your own judgments, 
and do justice to posterity, by preventing the oppressive preju- 
dices of the present age. from descending, with accumulated 
power to those who may be destined to succeed you on the stage 
of life. 

Out remedies are all simple, as nature her=elf is simple; they 
«re moreover innocent, as all nedieines, as wei as food. ' ught 
to be; harmless towards nature, but powerful in opposing dis- 
ease: restoring health by c hanging a diseased action to a healthy 
one, instead of premiss, as Lae mineral a^u a^ o^aer poisons do, 



Of diseases, symptom?, and method of ccre. 7 

upon the vital power; thus contaminating the fluid?, and destroy- 
ing the tone of the organs, which is the legitimate and unvarying 
effect of disease, without being aided bj unnatural medicines. 
Then why continue the use of these poisonous drugs, wht-a 
others, both innocent and efficacious, are offered to your accep- 
tance? Why neglect the means which a bounteous Providence 
has provided to relieve our maladies, and Which he has scat- 
tered in profusion in every land? Why, we will once more 
ask, continue in the use of those inhospitable medicines. t« (ft 
have so often given melancholy proofs of their destructive 
character, by scattering disease, dismay, and death, amongst 
the most enlightened portions of the human race? when, at the 
same time, there grows, not only "upon some Alpine height, 
or along the margin of some mighty stream," but iadisci n i- 
nately over mountain, hill, and dale, the choicest remedies tor 
all the maladies of man. 

And we can assure the reader that these sentiments are not 
the ebullitions of enphrenzied enthusiasm, nor of bigoted zeal fo 
support the doctrines of a new sect; they are the sober conclu. 
sionsof deliberate investigations, and the result of experimen al 
facts. And we cheerfully and confidently submit them fc s 
world to be tested by the investigations of the leaned < the 
experience of the multitude, and decided at the unerring in. u- 
nal of public opinion. And in thus submitting this work to pub- 
lic scrutiny and usefulness, we take this occasion to ex;res* our 
firm convictions, that scarcely any family will be in dau.i,ei of 
using any of the articles commonly recommended; they are. all 
harmless; nothing poisonous or destructive to hie; and, there- 
fore, the main object is to give the medicine in some w.iy or 
other, if not exactly as hereinafter directed, nothing need • e 
apprehended, but be sure and give it in some form; remembering 
that the lobelia cleanses the stomach, relieves spasms, difficulty uf 
breathing, and, above all, gives an impulse which nothing ei-e 
will, to the living power, in all cases of suspended animation, 
from any cause whatever. On the other hand, remember V\ -t 
capsicum possesses the quality of permanently keeping up and 
strengthening the vital power, and should, therefore, be almost 
always used in every disease. The astringent and bitter tonics, 
are to be used to restore the tone of the orgaus, wmcn is ajwa^ s 



8 ABSCESS. 

more or less impaired by disease — the astringents are to be 
more especially used in bowel complaints, such as looseness, dys- 
entary, &c. 5 and the bitters to restore the appetite. Both 
astringents and bitters, may be used indiscriminately, and should 
almost always be combined with the capsicum to strengthen the 
living power. 

For a description of a course of medicine, the reader is refer- 
red to the Materia Medica; and it should always be resorted to 
in violent attacks, and in cases which do not readily yield to other 
means. 



ABSCESS. 

This name is applied to those cavities in which collections of 
pus or matter are formed, in any part of the system, such as boils, 
and ail other swellings, which are preceded by inflammation. 

Inflammations which terminate in abscess, usually come on 
with itching, dryness, redness, and increased heat of the part; 
which symptoms are succeeded by a small sumor or swelling, 
through which shootiug and throbbing pains are commonly felt. 
If the inflammation runs high, and is of considerable extent, 
feverish symptoms come on ; the pulse becomes full, hard, and 
quick: the skin dry and hot, with increased thirst. 

Inflammations of this kind may terminate in different ways, 
either by resolution, suppuration, adhesion, or gangrene. 

By resolution, is understood the natural and gradual cessation 
of the inflammatory symptoms, and the part becoming sound 
again. 

Suppuration implies the formation of pu9 or matter, in the 
inflamed part, and forming a cavity, which is properly termed 
an abscess. 

By adhesion is understood a growing together of inflamed 
parts ; which is said often to take place in twenty four or thirty 
hours. 

Gangrene is the incipient, or first stage of mortification. 

The symptoms which indicate the formation of pus, are aa 
abatement of the feverish symptoms; a diminution of the acute 
pain, which is succeeded by a heavy, cold, and dull uneasiness, 
in the part affected; softness and whiteness of the most elevated 



ABSCESS. » 

part or point of the swelling, whilst the other parts appear more 
red. If the matter is near the surface, we may be still further 
assured of its formation and existence in the part, by applying a 
finger to each side of the head of the swelling, and by gently but 
quickly pressing down with one, a gush or movement of the fluid 
may be felt under the other linger. When this fluctuation can 
be felt, there need be no doubt that matter is formed, and we 
may proceed immediately to make an opening in the abscess 
with a lancet, or some sharp instrument, to evacuate its con- 
tents. 

When the matter, however, is more deeply seated, the fluc- 
tuation cannot often be felt. But in most cases of this nature, 
the sudden subsidence or abatement of the inflammatory symp- 
toms, the repeated chills, the sense of weight and coldness of 
the part, may be regarded as good evidence of the existence of 
matter, and its ripeness foi opening; and if the patient is after- 
wards attacked with emaciation, night sweats, and olher hectic 
symptoms, we may regard them as unequivocal signs ol a hidden 
collection of matter. 

The symptoms which denote the termination of inflammation 
in gangrene, are, a sudden diminution of the pain and fever, 
the part becoming livid or green, the cuticle or scarf skin being 
detached from the true skin, under which is effused a turbid or 
dirty water; the tension, swelling, and hardness subside, and ? 
at the same time, a crepitus, or crackling noise, is heard on 
pressing upon the part, which is owing to a generation of air in 
the cellular membrane, which is interposed between the skin 
and flesh. In this stage of the disease, it is termed gangrene; 
but as the death of the part progresses, it becomes black and 
fibrous or thready, and destitute of natural heat, sensation, and 
motion, and it is then termed a sphacelus or mortification. 



Treatment. — If the inflammation proceed from any foreign 
or extraneous matter lodged in the flesh, such as a thorn, or 
splinter of wood, or any other substance, it ought immediaU ly 
to be removed, and if necessary to its removal, the wound should 
be laid open so that the foreign body may readily be got at, and 
removed. 



10 ABSCESS. 

In the first stages of inflammation arising from any other cause 
than injuries, such as boils, or other inflamed swellings, it will 
be proper to attempt the cure by producing a resolution of the 
tumor or swelling. To do this, it may be proper to apply cold 
water, which will have a powerful tendency to remove the 
inflammation; or we may bathe the part with a strong wash of 
pepper and vinegar, or with bathing drops. The application of 
the leaves of the common garden cabbage, or of skunk cabbage, 
to the part, will have a tendency to produce a moisture of the 
skin, arrest the inflammation, and dissolve the tumor. Cold 
poultices may also have a good effect in promoting the resolu- 
tion of the swelling. 

But the most powerful discutient remedy, and which is by far 
the most certain to disperse the tumor, and remove all other bad 
symptoms, is a full course of medicine. Resorting to this pro- 
cess as the circumstances of the case may require, will remove 
feverish symptoms which always attend large inflammations, and 
has a most powerful tendency to promote a healthy action in the 
diseased part, and produce a resolution of the tumor. The 
frequent application of the vapor bath, taking at the same time, 
some of the diaphoretic powders or capsicum, and omitting an 
emetic, will be found highly serviceable in removing the inflam- 
mation and swelling which precede an abscess. 

If, notwithstanding these means, the tumor should show a 
disposition to suppurate, poultices should be applied, and often 
wetted with cold water, which will allay the pain and inflam- 
mation. The poultice must be renewed as often as it inclines 
to become sour. The vapor bath alone, or a full course of medi- 
cine, may also, if necessary in extensive inflammations, be resor- 
ted to during the suppurative process, and will often be found 
very beneficial. 

It should also be remembered, that it will be proper, in any 
stage of the inflammation, if the general health be impaired, to 
use the bitters, diaphoretic powders, cayenne, or any other arti- 
cle which may seem proper; and something warming will be 
more especially necessary whilst applying the cold poultice. 

When the suppuration is completed, or as commonly termed 
ripe, which is to be known by the appearances we have herein- 



ABSCESS. II 

before noticed, the tumor should be opened with a lancet or other 
sharp instrument, and the matter pressed out; though it is 
thought best, by some, in very large abscesses, not to evacuate 
the whole of the matter at once, but by degrees. After the mat- 
ter is discharged, if there be no pain nor inflammatory symptoms* 
the sore may be dressed with salve alone; but if symptoms of 
inflammation still continue, or shouid they at any time afterward 
arise, a poultice must be applied, and occasionally wetted with 
cold water, as before directed. 

Many cases ot inflammation and abscess are continually occur- 
ring, such as ordinary boils, &c. which are too trifling to require 
much attention in any stage; but in more serious cases, after the 
abscess is opened, the powers of the system shouid be supported, 
and its tone kept up, by the use of the bitters, diaphoretic pow- 
ders, capsicnm, &c, which will also promote the formation of 
healthy matter, a circumstance essentially necessary to the rapid 
healing of the ulcer. 

Good healthy pus is of the consistence and color of yellow 
cream; without smell or taste, and in general heavier than water, 
with which at the common heat of the atmosphere, it will not 
unite, but at a higher temperature, readily combines with it. 
If the matter of the abscess is not evacuated from the part, it is 
absorbed and passes into the blood, and the cavity in either case, 
generally becomes filled up by an operation of the vessels, 
termed granulation, from the new parts appearing in the form of 
small red grains. When this process goes on favorably, the 
granulations are of a florid red color, and proceed in a regular 
manner until the abscess is completely filled up. 

Sometimes the granulations are too exuberant, and form 
irregular shaped masses, which project beyond the surface or 
lips of the sore, from which circumstance it is commonly called 
proud flesh, and when touched is easily excited to bleeding. We 
have, however, never met with proud flesh in an ulcer of any 
kind, treated agreeably to the foregoing directions; but should 
it occur, a strong decoction of the pond lilly, with the addition 
of a little fine alum, may be applied as a wash; or burnt alum, 
finely pulverized, may be sprinkled on the part. The compound 
tincture of myrrh, is highly recommended by some, to remove 
proud flesh. 



12 AGUE AVD FEVER. 

When inflammation threatens to terminate in mortification, or 
if it has already taken place, the most active arid efficient mean6 
should be adopted to check it immediately; for the treatment of 
which, see under the head of mortification. 



AGUE A\D FEYER, OR INTERMITTENT FEVER. 

Ague and Fever is a disease of very common occurrence in 
low marshy countries and situations, more especially in warm 
climates. 

Systematic writers have adopted names for this complaint 
according to the season of the year at which it occurs. That 
which occurs in the spring, is termed vernal, and that in the fall, 
autumnal. Agues are also distinguished according to the periods 
between the fits. When they return within the space of twenty 
four hours, they are called quotidians; when every other day, 
they are called tertians; when every third day, they are termed 
quartans. 

Agues are often obstinate to cure, especially in warm climates, 
where they frequently give rise to other chronic complaints, par- 
ticularly dropsical swellings, and enlargements of the liver or 
spleen, termed ague cakes. 

An intermittent fever may he produced by any circumstance 
which has a tendency to depress the living power: such as watry 
poor diet; great fatigue; long watching or doing without sleep; 
intemperance; grief; great anxiety; exposure to cold; lying in 
damp rooms or beds; wearng damp clothes; and breathing a 
vitiated or noxious atmosphere; which last is by far the most 
universal and common cause of this complaint. 

Each paroxysm of an intermittent fever is divided into three 
different stages, which are called the cold, the hot, and the 
sweating stages, or fits. 

The cold stage commences with a feeling of languor; a sense 
of debility or weakness; an aversion to motion; frequent yawn- 
ing and stretching, and an aversion to food. The face and 
extremities become pale; the features shrunk; the bulk of every 
ex ; ern A p.irt is diminished, and the skin over the whole body 
appears constricted, as if cold had been applied to it. These 
symptoms continuing to increase, the patient becomes very cold. 



AGUE AND FEVER. IS 

and universal rigors or shivering comes on; the respiration, or 
breathing, is small, frequent and anxious, the urine is almost 
colorless; sensibility is greatly impaired; the pulse is small, fre- 
quent, and often irregular. 

The continuance of this stage is ex'rerrHy various, from a 
few minutes to several hour*; when the second or not stage 
cones on with a sense of heat over the whole bodv; redness of 
the face; dryness of the skin; increased thirst; pain in the bexl; 
thlobbing in the temples; anxiety, a-;d restle**:,ess; the 1 respi- 
ration is now fuller and more free, but still frequent; the tongue 
is furred; and the pulse more regular, hard, and fall 5 when, if 
the attack has been severe, deli nam perhaps will rotne on. 

After these svmptoms have continued f )r some time, a moisture 
break* out on the forehead and by degrees becomes a sweaty 
which finallv extends over the whole surface r,\ the body. As 
the sweating progresses the heat abates, the thirst ct-a-^e-. Krear'i- 
ing becomes free and full, and most of the function!? are restored 
to their ordinarv state; the patient i* left in a weak and wearied 
condition. This constitutes the third stage, and completes the 
paroxysm of fever. 

It may. however, be remembered, that manv deviations from 
the ordinary course of intermittent, often occur. The different 
stages bear ver\ different proportions to each other, in different 
ca*es, both as to the time of their duration, and severity. Then; 
is also a great diversity in intermittents with regard tc the fili- 
ation in which the patient is left, ind in which he remains after 
the paDxvsm or tit. In some ca-es, the patient eats, di 
sleeps, and feels well, between the fits; at other times, although 
there is a perfect remission of fever, he continues weak and 
feeble, without any appetite, and even a loathing ol fond. at r en- 
d^d sometimes with a great prostration of the living; power. 
The stools sometimes appear natural, sometime* loo-eor costive, 
and often, especially in hot weather, presenting a dark, or what 
is termed a bilious appearance. The tongue becomes furred of 
a white, yellow, brown, or black color, attended mostly by a bad 
taste in the mouth. 

There are also manv other svmptoms and modification- of 
symptoms, often present in intermittents. which give a pecuhar 
character to the complaint, and some oi them eviucing that the 



14 AGUE AND FEVER. 

disease i 1 * of a very malignant character. Some of these arc 
long and violent fits or paroxysms, attended with much anxiety 
and delirium; and when to these are added, great prostration of 
strength, vertigo or dizziness, fcetid stools, the presence of dy sen- 
tar y, or cholera morbus, the case may be considered as of the 
worst character. The reverse of these symptoms, may, of course, 
be considered as evidence of a mild form of disease. 

Different names have been applied to intermittent fevers, such 
as bilious fever when there are symptoms of a redundancy of 
bile; lake fever, and in those cases where the patient only has a 
chill without any or but very little shivering, and the patient 
between the fits appears to surfer much decline of health, chill- 
frver or chill and fever has, in many parts of the country, 
become a very popular name. But if the paroxysm commences 
with a shivering or shaking, leaves the patient pretty clear of 
disease, with the appetite not much impaired, and the functions 
pretty natural, the name of ague is generally applied to the 
complaint. 



Treatment. — If the complaint he of a mild form, and no other 
disease present, we may very safely commence the cure by giv- 
ing a dose of the diaphoretic powders, three or four times a 
day, to promote the secretions and excretions, which will have a 
tendency to restore a healthy action to the different organs; also 
giving a dose of the stimulating or hot bitters three times a day 
previous to eating. At night a red hot brick or stone quenched 
in cold water, may be applied to the feet, wrapped first in a wet 
cloth and then in a dry one, giving, at the same time, a dose of 
the ladies' slipper with a fourth of a tea spoon full of cayenne 
with it, to promote perspiration and strengthen the nervous sys- 
"tem. If this treatment should not succeed, after a reasonable 
trial, a dose of Biinnel's pills may be given to those who prefer 
them to an emetic ; or the vapor bath may be resorted to, which, 
indeed, would be beneficial at the first. 

After the operation of the pills, the same course may be pur- 
sued as first recommended, and continued until a cure is effected. 
Or should this course, or a repetition of the pills after a day or 
two, not afford relief, or should the symptoms become worse 
no time should be lost in applying the vapor batb, administering 



AGUE AND FEVER. 



15 



an emetic, &e. according to the directions hereafter given. The 
ague pills may also be used, either after the purge or course of 
medicine. 

The butter nut syrup, bitter root, or ipecac, may also be used 
to act upon the bowels, instead of Bunnel's piiis. But in all 
violent attacks, the vapor bath and emetic, ought to be immedi- 
ately resorted to, and thus cleanse and purify the whole system, 
with all the fluids, before the powers of life become much weak- 
ened or the tone of the organs impaired. Ac.d this process 
ought to be repeated every day, every other day, or at longer 
intervals, according to the symptoms, until the complaint be re- 
moved. And, as in many cases, a recurrence of the paroxysms 
will take place notwithstanding the best means have been used, 
it may be best, a little previous to the time of the expected return 
of the fit, for the patient to sit before a warm lire, with a blanket 
around him, and driuk freely of a strong decoction of the diapho- 
retic powders, or of a tea ofbayberry or some other astringent 
article, made very hot with cayenne, to stimulate the living 
power, and promote perspiration. Or the patient may retire to 
bed, and have a hot brick applied to the feet and side or back, 
and pursuing the same course, in other respects, as if sitting by 
the fire. 

It is customary with some to commence the operation of vapor 
bathing, and giving an emetic a short time preceding the expected 
return of a paroxysm of intermittent, which often answers the best 
purpose, by preventing every symptom of the tit. But it some- 
times happens that notwithstanding all that can be done in this 
way, the paroxysm comes on, and then if becomes very fatiguing 
and unpleasant to the patient; yet the good effects of the process 
are not thereby lost. 

The process of vapor bathing may be often very profitably 
commenced when the hot stage is coming on, as perspiration is 
then much easier promoted than it is previous to or during the 
cold stage. Bui in all cases where the process of steaming or 
vapor bathing and giving an emetic, does not prevent the par- 
oxysm, it is better to resort to this process after the fit has gone 
entirely off, and so long previous to t->e commencement of the 
succeeding paroxysm that the patient will be entirely recovered 
from the fatigue necessarily attendant ou the process. 



16 ASTHMA. 

An emetic may often be advantageously administered without 
the steaming process; but in all bad cases, the whole process of 
steaming, giving the emetic, &c. is the grand dependence for 
effecting a cure. During the intervals, between the steamings, 
the patient should take of the diaphoretic powders and bitters 
frequently during his waking hours; and if there be much pain 
in the head, with restlessness and anxiety, the head must be 
bathed in cold water or vinegar, and doses of the nerve powder 
occasionally administered, as the circumstances of the patient 
may require. Drafts applied to the feet may also have a good 
effect to remove, the pain in the head. These may be made by 
spreading the dregs of the tincture of rm rrh on cloth, and apply 
them to the feet. Endeavors ought also to be used by the appli- 
cation of hot bricks, and the administration of cayenne, to keep 
u,j a perspiration, which will have a tendency to allav the irrita- 
tion and anxiety which often attend bad cases of intermit tents. 



ASTHMA. 

Asthma is a spasmodic affection of the lungs, which generally 
cem:s on by paroxysms or tits, at night; though the patient 
very frequently feels more or less of it through the day, with 
an increase of the symptoms at evening. It is attended with 
a frequent, difficult and short respiration, together with a 
peculiar wheezing, tightness across the breast, and a cough 
attended with such a peculiar crackling noise, (somewhat simi- 
lar to the wheezing) that a person who has seen several patients 
with this complaint will readily recogniz- it. 

When the disease is attended with an accumulation and 
discharge of humors from the lungs, it is called humid asthma: 
but when it is not attended by any expectoration, it is known 
by the name of dry or spasmodic asthma. 

An attack of asthma is preceded by low spirits, a sense of 
feeling about the. stomach, with lassitude, drowsiness, and pain 
in the head On the next evening, the patient experiences a 
sense of tightness across the breast, and of straightness in the 
lungs, impeding respiration. The di • cultv of breathing in- 
creases and is performed mure slowly ; the speech becomes 



ASTHMA. 1*7 

difficult and uneasy; coughing succeeds, and the patient can no 
longer lie in bed, being, as it were, threatened with immediate 
suffocation. 

Towards morning these symptoms suffer some abatement. 
The breathing becomes less laborious, and more full, and speak- 
ing and coughing are performed with greater ease; and if an 
expectoration of mucous attends the cough, much relief is expe- 
rienced, and the patient falls asleep. 

When he awakes he feels better, though not entirely relieved, 
but he cannot bear the least exertion without rendering all the 
symptoms worse. Nor can the patient lie in bed, but must either 
be bolstered up, or sit in a chair. 

Towards evening the symptoms again grow worse, and con- 
tinue to increase until they become as violent as on the prece- 
ding night. 

After some nights passed in this way, the fits become more 
moderate, particularly when they are attended by a free expec- 
toration of mucous from the lungs. At last the disease goes off 
and the patient is left in the enjoyment of his usual health. 

Sometimes however, the symptoms are all aggravated, and 
the fits continue to return for a much longer period, the patient; 
not being able to lie in bed for weeks or months, and even years. 
At other times, the symptoms are so mild as to subject the patient 
to but little inconvenience. 



Treatment. — There are but two articles which approach any 
where near to being specifics, or indeed that are very useful in 
this complaint. The skunk cabbage, in doses of a half or whole 
tea spoon full, repeated as occasion may require, is very useful 
in the asthma; and will often afford relief when other remedies 
appear to do little or no good. It acts both as an anti-spasmodic 
and expectorant, which gives it a double power over this com- 
plaint. The pulverized root of skunk cabbage may be mixed in 
honey or molasses, or a syrup m;iy be made of elecampane or 
any other articles useful to promote expectoration, and the 
skunk cabbage added, as it ought to be taken in substance. 

But the lobelia is the grand article to be relied upon for the 
alleviation or cure of this complaint. It may be given in half 

3 



18 BITE OF MAD DOG. 

or whole tea spoon full doses of the pulverised seeds, or leaves and 
pods, at bed time, or when the fits are coming on, and at any 
other time when the urgency of the symptoms appear to require 
it, A tincture of the lobelia in spirits, given in halt or whole 
tea spoon full doses, is a more convenient as well as agreeable 
form of administering thi> remedy, aiid is, perhaps, equally effi- 
cacious. This preparation has cured several persons of the 
\ most inveterate cases of asthma. 

Smoking the dried roots of the common henbane (Datura 
Stramonium) has been resorted to in man) cases of asthma, with 
success. This remedy appears to act as an anti spasmodic and 
expectorant. The smoke must be inhaled as much as possible 
into the lungs, where it usually occasions some degree of heat, 
followed by expectoration. It is said, however, that unpleasant 
consequences have followed its (improper) use, and it ought 
therefore to be used in moderation. 



BITE OF MAD DOG. 

The bite of a mad dog produces a disease termed Hydropho- 
bia, signifying a fear or dread of water, which is one of its most 
peculiar and characteristic symptoms. 

Hydrophobia is a disease -which it is believed arises spontane- 
ously in dogs, cats, wolves, foxes, &c, but from what particular 
cause is unknown. When the complaint has once arisen, it is 
communicated, to a great extent, from one animal to another, 
outspreads most rapidly amongst dogs, and is by them imparled 
to other animals. 

This complaint can only arise in the human species, from con- 
tagion communicated by the bite of a mad animal; and it yet 
remains doubtful whether it can pass from one person to another; 
but prudence will certainly dictate that we should beware of 
exposing ourselves unnecessarily, as an experiment of Magendie 
and Breschet, proved that dogs may take it b) inuoculation from 
the hun.an subject. 

It has been observed, that hydrophobia is quite uncommon in 
hot climates, being principal-^ met with in tuose which are tem- 
perate or cold. 



BITE OF MADD09. 19 

When a dog becomes affected with madness or hydrophobia, 
he appears duil, seeks solitude, and endeavors to hide himself; 
seldom barking, but making a murmuring noise, and refusing 
food and drink. When strangers come in sight he will often fly 
at them: but he still knows and respects his master; his head 
and tail hang down, and he walks as if overpowered by sleep. 
A bite at this period, though dangerous, is not so apt to bring 
on the disease in the animal bitten, as it is at a later period of 
the complaint. 

As the disease progresses, the dog begins to pant, and breathe 
quickly and heavily; his tongue hangs out, and his mouth is 
continually open, from which is discharged a large quantity of 
froth. Sometimes his movements are j very slow, and at others 
he runs suddenly, but not always straight forward. At last he 
forgets his master; hi? eyes are dull, watery, and red; he be- 
comes very thin or poor, and weak; he of en falls down, and 
gets up, attempting to fly at other animals, and espeei dly dogs, 
and becomes quite furious. The most miserable, dejected, and 
gloomy looking anim d which we have ever beheld, was a dog 
under continement, in the last stages of this terrible and fatal 
malady. 

" All the foregoing symptoms now become aggravated; the dog 
staggers about, for he Can scarcely be said to walk, and at length 
the living power being exhausted, he dies, generally on the 
fourth or fifth day succeeding the attack or first symptoms of the 
dUease. 

The length of time which intervenes between the bite of a 
m id animal, and the commencement of the hydrophobic symp- 
toms is various; but in dogs it is generally from five to fifteen 
days; whilst in the human species, it varies from one to six weeks, 
and even as many months. Instances are also recorded in 
which the patient was seized after the lapse of several years. 

The symptoms of hydrophobia, in man, commence in general, 
with slight pains in the part which had been bitten, though long 
after the wound was healed and apparently sound ; sometimes 
an itching is felt, but commonly the pain appears like rheuma- 
tism. If the wound have been in any of the extremities, the 
limb sometimes becomes uumb or stiff; the old scar or cicatrix^ 



20 BITE OP MAD DOG. 

looks either red or livid ; often opening afresh, and oozing forth 
a little colored matter. Then come on wandering pains, with a 
melancholy from which scarcely any thing can rouse him; with 
uneasiness, heaviness, disturbed sleep, and frightful dreams, 
accompanied with great restlessness, sudden startings, spasms, 
sighing, anxiety, and love of solitude. These symptoms con- 
tinuing to increase, pains shoot from the place where the wound 
was, up to the throat, about which, as well as the chest, a stiff- 
ness and painful constriction are felt; the breathing becomes 
difficult, with a sensation of choaking; and a horror and dread 
of water, and other liquids. Bright colors, a strong light, acute 
sounds, particularly the noise of water pouring from one vessel 
into another, and even a simple agitation of the air by a move- 
ment of the curtains, greatly disturb the patient, and often bring 
on a paroxysm of general convulsion, or otherwise greally 
aggravate the painful symptoms. He is tormented with thirst, 
but dares not drink; the sight or even the idea of water often 
making him shudder. His eves are haggard, glassy, fixed, and 
turgid with blood; his mouth is filled with a sticky saliva, in 
which lurks the hydrophobic poison, and he is constantly endea- 
voring to hawk it up, and spits it out in every direction ; often 
desiring those around him to stand aside, as if conscious that he 
might hereby injure them. If he attempt to drink, the moment 
the water or other fluid, is brought in contact with his lips, he 
starts back with dread and horror, although he may be suffering 
at the same time with great thirst. The restlessness is extreme, 
and if the patient attempt to lie down and compose himself, he 
instantly starts up again, with wild unutterable anguish depicted 
in his countenance; and in some instances there is a great strug- 
gling, with raving, and furious madness; but the living power is 
soon exhausted, and death, as a welcome friend, comes to relieve 
the unfortunate sufferer. 



Treatment. — When we take a survey of the empirical, the 
contradictory, the extravagant, and the pernicious means which 
have been used and recommended for treating this terrible and 
gigantic malady, we are forcibly driven to the reflection and the 
fact, that the popular practice of medicine, as taught in the 



BITE OF MAD DOG. 21 

schools, was nothing more than a chaos of confusion — a tissue of 
error, and of dangerous unprofitable experiment; for of ail the 
various and contradictory modes of treatment, recommended by 
different authors, whether of stimulating or depleting, of relax- 
ing or exciting, of burning or cutting, of warm bathing or cold 
bathing, nothing as yet is known to the learned authors of medi- 
cine, which can be relied upon as a certain cure. As Dr. Good 
observes, "our curative practice is still unfortunately all afloat, 
and we have neither helm to steer by, nor compass to direct our 
course. There is, indeed, continues he, no disease for which so 
maBy remedies have been devised, and none in which the morti- 
fying character of vanity of vanities has been so strikingly writ- 
ten upon all of them." 

A new era has, however, taken place, in the annals of medical 
science; the practice of medicine has become established upon 
new and correct principles; the means of cure have been inves- 
tigated and improved; whilst at the same time, the powers of 
the physician to control disease have become augmented and 
multiplied. There is good reason to believe that the lobelia 
inflata will be found a certain remedy for this terrific disease, 
as the few trials which have been made with it, give strong 
proofs of its powers, and high promise of its future usefulness. 

We are well aware that the medical faculty scout at the idea 
of a cure for hydrophobia, as they also do at all other improve- 
ments of the healing art, which do not originate with themselves. 
This is virtually denying that the people have any right to inves- 
tigate the healing art, or to administer or receive any thing as 
medicine but what they sanction, or what passes through theiF 
hands. But light and knowledge with giant strides, are march- 
ing through the world, and if the physicians will not seize and 
appropriate to usefulness, the gifts of nature, the people will do 
it themselves. And it is high time the practice of medicine 
was taken out of the hands of the boasting, selfish, dominant 
professors of this most important art, and restored to those to 
whom it rightfully appertains, and who are principally to be 
benefited by it. 

If the lobelia had so often been tested by fashionable physi- 
cians, in the cure of hydrophobia, as it has been by the people, 
its fame would have been spread from sea to sea, and its echoes 



ZZ BITE OF MAD DOG. 

would have penetrated the deepest recesses of every civilized 
laud. But the origin oi this remedy is too humble; its adoption 
would eclipse the already waning glory of scientific and profes- 
sional fame. It must therefore be despised and rejected; ves, 
the most valuable gift of .Nature's God is neglected, because the 
honor ol a vaunting, vain-glorious profession may be tarnished 
by the acknowledgment of its virtues. 

The first account which we ever had of the lobelia was, that 
it would cure the hydrophobia; and, although we were incredu- 
lous, we certainly should have been willing to have given it a 
trial, from the conviction that no hazard could arise by deviating 
from a mode of treatment which had never proved successful. 
But there have been several cases of this complaint, in different 
parts of the country, successfully treated with the lobelia, one 
oi which will be found detailed in the appendix to this volume. 

Immediately alter receiving the bite of a dog supposed to be 
mad, the wound should be well washed with the strongest tinc- 
ture of lobelia; and if the teeth of the dog have any of them 
penetrated deep!) into the flesh, the tincture should be forcibly 
thrown in with a small syringe, in order that it may reach the 
bottom of the wound. This washing should be often repeated 
until the sore is healed. At the same time we would recommend 
the largest doses which the palient would bear without vomiting, 
of the same tincture, given three times a day, for several days; 
or, what should be prefer? ed, a thorough course of medicine 
every other day, and the tincture to be taken on the days which 
intervene between the courses. It will be advisable to repeat 
the course of medicine three or four, and perhaps six or eight 
time«, in this way, and the tincture should be continued lor a 
few days longer. Bitters should also betaken several time* a 
d ay, duiing the continuance of the tincture, and perhaps for a 
short time longer. 

The scull cap has also been highly recommended, both as a 
preventative and cure, of the hydrophobia, though it has fallen 
of late years very much into disrepute. Whether its character 
h is failed in consequence of the feebleness of its powers, or 
from prejudices unjustly raise! against, we cannot say. It would 
seem from the account which is given of it by R.afinesque, that 
it contains many puvveiiul chemical principles, which evince 



BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE. 28 

active properties*" We must confess, however, that we should 
by for, give a preference to the lobelia, because its sensible 
effects upon the body so much exceed those of the scull-cap; 
but we, at the same time most cordially coincide in the sentiment 
of the author just quoted, that " we have so few presumed 
remedies for this dreadful disease, and it is so desirable to con- 
firm the properties of those supposed available, that it is need- 
ful to encourage rather than to discourage, every attempt to 
throw light on the subject." — Flora of the United States, vol. 2, 
page 85. 

But if, notwithstanding this treatment, symptoms of hydro- 
phobia make their appearance, we must nave recourse to large 
and repeated doses of the anti-spasmodic tincture, on which 
we must principally rely. The nervine tincture should also be 
freely used in large doses, which with anti-spasmodic tincture, 
will be the principal dependence in relieving the spasms. Cour- 
ses of medicine must also be frequently resorted to, in which 
a free use may be made of the pulverised seeds of lobelia to 
produce vomiting and profuse perspiration; or instead of these, 
we may use the anti spasmodic tincture to produce the same 
effects. This course must be rigorously persevered in, paying 
no other regard to the quantity of lobelia administered, but to 
be sure to give enough to produce the desired effect. If enough 
is not administered to overcome the spasms, but little good will 
be done. And in order to do this more effectually, injections, 
made strong with the lobelia, or anti-spasmodic tincture, will 
be highly advantageous, and should be used the more freely, and 
be oftener repeated, if the difficulty of swallowing should in- 
crease. 

Much light may also be had upon this subject by a perusal of 
the case detailed in the appendix, to which we reler. 



BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE. 

In the no«e there is a net work composed of blood-vessels 
expanded on the internal surface of the nostrils, and covered 
only with a thin tegument or skin; hence upon any determination 
of a greater quantity of blood than usual to the vessels of the 



24 BLEEDING PROM THE NOSE. 

head, those of the nose are more easily ruptured. And hence 
also, anj kind ot violence about the nose, is apt to rupture these 
vessels, and produce a discharge of blood from the nostrils. In 
general, the blood flows only from one nostril; but sometimes it 
is discharged from both. 

Persons of a sanguine and plethoric habit, and not yet advanced 
to manhood, are most liable to hemorrhages from the nose; 
females being less subject to it than males. Peculiar weakness 
of the vessels of the part, and the decline of life, may likewise 
be considered as predisposing causes. Great heat, violent exer- 
tion, external violence, particular postures of the body, and 
every thing that determines the blood to the head, may be con- 
sidered as exciting causes of bleeding at the nose. 

It comes on at times, without any previous warning; but at 
others, it is preceded by pain and heaviness in the head, dizzi- 
ness, ringing in the ears, flusbing of the face, heat and itching 
in the nostrils, a throbbing of the temporal arteries, and quick- 
ness of the pulse. 

Bleeding at the nose, in general, may be considered as of 
little consequence, when occurring in young persons; but when 
it arises in persons more advanced in life, flows profusely, and 
returns frequently, it indicates too great a fullness of the vessels 
of the head, and not unfrequently precedes palsy, apoplexy, 
&.c, and is, therefore, in such cases to be regarded as indicating 
dangerous consequences. And when it arises in the course of 
any putrid complaint, it is to he considered as a fatal symptom. 
Bleeding from the nose often proves salutary in some cases, 
such as dizziness, headache, &c. ; and critical in others, such as 
plirensy, apoplexy, and inflammatory fever, when there is a 
determination of too great a quantity of blood to the head; and 
we ought, therefore, to consider at the time it happens, whether 
it is likely to prove injurious or beneficial. And it it appear 
likely to remove any unpleasant symptom, or relieve any com- 
plaint, it may be suffered to go on, so long as it does not appear 
to weaken the patient. Nonrsed it be suddenly checked, when 
it happene to persons in good health, especially if they are of a 
full plethoric habit. But when it arises in elderly persons, or 
returns too frequently, of continues till the patient becomes weak 
or faint, no time ou^ht to be lost in attempting to put a stop to it. 



BLEEDING FROM THE LUNGS. !25 

Treatment. — A snuff made of the leaves of witch hazle, and 
inhaled into the nose, will, in most cases, stop the bleeding. 
Wetting the face, head, and temples, at the same time with 
cold water, will assist the effects of the hazle. A tea of the 
hazle with the addition of cayenne, will also be beneficial, taken 
internally; to which may likewise be added the common beth 
root, either in tea or substance. Bathing, fomenting, or steam- 
ing the lower extremities, will, by facilitating the circulation 
through them, draw the blood from the head; and thereby have 
a tendency to promote the operation of other remedies. 

The powder of charcoal is highly recommended as a styptic, 
in hemorrhages from the nose. It may be used as snuff, or it 
may be applied by means of tents, first moistened with water, 
then roiled in this powder, and introduced into the nose. — 
Probably the witch hazle might be advantageously used in the 
same manner. *■ 

When there is reason to believe that the bleeding is caused 
by a determination of biood to the head, or by any peculiar 
weakness of the vessels of the nose, and the means already 
prescribed do not check the hemorrhage, the patient ought to 
be taken through a process of the vapor bath, &c, as described 
in the materia medica. 

After this process is completed, the extremities ought to be 
kept warm, and the whole surface moist, until the danger of a 
recurrence appears to be over; or if it does return, the same 
process may be repeated as often as necessary; using, during 
the intervals, any or all of the other means which have been 
recommended. 



BLEEDING FROM THE LUNGS. 

This complaint is usually called spitting blood, and consists in 
a discharge of blood of a florid red color, and often frothy, from 
the mouth, brought up by more or less of coughiig or hawking, 
and usually preceded by a saltish taste in the mouth, a sense of 
weight about the breast, difficult breathing, and a pain in some 
part of the breast. 

This disease is readily to be distinguished from bleeding at 
the stomach, as iu this last, the blood is vomited up, usually in 



26 BLEEDING FROM THE LUNGS. 

considerable quantities, and is moreover of a darker color, and 
frequently mixed with other contents of the stomach; whilst 
blood proceeding from the lungs, is usually in small quantity, of 
a florid color, mixed with a little frothy mucous, and is brought 
up by coughing. 

A spitting of blood may he caused by any violent exertion, as 
running, jumping, wrestling, singing, loud speaking, or blowing 
on wind instruments; and likewise by wounds, inflammation of 
the lungs, weakness of the vessels of the lungs, haid coughing, 
&c. 

Bleeding at the lungs is not, however, always to be regarded 
as a primary affection, but is o!ten a S) mptom attendant upon 
some other complaint. In pleurisy, inflammation of the lungs, 
and many fevers, a slight spitting of blood, may be regarded as 
the presage of a favorable termination. 

This complaint is sometimes preceded by a sense of weight 
and oppression at the chest, a dry tickling cough, some slight 
difficulty of breathing, and a hard jerking pulse. At other 
times it is ushered in with shiverings, coldness of the extremities, 
pains in the back and loins, flatulency, costiveness, and lassitude. 
The blood which is spit up is usually thin and florid; but some- 
times it is thick, and of a dark cast, owing to its having lain 
some time in the lungs before it was discharged. 

Spitting blood is not to be considered as a dangerous complaint, 
when there are no symptoms of consumption present; or where 
it leaves behind no cough, difficulty of breathing, or other trou- 
blesome affection of the lungs: nor is it dangerous in a strong 
healthy person of a sound constitution, unless the hemorrhage 
is very great: but when it attacks persons of a weak lax fibre, 
and delicate habit, it may be difficult to cure. 



Treatment. — The removal of this complaint is to be at- 
tempted, if mild, by taking freely of the sudorific powders, 
and, at the same time, using other means to promote perspira- 
tion. If there be any considerable cough, the cough powder 
may also be given to promote expectoration. A tea of the witch 
hazle, or beth root, may also be freely used, to each dose of 
which may be added irom half to a whole tea spoon full of cap- 
sicum, and repeated according to the urgency of the symptoms. 



BLEEDING PROM THE STOMACfl. 27 

After persevering in this manner for a reasonable time, if the 
symptoms do not abate, a regular course of the vapor bath and 
the emetic ought to be resorted to, and repeated as the urgency 
of the symptoms may require. After this course, the diapho- 
retic powders, hazle or beth root tea, and cayenne, to which 
may be added bitters, must be continued, at longer or shorter 
intervals, until the patient is out of danger. 



BLEEDING F.ROM THE STOMACH. 

This complaint is usually denominated vomiting of blood, and 
is commonly preceded by a sense of weight, pain, or anxiety, in 
the region of the stomach. The blood is usually discharged in 
considerable quantity, of a dark color, and often mixed with the 
other contents of the stomach. It will readily be distinguished 
from a spitting of blood, by attending to the description of that 
complaint. 

This disease may be occasioned by any thing received into the 
stomach, which stimulates it violently or wounds it; or it may 
proceed from blows, bruises, or any other cause capable of 
exciting inflammation in the stomach, or determining too great 
a flow of blood to it; and it often arises spontaneously without 
any apparent cause, and it sometimes occurs as a symptom of 
some other disease. 

Towards the close of malignant scarlet, and putrid fevers, 
and other disorders of a like nature, where symptoms of putre- 
sency prevail in a high degree, a hemorrhage from the stomach 
is very apt to arise. 

Vomiting blood is seldom so profuse as to destroy the patient 
suddenly. The principal danger seems to arise, either from 
the great debility which repeated attacks of the complaint 
induce, or from the lodgement of blood in the intestines which, 
by becoming putrid, may occasion some other fatal complaint. 



Treatment. — This disorder may, in general, be treated the 
same as bleeding from the lungs. Charcoal, in table spoon full 
doses, repeated as circumstances seem to require, will be found 



28 BLOODY URINE. 

a use Till auxiliary to the other means. It will operate as a styp- 
tic to check the bleeding, as a laxative to cleanse the intestines, 
as an anti septic to prevent the putridity of the blood in the 

intestines. 



BLOODY URINE, 

This disease is sometimes occasioned either by falls, blows, 
bruises, or some violent exertion, such as hard riding, and jump- 
ing; but it often takes place in consequence of a small stone 
being lodged either in the ureter or kidney, which, by its size 
or irregularity, wounds the inner surface of the part it comes 
in contact with; in which last case, the blood discharged is most 
usually somewhat clotted, and deposits a sediment of a dark 
brown color, resembling coffee grounds. 

A discharge of blood by urine, when proceeding from the 
kidney or ureter, is commonly attended with an acute pain and 
sense of weight in the back, and some difficulty in making 
water, the urine which comes away first being muddy and high 
colored, but towards the £lose of its flowing becoming trans- 
parent, and of a natural appearance. When the blood pro- 
ceeds immediately from the bladder, it is usually accompanied 
with a sense of heat and pain in the lower part of the belly. 

This complaint is distinguished from the high colored red 
urine attendant upon many diseases, by the deposit of clotted 
blood at the bottom of the vessel, and by its staining linen of a 
red color. 

The voiding of bloody urine is always to be regarded as a 
dangerous disease, particularly when mixed with purulent mat- 
ter. When it arises in the course of any malignant disease, it 
is regarded as indicating a highly putrid state of the blood, and 
is always succeeded by a fatal termination. 



Treatment. — If the complaint has arisen as a consequence 
of some external injury, such as a fall or blow, a process of the 
vapor bath, and the emetic, ought immediately to be resorted to, 
which, if it do not stop it, should be followed by the use of the 
witch faazle, beth root, or other astringents, and the process 



BURNS AND SCALDS. 29 

Sixain repeated, as often as necessary, until the cure is com- 
pleted. 

When, from the symptom*, there is reason to suspect that the 
complaint proceeds from a stone lodged in the kidney, ureter, 
or bladder, the patient ought to drink freely of some mucila- 
ginous drink, such as thick barley water, a tea of marsh mallous, 
or elm bark, any or all of which may be sweetened with honey. 
Injections of the same, may also be administered ; and to allay 
irritation, the ladies' slipper ought to be freely used. 

A decoction of peach leaves, drank so as not to produce much 
purging, is a very useful remedy in this complaint. In case the 
leaves cannot be procured, the bark may be used, and in one 
bad case in which we tried it, answered every purpose that the 
leaves could have done. The bark or leaves ought always to 
be resorted to in cases of this kind. 



15URNS AND SCALDS. 

Cases of this kind are often occurring, particularly amongst 
children; and as they create excruciating pain, it is of the utmost 
importance to apply a remedy immediately. Happily, the best 
remedy and the one that affords the most speedy and grateful 
relief, is commonly at hand, or very readily obtained. 

Plunging the injured part instantly into cold water, or, if 
this be inconvenient on account of the injury being on the 
head or body, applying a cloth wetted occasionally with cold 
water, will afford instantaneous relief; and, if applied at the 
instant, will prevent blistering, which is often so considerable a* 
to cause a tedious ulcer. 

During the application of the cold water, the patient ought 
to take occasionally a dose of cayenne or of the diaphoretic 
powder, to prevent the cold application from doing an injury. 
If one of the extremities be burnt or scalded, the part may be 
immersed in cold water, occasionally withdrawing it, and again 
returning it when it smarts. But when it is inconvenient to 
immerse the part in water, a cloth folded several times, made 
wet with cold water, and applied to the part, will answer the 
purpose. As the cloth becomes warm and the injured part 



30 CANCER. 

smarts, cold water may be poured on it, or a fresh cloth applied, 
and continued until the smarting has ceased. 

If this plan has not been adopted in season to prevent blister- 
ing and the sore or ulcer which arises in consequence of it, the 
slippery elm poultice may be applied, after the smarting has 
ceased, and continued until the inflammation is out, when it 
should be dressed with salve, until well. 

In very bad burns or scalds, near the vital parts, as on the 
breast or stomach, the patient ought to be taken through a 
course of the vapor bath and emetic, after the smarting has 
been checked with the cold water, and, in ail respects, treated 
as in any other bad case of disease* 



CANCER. 

A cancer is an ulcer of the very worst kind, with an uneven 
surface, and ragged and painful edges, senerally spreading 
rapidlv, discharging a thin acrimonious matter that excoriates 
the skin around the sore, and has a very foetid smell. 

A cancer is usually preceded by a hard, or what is tech- 
nically termed a scirrhus, swelling of the part, especially if it 
be seated in a gland, such as the female breast, the glands of 
the arm pit, &c. And it is to the glands, that cancers are 
mostly confined; though they are sometimes met with in the 
uterus, as likewise on the face, and other parts that are thinly 
covered with flesh, and which are at the same time a good deal 
exoosed to external irritation, such as the lower lip, the angles 
of the eyes, the organs of vision, the middle cartilage of the 
nose; the tongue, and penis. 

Cancer usually begins with a small swelling in the gland, or 
if it be seated on some other part, as the face, hand, &c. with 
a small swelling that sometimes resembles a wart or pimple, 
unaccompanied by pain or any discoloration of the part. It 
gradually increases in size and hardness, and, sooner or later, 
is attended with darting, twinging, or lancinating pains, as if 
pricked with a sharp instrument, and with swellings of the 
veins, and an uneasy painful sensation, in the vicinity of the 
part. Sometimes it remains in this state for a length of time. 



CANCER. . 31 

even for years; but at other times it proceeds on to suppuratioa 
with great rapidity, and forms an ulcer. Its progress will, how- 
ever, depend much on the state of the person's health, constitu- 
tion, and other like causes. 

During the stage of cancer of which we have just been 
speaking, the pains recur at very irregular intervals, sometimes 
longer, and sometimes shorter. This irregular recurrence of 
the pains which invariably attend a true cancerous affection, 
depends upon causes which, as yet, remain unknown. If the 
cancer be seated in the female breast, and the woman be of 
such an age that the menstrual flux has not ceased, she will 
commonly suffer a considerable increase of the painful symp- 
toms, at each return of this evacuation. The tumor will also 
during this period probably increase in size, in a ratio propor- 
tioned with the increased violence of the other symptoms. 

As the disease advances, it is very common, when the breast 
is the seat of cancer, for one or more of the axillary* glands 
on the same side of the body, to become enlarged. 

When the disease approaches near the surface, the skin, 
which hitherto retained its natural appearance, begins to look 
puckered, or as if drawn together in folds. From this cause, 
the nipple will be sometimes so retracted or sunk, that its 
existence might be overlooked by a superficial observer. 

When the disease advances further, the skin becomes insepa- 
rably united to the tumor, and in a little time longer, it assumes 
a slight degree of redness, with other symptoms of inflammation. 
After a while tne whole surface of the diseased part puts on 
a purple shining appearance, and in this state continues with 
but little change until ulceration is about taking place; when 
all the symptoms become much worse, and induce a feverish 
action in the blood. 

At length it breaks out into an ulcer, and the violent symp- 
toms experience a temporary abatement, from the discharge of 
a small quantity of thin corrosive matter. In a short time, the 
ulcer penetrates deeply into the flesh, in the central parts of it, 
whiist the edges appear hard and elevated. The surrounding 
skin assumes a livid appearance, and from the surface of the 

^From axilla, the arpi pit. 



.32 CANCER. 

■ore, there is now a considerable discharge of an irritating cor- 
rosive matter, which excoriates, or as it were scales, the skin 
around the sore, and is, at the same time, of a peculiar and 
highly offensive smell. Matter of a true purulent, or healthy 
appearance, is scarcely ever discharged from a cancerous sore. 

If the ulceration be extensive, it will be observed, that while 
one part of the sore is undergoing the ordinary sloughing pro- 
cess, another will be found active in producing luxuriant gran- 
ulations of a loose spongy nature. These different appear- 
ances or changes, sometimes alternate with each other, and in 
their further progress, give rise to consideiable hemorrhages, 
from the erosion of the blood vessels. 

At length, from the morbid derangement which is occasioned 
in the functions of the lungs, when the cancer is seated in the 
breast, there gradually comes on a difficulty of breathing 
attended with a cough, and some degree of emaciation, which 
symptoms are usually followed, at no great distance, by a 
fatal termination. 

Cancers in other parts of the body, usually appear first in the 
form of a small, bluish colored pimple, attended by twinging 
pains, and is succeeded by a traiu of symptoms quite similar to 
those wliich have just been described as taking place in the 
female breast. 



Treatment. — The moment any kind of tumor makes its 
appearance, with evident symptoms of cancer, no time should 
be lost in adopting the most efficient means of restoring a 
healthy tone of the system, if the general health be impaired, 
and promoting the absorption of the tumor before it break forth 
into an ulcer. 

To restore the general health, the common course of medicine 
ought to be resorted to, and repeated as circumstances require, 
and using between the courses, a tea of pipsisway, wild lettuce, 
narrow dock root, and probably the sassafras might be useful, 
together with bitters and the diaphoretic powders. The cancer 
balsam, recommended by Dr. Thomson, should also be applied 
externally over the tumor, and renewed as it becomes necessary. 
The juice of the root of the narrow leafed dock, dried in the 
sun to the consistency of wax, may also be applied, spread on 



CHICKEN POX. SO 

paper, to the part, and is said to have performed some remark- 
able cures. — [See .A*. G. to H. p. 85.] 

But if after doing all that has been recommended, the tumor 
breaks out into an ulcer, or if it be in this state when medi- 
cal aid is first called, we must not abandon the patient as being 
in a situation of utter hopelessness. The courses of medicine 
must be repeated or resorted to, together with the use of bitters, 
diaphoretic powders, dock root, pipsisway, &c, as being the 
best means of changing the cancerous habit or tendency of the 
fluids, and promoting a healthy vigorous action in all parts of 
the system. 

Dr. Thomson remarks, that in one case, he applied a poultice 
of butternut shucks, to dissolve the cancerous tumor, and seemed 
likely to accomplish his object, when his hopes were blasted by 
the death of his patient in consequence of a fever. 

If the ulcer be much inflamed, the common poultice may be 
applied, wetting it occasionally with cold water or a tea of some 
of the astringent articles. At each dressing, or renewal of the 
poultice, wash first with mild soap suds, and then with a tea of 
pipsisway, wild lettuce, dock root, or some of the astringent 
articles. When the inflammation has abated, apply the salve, 
or if the tumor be not dissolved, the cancer bnlsam will probably 
be belter, which ought to be continued until the cancerous tumor 
is entirely gone. 

An ointment or salve, made by boiling the common wood or 
sheep sorrel in hogs lard, has been known to have a very decided 
influence on cancerous ulcers of the very worst kind. Or the 
juice dried in the sun, and applied, spread on a piece of bladder 
or paper, will be more powerful, and is highly recommended. 
The juice of the dock root, prepared in the same manner, has 
also been found beneficial, in numerous cases. 



CHICKEN POX. 

This disease, like the measles, small pox, and some other 
eruptive diseases, depends upon what is (ermed a specific conta- 
gion, and affects the same person but once. 

5 



34 CHOLERA MORBUS. 

The eruption is sometimes preceded by cbillness, which is suc- 
ceeded by flushings of the face, and heat, pains in the head and 
back, thirst, restlessness, and a quick pulse ; whilst at other times, 
no such symptoms are perceptible. About the second or third 
day the pustules or pimples, become rilled with a watery fluid, 
which never becomes converted into yellow matter, as in the 
small pox: and about the fifth day they usually dry away, and 
-are formed into crusts or scabs. 



Treatment. — It is not considered that any danger ever attends 
this' complaint. But should the fever run high, the common 
means for promoting perspiration should be used, such as bath- 
ing or soaking the feet in warm water, before a hot fire, and 
drinking some warm teas, taking the diaphoretic powders, or 
cayenne. 

If this does not remove the difficulty, and render the patient 
more comfortable, a general course of medicine should be re- 
sorted to, and if necessar}-, repeated. The like treatment will 
also be proper for the swine pox, which is only a species of the 
chicken pox. 



CHOLERA MORBUS, OR VOMITING AND PURGING. 

Frequent and violent vomiting and purging constitute cholera 
morbus. 

In warm climates it occurs at all seasons, and is very frequent; 
but in cold climates, it prevails most frequently in autumn when 
there is excessive heat, or there are sudden transitions from heat 
to cold ; and the violence of the disease has usually been observed 
to be greater in proportion to the intenseness of the heat. 

Cholera morbus usually comes on with nausea, soreness, pain, 
distention, and wind in the stomach, and acute griping pains in 
the bowels • which symptoms are soon succeeded by a severe 
and frequent vomiting and purging of bilious matter, attended 
by heat, thirst, hurried breathing, and a frequent but weak and 
fluttering pulse. 

When the disease is not violent, tbese symptoms, after con- 
tinuing for a while, gradually cease, leaving the patient in a 



CHOLERA MORBUS. 35 

debilitated and exhausted state: but when the disease proceeds 
with much violence, and there arises great depression of strength, 
with cold clammy sweats, much anxiety, a hurried and short 
respiration, cramps in the legs, coldness of the extremities, and 
hiccups,' with sinking and irregularity of the pulse, the disease 
will, in general, quickly terminate in death; an event that not 
unfrequently takes place within twenty-four hours from the com- 
mencement of the attack. 

Cholera morbus may be distinguished from diarrhoea and 
dysentery, by the matter which is discharged being pure bile, 
unmixed with blood or mucous, and with but very little mixture 
of natural fasces. From other complaints of the bowels, it may, 
in general, be distinguished by the evacuations being both up- 
ward and downward at the same time. 



Treatment. — Mild attacks of this disease, may often be 
removed by a few doses of brandy, or of Dr. Thomson's No. 6, 
or the compound tincture of myrrh. As this complaint often 
arises from a sourness of the stomach, draughts of pearl ash 
water, or of white ley, will very frequently, if administered at 
the commencement of the disease, remove the complaint- 
Alkaline draughts ought often to be given, in all cases of this 
disease. Pulverized chalk, in table spoon full doses, is said to 
be a certain remedy in cholera morbus. 

The diaphoretic powders ought also to be freely given, at the 
same time bathing the patient's feet in warm water, before the 
fire, if able to sit up for that purpose. Flannel cloths wrung 
out of warm water, may be applied to the region of the stomach, 
and renewed as they become cool. Injections of a tea, of some 
astringent article, with the addition of one or two tea spoons 
full of Dr. Thomson's No. 6, or the compound tincture of myrrh, 
should often be administered; or they may be made of slippery 
elm, and used alternately with the others. The nervine tincture 
should also be freely used, in one or two tea spoon full doses. 

But in more violent attacks, or where the means just recom- 
mended fail of producing the desired effect, a regular course of 
medicine ought immediately to be resorted to, as delays, in this 
complaint, are to be regarded as highly dangerous, Afcer the 



86 COSTIVENE33. 

evacuations are stopped or relieved, care must be taken that a 
relapse do not take place. The patient should take of the bit- 
tersj diaphoretic powders, cayenne, or No. 6, several times a 
day, until he is out of danger. 

Mint tea, or the anti-emetic compound, are also good auxilia- 
ries to check the vomiting in this, as well as all other complaints 
attended with vomiting. But in case the stomach is so extremely 
irritable that nothing can be retained long enough to produce 
any sensible effect upon if, an emetic should be administered by 
injection; which may be done by putting from three to five tea 
spoons full of a strong tincture or tea of lobelia into a tea cup 
full of warm water, pennyroyal or baybery tea, without any 
cayenne, and throwing it into the intestines with a syringe ; which 
must be repeated at intervals of from ten to twenty minutes until 
the stomach is sensibly affected by it. 

The ordinary cholera morbus of this climate is a disease of 
an alarming nature, often running its course to a fatal termina- 
tion in a few hours; but the Indian cholera, of which the pub- 
lic have heard so much of late, is still more rapid and frightful; 
frequently cutting the patient off" in a few minutes. Should 
this formidable enemy of human life be ever transported to our 
shores, as some have confidently predicted, no time should be 
lost by those who are acquainted with the improved botanic 
practice, should the disease come in their way, of using the 
most powerful means at the very first appearance of the com- 
plaint in any individual. Giving the antispasmodic tincture, 
with the immediate application of the vapor bath, we should 
think of the first importance; to which should be superadded 
all the other means which we have recommended in mild attacks 
of cholera. 



COSTIVENESS. 

Costiveness of the bowels seldom occurs unconnected with 
gome other disorder of the stomach or liver or both. It is almost 
always attendant upon indigestion or dyspepsy, in which com- 
plaint, as in all others in which it is apt to occur, it is a trouble- 
some symptom. 



COSTIVENESS. 



37 



Sedentary persons are peculiarly liable to this complaint, 
especially those who are of what are termed a sanguineous and 
choleric temperament; and such as are subject to hypochondriac 
affections. 

Costiveness is frequently occasioned by neglecting the usual 
time of going to stool, which has a tendency to check this salu- 
tary excretion. It may also be caused by habitual copious 
sweating; or by eating improper food; by the occasional or 
habitual taking of opium, and by the use of wine. 

The common effects of costiveness are sickness of the stomach, 
want of appetite, flatulency or wind in the stomach and intes- 
tines, headache, some degree of fever, general dullness, and 
melancholy, or dejection of spirits. 



Treatment. — When constipation of the bowels depends upon 
some other disease, as d) spepsy or affection of the liver, atten- 
tion must be paid to these complaints, whilst the costiveness 
should he attempted to be obviated by a diet of ripe fruits and 
vegetable?, which have a tendency to loosen the bowels. The 
common bitters, with the addition of a portion of the bitter root, 
should be taken three or four times in a day, or oftener, which 
will not only relax, but give tone to the intestines; and in all 
obstinate cases, injections of warm water with the addition of 
the fourth of a tea spoon full of capsicum, or of some laxative 
preparation, should often be given. 

Cases of extreme obstinacy of this complaint occasionally 
occur with persons otherwise in good health, but more often in 
bilious colic. In these cases injections strongly impregnated with 
the extract or syrup of butternut, should be frequently given; 
or a decoction of the bark or boughs of the butternut may be 
made by boiling either, a short time in soft water, or any other, 
if soft cannot be readily procured. These should be repeated 
perseveringly until relief is obtained. Some instances have 
occurred in which it was found necessary to remove the har- 
dened faeces by mechanical means, such as introducing the finger 
into the rectum or fundament, or using a surgical instrument 
termed a scoup; nut no necessity for such an indelicate operation 
as this, would, in our opinion, ever take place, if the use of 
injections were timely resorted to. 



38 colic. 

It is a very common custom with persons who ore subject to 
costiveness, to resort to the use of purgative medicines; but 
this is a most injurious practice. The use of every purgative 
medicine, says Dr. Thomas, creates a necessity for its repetition, 
and by this repetition the bowels lose their energy* Purgatives 
act by stimulating the intestines with greater force than their 
natural contents do, which lessens their excitability, or capacity 
of being excited, and hence the necessity of following one purge 
by another, and another, &c. In short, the use of purgative 
medicines has a tendency in all cases to weaken the tone of the 
intestines, but more particularly in cases of costiveness. The 
cause of this difficulty is a loss of tone, and the true indication 
of cure is the use of such articles as have a tendency to restore 
a healthy tone to the intestines. This indication can best be 
answered by the use of the hot bitters combined with a small 
portion of the bitter root, which is at the same time mildly laxa- 
tive and powerfully tonic. 

Along with these means should also be used, and especially 
if the case be attended by sickness of the stomach, vomiting, or 
fever, the vapor bath, including the whole course of medicine; 
which should be repeated as often as the circumstances of the 
case may require. 

Common charcoal has also been highly recommended in con- 
stipation of the bowels. It may be taken in tea or table spoon 
full, or in larger doses, according to the exigencies of the case, 
mixed with molasses; repeating it as often as may appear neces- 
sary. 

Persons who are habitually subject to this complaint, should, 
at regular hours every day, solicit an evacuation; and by all 
means attend, immediately, to every inclination of going to stool, 
whenever it may arise. The daily use of a quantity of bran, 
as will be found in the materia medica, will be highly service- 
able. 

COLIC. 

Colic is a painful distention of the whole of the lower region 
of the belly or abdomen, with a kind of twisting around the 
navel, often attended by vomiting, costiveness, and a spasmodic 
contraction of the muscles of the abdomen. 



colic. 39 

This complaint is produced by various causes such as crude 
or indigestible food, a redundancy of bile, costiveness, colds, 
worm-, poisons, hysteric?, &c. Colic has received different 
names, according to attending circumstances, as flatulent or wind 
colic- bilious, hysteric, &c. 

Colic may he distinguished from inflammation of the intestines 
by the spasmodic contraction of the muscles of the belly; by the 
trifling degree, or total absence of fever; and by the diminu- 
tion or lessening of the pain by pressure upon the bowels. 

In flatulent or wind colic, there is costiveness, attended with 
pain, soreness, and griping of the bowels, distention of the 
stomach, an inclination to vomit and belch wind, with coldness 
of the extremities. 

In bilious colic there is loss of appetite, bitter taste in the 
mouth, with thirst and some fever; costiveness and vomiting of 
bilious matter, with an acute pain about the navel; and as the 
disease advances, the vomiting becomes more frequent, and the 
pain more lasting. The dry belly-ache seems to be only a slight 
modification of bilious colic, and is attended by very similar 
symptoms. 

In the hysteric colic, there is sickness of stomach, accompa- 
nied with severe spasms, costiveness, and dejection of spirits. 

When the pain attendant upon colic, remits or abates, or 
shifts its situation, not being obstinately confined to one place, 
and when the patient experiences considerable relief by a dis- 
charge of wind, or by a stool, we may expect a favorable termi- 
nation: but the sudden cessation of pain, after the disease has 
been of some hours or days duration, with the continuance of 
obstinate costiveness, cold sweats, a weak tremulous pulse, fre- 
quent fainting, and hiccups, denote a fatal termination. 



Tr^ati.'ejyt, — Mild cases of colic may commonly be removed 
by die essence of peppermint, anise, or any other aromatic or 
warming vegetable; by a hot sling, raw spirits: or by the dia- 
phoretic powders, gingpr lea, capsicum, or any of the astringent 
articles which may bi " m d in our materia medica. Doawood 
blossoms are. iik jwise fl mended by man}, in this complaint. 

...... o jisly added to the use of 



40 CONSCITPTION. 

any of the above means; and in bad cases they are indispensably 
necessary. The application of a hot board, or of cloths wrung 
out of hot water, are also useful auxiliaries or assistants to the 
means recommended, and may be resorted to if necessary. 

But if these means fail, or if the attack should be violent, the 
patient should be taken through the common course of medicine; 
which must be repeated, if necessary, as the circumstances of 
the case appear to require. After, or between the courses, the 
patient should take the hot bitters three or four times a day to 
strengthen the tone of the intestines; and if the costiveness 
continues, the injections should be repeated at proper intervals, 
until the bowels become regular. The diaphoretic powders, or 
capsicum, should also be given, to promote perspiration and 
stimulate the bowels. 

Care should be taken in all cases of colic, of whatever kind, 
to open the bowels by the frequent use of laxative injections, 
as directed for the treatment of, costiveness. This is pecu- 
liarly necessary in bilious colic, and in what is termed the dry 
belly- ache. 



CONSUMPTION. 

Pulmonary consumption, as the disease under consideration 
is technically termed, is accompanied by genera! emaciation, 
pain in the side or chest, some difficulty of breathing, especially 
after walking or speaking, and a cough, which usually' proves 
most troublesome during the latter part of the night or in the 
morning;. In its advanced stages, an expectoration or spitting 
of purulent matter, with hectic fever and diarrhoea ensue. 

Consumption seldom occurs before mature age ; and is oftener 
met within the haunts of society, fashion, and folly, than in those 
walks of life, where comfort is allowed to predominate over 
vanity and pride. Women are said to be more subject to it 
than men, as well from their going more thinly clad, as from the 
greater delicacy of their organization. 

The circumstances which predispose to consumption are 
numerous; the following are the most common: Particular 
formation of the body, indicated by prominent shoulders, long 



CONSUMPTION. 41 

neck, and narrow chest; hereditary disposition, derived from 
parents; certain diseases, such as inflammation of, or bleeding 
from the lungs; scrofula, small pox and measles; particular 
employments, in which the individual is exposed to dust, as 
needle pointers, stone cutters, &c, or to the fumes of metals, 
as chemists, &c; playing much on wind instruments; great 
evacuations from the body ; continuing to suckle too long under 
a debilitated state; the use of mercury or arsenic as medicine; 
the application of cold to the body, either by changing the 
apparel from a thick to a thin dress, or by keeping on wet clothes, 
lying in damp beds, or in any way giving a considerable check 
to perspiration; and by tight lacing, or wearing corsets. 

Consumption, we conceive to be, in its first stages, a local 
disease, confined to the lungs; but as it progresses, its effects 
become more general. It is simply an ulcer in the lungs, and 
may arise from two different conditions of these organs; either 
inflammation, or what are termed tubercles, which are small 
tumors having the appearance of hardened glands, and are of 
different sizes, and often exist in clusters. Their firmness is 
usually in proportion to their size, internally of a white color, 
and approach the consistence of cartilage. Consumptions arising 
from tubercles are more difficult of cure than those arising from 
ordinary inflammation of the lungs. 

This disease when arising from the latter cause, commonly 
begins with a short, dry, hacking cough, though nothing is spit 
up for some time but a frothy mucus that seems to proceed from 
the fauces or back part of the mouth. The breathing is at the 
same time impeded, and upon the least exertion is much hurried* 
A sense of oppression at the chest comes on; and leanness or 
emaciation takes place, with languor and indolence, dejection of 
spirits, and loss of appetite. 

This state is sometimes of short duration, but frequently it 
continues a considerable time; during which, however, the 
patient is more readily affected by slight colds; and finally, per- 
haps from a bad cold, the cough becomes more troublesome and 
severe, particularly by night. At length, along with the cough, 
an expectoration or raising of matter from the lungs, takes place, 
which is more free and copious during the latter part of the 
night and morning. By degrees the matter which is expecto- 

6 



43 CONSUMPTION. 

rated; becomes more viscid, or sticky, and opaque, assuming a 
greenish color, and purulent appearance, and is often streaked 
with blood. 

The breathing at length becomes more difficult, and the 
weakness and emaciation increase. The patient becomes sen- 
sible of a pain in some part of the chest or breast, which is more 
particularly distinguishable on coughing. The pulse now be- 
comes full, hard, and frequent; the face flushes, particularly 
after eating; the palms of the hands and soles of the feet are 
affected with burning heat; the breathing is difficult and labo- 
rious; fever becomes obvious at evening, which by degrees 
assumes what is termed the hectic form. 

At the commencement of the hectic symptoms the bowels are 
usually in a costive state; but as the disease advances, a diarr- 
hoea or looseness comes on, and the fever is succeeded by profuse 
sweats. 

There is, almost from the first, a peculiar countenance, and 
hollow tone of voice; but at this stage of the complaint, they 
are much increased, insomuch that an observing person who has 
seen several consumptive patients, would, from these symptoms 
alone, readily suspect the disease. 

The patient now has the appearance of a walking skeleton, 
his flesh being so much wasted ; his countenance is often ghastly ; 
his cheek bones are prominent; his eyes look hollow and languid ; 
his hair often falls off; his nails become of a livid or blue color, 
and are incurvated ; whilst his feet and ankles become swelled. 
To the end the senses commonly remain perfect, and the mind 
is full of confidence and hope. It is indeed a happy circum- 
stance for persons afflicted with consumption, that they are 
seldom apprehensive of any danger; and it is no uncommon 
thing to meet with patients in its most advanced stages, flattering 
themselves with the idea of a speedy recovery, and forming dis- 
tant projects under that vain hope. 

The extremities now become cold ; a clammy sweat breaks 
out on the body; the pulse becomes imperceptible; the tide of 
life ebbs apace, and death closes the scene! 

Such is the but too common history of the means by which 
the last enemy of mortal man accomplishes his object. Con- 
sumption- has always been a most fatal disease, and of late years 



CONSUMPTION 43 

has become a far more common one than it was at more remote 
periods. The cause of this fatal increase has given rise to vari- 
ous speculations both in Europe and America, some attributing 
it to one thing and some to another. But those who attribute it 
mainly to the pernicious fashions and customs of the day, in our 
opinion, are nighest being correct. These may be summed up 
iu a few words. Thin dress, with almost naked bosom, so com-> 
mon with females; corsets with tight lacing; evening parties, 
and balls; late hours, and lying long in bed. 

These pernicious, and oftentimes destructively fatal customs, 
have too often been uselessly opposed and condemned, in the 
most eloquent strains of piety and reason, for us to think of 
staying their mighty and disastrous march, by the utterance of 
our warning voice. 

" While the empire of fashion," says Dr. Gunn, "bears so 
arbitrary a sway, and the followers of pleasure are bound by 
the fascination of example, and the contagious influence of that 
spirit which insinuates itself into the bosom of each and every 
one of its votaries, so long will the sage precepts of wisdom be 
unheeded, till the emaciated form, the glassy eye, the hectic 
blush, speak in language too strong for utterance," that disease 
has sapped the foundation of life, "and the yawning grave standi 
ready to receive its devoted victim." 



Treatment. — A radical cure of consumption has so long been 
considered impossible, that we are fearful of hazarding the 
imputation of enthusiasts, or of dealers in the marvelous, 
should we assert any thing to the contrary. But we are con- 
strained to declare our belief, that many cases of this most fatal, 
malady may be cured, in almost any stage but the last, by pur- 
suing a proper course with the use of proper means. 

Many cases approaching a consumption may be removed by 
the use of the expectorant powders, with the bitters or diapho- 
retic powders, or both. The bitters must be taken three or four 
times through the day, in tea spoon full doses; and the expec- 
torant and diaphoretic powders, in similar doses, at night. The 
tincture of lobelia, in nauseating (sickening) doses, commonly 
from half to a whole tea spoon full is sufficient, or the root ov 



44 CONSUMPTION. 

skunk cabbage in half to whole tea spoon full doses, in some 
instances of affections of the lungs, appear to have a better 
effect than the expectorant powders; and cases which do not 
seem to be much benefited by one, may perhaps be by another, 
and, therefore, either may be used at discretion. 

But the best way of attacking this formidable disease is with 
repeated courses of medicine. These should be administered, 
if an attempt at cure is made in the latter stages, every day, 
perhaps, for a while, or every other day, until the most urgent 
symptoms are subdued, when they may be longer neglected, 
according to the symptoms. But the strictest and most unremit- 
ting attention should be paid to relapses; and if they occur the 
patient should immediately submit to a full course of the medi- 
cine and steaming, as nothing else will effectually check his 
downward march to the grave. 

The lungs are never completely at rest, but are always in use, 
day or night, asleep or awake ; and are consequently exposed 
continually to the irritation of their own action and to the influ- 
ence of the atmosphere, both of which circumstances are known 
to retard the cure of ulcers situated upon the external parts of 
the body; and we think it fair to infer, that like causes will pro- 
duce like effects in the lungs. In case of an ulcer upon the arm 
or leg, these organs can be kept in a state of rest, and poultices 
or salves may be applied, whereby the healing process will be 
vastly accelerated; but no such helping means can be applied 
to the lungs. Medicines can only affect them by restoring a 
general healthy action to the whole system. 

Hence we might naturally infer, what is an absolute fact, that 
consumption is a complaint more difficult to cure, as well as more 
liable to relapse, than almost any other. It therefore requires 
the strictest measures in its treatment, and the most guarded 
watchfulness against 7 relapses. 

The moment a relapse is discovered, a thorough process of 
the medicine should be gone into, however averse to it the 
patient may feel; as the neglect of it may be his destruction, 
whilst its prompt administration may be the means of effecting 
a cure. And as this disease is more difficult of cure than most 
others, so relapses are attended with a corresponding danger; 
and even in curable cases the too long neglect of them will be 



CONVULSIONS OR. FITS. 45 

productive of fatal consequences. No physician ought to at- 
tempt the care of a consumptive patient without being so situa- 
ted as to be able to give his daily personal attention to the 
case. 

During the intervals between the courses of medicine, the 
patient should have frequent doses of such articles as bitters or 
the diaphoretic powders, and, at night a dose of the expectorant 
powders, tincture of lobelia, or powder of skunk cabbage root. 
Or these medicines may be alternated with either the tonic 
cordial or expectorant syrup, sometimes using one and sometimes 
another. It will be a matter of the highest importance in this 
complaint, to keep the system regularly and constantly under 
the influence of some of the remedies which we have recom- 
mended; and to administer a course of medicine as often as may 
be necessary to keep the patient in a state of convalescence, that 
is in a state of improving health. 

Traveling in a mild and healthy climate will have a very 
salutary influence over consumptive patients; but he ought, by 
all means to avoid any exposure to wet and cold, as well as the 
confined pestilential air of large towns or cities. Every situation 
and circumstance ought to be carefully avoided which has a 
tendency to obstruct the breathing, or to increase the circulation 
of the blood beyond a healthy standard. The confined air of a 
city has an oppressive influence upon the breathing of a person in 
good health; and any one accustomed to the country air, if he 
be not sensible, during his stay in town, of an oppression of the 
chest, will certainly find his breathing more easy on getting into 
the free air of the country: with the consumptive patient these 
effects are far more sensible. 

Immoderate exercise, as it increases the breathing and circu- 
lation of the blood, ought by all means to be avoided. 



CONVULSIONS OR FITS. 

Systematic writers treat of this complaint under the appella- 
tion of tetanus or cramp. It is a mo3t terrible disease, whether 
we regard its painful effects upon the system, or the difficulty 
which has hitherto attended its cure. 



46 CONVULSIONS OR TITS. 

Fits are often caused by exposure to cold, sleeping in the open 
air and on damp ground, by the presence of irritating substances 
in the stomach or intestines, such as worms; or by some irrita- 
tion of the nerves, produced by local injuries, such as running 
nails into the feet, incisions or cuts with edge tools, and: lacera- 
ted wounds. 

Some persons appear to be naturally predisposed to fits, which 
occur on the application of causes which, with persons who are 
not subject to this complaint do not produce them, such as hard 
labor, over straining, &c. 

With females who are subject to fits, they often occur about 
the periods of the monthly turns, more especially if they happen 
to take cold at this period* 

Convulsions or fits, come on, in some instances, with great 
violence; but it more commonly happens that the symptoms 
manifest themselves more slowly, first by a slight stiffness about 
the shoulders or in the back part of the neck, which gradually 
increases until the patient cannot turn his head without turning 
his whole body. 

An uneasy sensation is now sometimes felt at the root of the 
tongue, together with some difficulty of swallowing, and stiffness 
of the jaws. A pain is next felt in the stomach, darting at times 
towards the ensiform cartilage, (extremity of the breast bone) 
and thence shooting to the back; and all the previous symptoms 
become increased. The jaws perhaps now become set, and if 
the cramp extends no further, the complaint is termed lock-jaw. 

The pathognomic or characteristic symptom of common con- 
vulsion fits, is the spasm under the breast bone, which increases 
with preat vehemence and rapidity. The muscles of the back 
part of the body contract, and forcibly draw the body backward. 
The jaws now are set or violently convulsed; the tongue is also 
affected by spasm, and being convulsively darted out of the 
mouth, is often much injured by the teeth being suddenly and 
forcibly snapped together; which ought to be prevented by hold- 
ing a spoon handle covered with rags, a piece of soft wood, or 
some other substance between the teeth. 

The spasms are, however, not uniform in their severity; but 
increase at intervals of different lengths, from a few seconds, to 
many minutes. But even in the intervals, the spasmodic action 



CONVULSIONS OR TITS. 47 

prevails so that it is often difficult for the limbs to be bent in any 
thing like an easy position. The breathing is quick and labo- 
rious; the face sometimes pale, but oftener flushed; the whole 
countenance evinces the most marked signs of deep distress; 
swallowing is accompanied with great difficulty, or is totally 
interrupted; the senses sometimes remain entire, but are often 
annihilated, whilst every organ of the system is literally on the 
rack, from the antagonizing action of the muscles. Despartes 
gives a case, says Dr. Good, in which both the thigh bones were 
broken by the violent contraction of the flexor muscles during a 
momentary relaxation of the extensors. 

The exertions are now so laborious that the patient sweats 
profusely; the pulse is small and irregular; the heart throbs so 
violently that its palpitations may be seen; the eyes are some- 
times watery and languid, but more commonly rigid and immov- 
able in their sockets, the countenance becomes hideously dis- 
torted, and expresses great distress, the strength is exhausted, 
the pulse becomes very irregular, and one universal spasm puts 
a period to a most miserable state of existence. 

Sometimes the muscles of the fore part of the body become 
equally affected with those of the back, when the patient, instead 
-of being drawn backward, is rigidly extended in a straight line, 
and rendered incapable ef being bent in any direction. The 
arms, also, in this case become violently affected, and are 
rigidly extended, as well as the body. 

There is one thing a little extraordinary in this complaint, 
which we have not found recorded in any author. It often hap- 
pens that persons who are subject to fits, when they feel the 
premonitory symptoms of this complaint, feel also a disposition 
to retire to some sequestered spot where they may endure the 
agonies of this painful disease alone. Persons who are subject 
to (its ought to be narrowly watched, whenever any suspicion is 
entertained that they are threatened with an attack, as instances 
have often occurred of persons leaving the house and family, 
and suffering the horrors of this dreadful malady, without any 
person to render that care which they so much need. 



Treatment. — Those who are liable to this complaint should 
be careful to avoid all the exciting causes which produce it; and 



48 CONVULSIONS OR FIT*. 

as preventative, tonic remedies, such as the diaphoretic powders, 
or bitters, to which the vapor and cold bath will be powerful 
auxiliaries, may be resorted to. When the patient feels symp- 
toms of the fits coming on he ought immediately to take a large 
spoon full of nervine tincture, the good effects of which maybe 
increased by the addition of a fourth to a half, or even a whole 
tea spoon full of capsicum, which may be repeated as the symp- 
toms may require. But this ought to be administered at the 
onset of the first symptoms, and if it should not very soon afford 
relief, or if the symptoms increase, immediate recourse should 
be had to the anji-spasmodic tincture, in doses of from a tea to 
a table spoon full, repeated as often as the circumstances of the 
case may require. Whilst this is doing, however, preparations 
should be making to take the patient through a course of medi- 
cine; not forgetting to administer injections, which are highly 
important in this disease. 

We have the fullest confidence, however, in asserting our 
belief in the curative powers of the anti-spasmodic tincture, in 
ordinary cases of fits; though it may sometimes fail. In such 
cases the only alternative is a course of medicine, which ought 
to be repeated as often as the case may require, until the general 
health is so far restored that the vital organs are capable of 
resisting the causes which produce the disease. Between the 
courses of medicine, the common means of keeping up a healthy 
action, and restoring tone to the system, should be used, such 
as the bitters, diaphoretic powders, together with the nervine 
compound two or three times a day, in tea spoon full doses, to 
strengthen the nervous system. 

If the general health has become impaired, from the recur- 
rence of the fits, or from any other cause, every means should 
be used to improve the health, not only by the use of tonics, as 
just stated, but by general courses of medicine, and these to be 
repeated at proper intervals; and, in the mean time, if symptoms 
of convulsions occur, they should be treated as we have here- 
tofore stated. 

We have known one case of convulsion fits, of thirty years 
standing, cured by the use of those means which we have 
recommended ; the patient not having had one attack since the 
first dose of medicine was administered at the commencement 



croup* 49 

of the convulsive symptoms, which it effectually checked. The 
medicines administered in this instance were simply a dose of 
the diaphoretic powders, followed by the tincture of lobelia, 
or its pulverized seed. 



CROUP. 

Croup is an inflammatory affection of the mucous membrane 
of the trachea or wind pipe, and in some instances extends to the 
lungs. 

Children are peculiarly liable to this complaint, which is 
accompanied by a peculiar wheezing sonorous breathing, com- 
pared by some to the crowing of a cock, and a similar sound 
in coughing or speaking, with thirst, fever, and great difficulty of 
breathing. 

The application of cold (catching cold) seems to be the gene- 
ral cause which produces this complaint, and therefore it occurs 
more frequently in the winter and spring, when the weather is 
strong and variable, than in the other seasons. It has been 
said to be most prevalent near the sea coast, where the air is 
loaded with moisture; but it is frequently met with in inland 
situations, particularly those which are low and marshy. It 
is more frequently met with in cold than in warm climates. 

A day or two previous to an attack of croup, the child appears 
drowsy, inactive, and fretful; the eyes are somewhat suffused 
and heavy; and there is a cough, that, from the first has a pecu- 
liar shrill sound; which, in the course of a day or two, becomes 
more violent and troublesome as well as more shrill. Every fit 
of coughing agitates the patient very much, from the pain and 
difficulty attending it; the face is flushed and swelled; the eyes 
are protuberant, that is, stand out of the head; a general tre- 
mor takes place, and a convulsive endeavor to renew the breath- 
ing at the close of each fit of coughing. 

As the disease advances, the. difficulty of breathing increases 
accompanied by a swelling and inflammation of the palate and 
adjacent parts, and the head is often thrown back, in the agony 
of attempting to escape suffocation. 

There is not only an unusual and peculiar sound produced by 
the cough, but breathing is performed with a hissing noise, as 
I 7 



50 <houp. 

if the wind pipe were closed up by some light spongy substance 
through which the air was obliged to force its way. The cough 
is generally dry, but if any thing is spit up, it has either a 
purulent appearance, or seems to consist of films resembling 
portions of membrane. Sickness of the stomach and vomiting 
sometimes prevail. There is also much thirst, and an uneasy 
sense of heat over the whole body, a continual inclination to 
change from place to place, with great restlessness and frequency 
of the pulse. 

In a more advanced stage of the disease, breathing becomes 
more harsh and difficult, with some degree of spasmodic affec- 
tion, the intervals between the inspirations become longer, and 
finally death comes as a friend, to relieve the little sufferer from 
its agonizing torture. 

The croup must be regarded as a dangerous complaint, and 
sometimes terminates its career in a few hours; or, from being 
only a slight disease, its symptoms become suddenly and unex- 
pectedly aggravated, and very soon put a period to existence. 
Parents should be very careful, when their children have any of 
the common symptoms of croup, especially if they are subject 
to the complaint, not to leave them, particularly at night, with- 
out the attention of some person capable of extending the proper 
care to them, in case the symptoms should suddenly augment. 
Instances have occurred, in which children have been lost for 
the want of timely attention, in consequence of the absence of 
parents. Nor is there any cause to doubt that many cases of 
; children being found dead in bed, have been caused b* r croup. 



Treatment. — In bad cases, or violent ^attacks of croup, the 
child should have from half to a whole tea spoon full of the tinc- 
ture of lobelia given it, which should be repeated at intervals 
until relief is obtained. A tea spoon full of the diaphoretic 
powders should also be steeped in a tea cup one third full of 
boiling water, made very sweet; of which a large spoon full, 
with the addition of some cream, if the child be very young, 
should be also occasionally administered; at the same lime 
keeping it warm to promote perspiration. If the use of these 
means, together with injections, do not afford the desired relief. 



DEAFNESS. 51 

a course of medicine should be resorted to, which will rarely fail 
of removing the most urgent symptoms, and commonly effects a 
cure. But if this should not relieve the complaint, doses of the 
tincture, diaphoretic powders, &c. should be administered until 
relief is obtained; or, if necessary, another course of medicine 
may be resorted to, at the discretion of the parent or physician. 
The tincture of lobelia, however, will almost always relieve this 
distressing and often fatal complaint In violent cases enough 
should be given to produce vomiting. 

Mild cases of croup, may commonly be removed by the onion 
syrup; or by butter, vinegar, and honey steeped together, and 
by many other articles which are good for coughs or colds. A 
tea of seneca snake root, is also highly recommended; but, by 
some, it is considered as being poisonous, though others think 
not; it should, therefore, be used cautiously, if used at all. 



DEAFNESS. 

Deafness is occasioned by any thing that proves injurious to - 
the ear, as loud noises from the firing of cannon, violent colds 
particularly affecting the head, inflammation or ulceration of 
the membranes of the ear, hard wax, or any other substance 
interrupting the sound: too great dryness or too much moisture 
in the ear; or by any circumstance which may weaken or injure 
the auditory nerve, by which we mean the nerve which commu- 
nicates the impression of sound to the brain. In some instances 
it is caused by some other disease, such as fever, syphylis, &c, 
and in others, it depends upon an original defect in the structure 
of the ear. In the last instance, the person is born deaf, and, 
of course, is likewise dumb. 

It is often difficult to remove deafness, but more especially 
where it arises in consequence of wounds, ulcers, or inflamma- 
tions of the tympanum, or drum of the ear. Where it proceeds 
from a defect in the structure of the ear, it admits of no cure. 

When deafness is occasioned by hard wax sticking in the ear, 
a little thin oil may be dropped into it, evening and morning; or. 
it may be syringed with mild soap suds, or warm milk and water, 
to which the application of the oil may also be added, after each 



52 DEAFNESS. 

washing; keeping the ear stopped with cotton or wool. If these 
means do not remove the wax, a little of the compound tincture 
of myrrh, or Dr. Thomson's No. 6. 

When deafness is caused by cold particularly affecting the 
head, the head should he carefully kept warm by night; the 
good effects of which, will be increased by taking a dose of the 
diaphoretic powders, and setting by the fire, previous to going 
to bed. Indeed, from whatever cause the deafness may origi- 
nate, it will be proper to keep the head warm. 

If deafness be owing to too much moisture in the ear, it should 
be syringed out with a decoction of some of the astringent arti- 
cles, first used warm, to cleanse the ear, and then cold, to brace 
and_ strengthen the internal parts of the ear. 

Should deafness, however, be caused by too great a dryness 
of the ear, by defective energy in the auditory nerve, by debility 
of the organs, or by a nervous affection, the application of the 
tincture of myrrh, will be the main dependence. The admin- 
istration of a few drops of the nervine tincture, might be useful; 
and if the complaint resist these remedies, the occasional appli- 
cation of a few drops of the anti-spasmodic tincture may perhaps 
be resorted to, with advantage. We have also known deafness 
to be much relieved, by repeated courses of medicine, which 
had been prescribed for the cure of other complaints, and, 
therefore, a few courses might be tried, if nothing else appeared 
likely to succeed. 

We will close our account of the treatment of deafness, by 
describing the method of using tobacco smoke, which, saj r s Dr. 
Thomas, has been employed in some cases of severe and long 
continued deafness, with great success and efficacy: 

" The mode of using it is to fill the mouth with the smoke of 
the strongest tobacco, instantly closing the mouth and nose, and 
then for the person to make all possible effort, as if he meant to 
force the smoke through his nose, which must be prevented by 
holding the nostrils very tight: this forces the smoke through the 
Eustachian tube into the ear. These efforts are to be repeated 
until one or both ears give a seeming crack, immediately on 
which the hearing returns." 

This process is simple and cheap, and probably without haz- 
ard; and, therefore may be tried by any one who chooses. 



DIABETES. 53 

DIABETES. 

This complaint is characterized by a free and often profuse 
discharge of urine, of a violet smell and sweet taste; with great 
thirst and general debility. 

Diabetes may be occasioned by the use of strong diuretic 
medicines, intemperance in drinking, severe evacuations, immod- 
erate use of acid drinks, excessive labor, or any circumstance 
which produces general debility. Hence persons of shattered 
constitutions, and who are in the decline of life, are most subject 
to its attacks. It has, however, taken place, in many instances, 
without any apparent cause. 

The common attendant symptoms of this disease are, weari- 
ness, sense of weakness, disinclination to motion or exertion, 
dryness and harshness of the skin, costiveness, great thirst, 
voracious or greedy appetite, with gradual emaciation of the 
whole body. 

The immediate affection of the body which gives rise to dia- 
betes, has long been a subject of controversy amongst medical 
men; but the conclusion which Dr. Good seems to arrive at, is, 
"that diabetes is a disease seated in the kidneys alone, and 
dependent upon a peculiar irritability or inflammation of these 
organs." 

An increased flow of the urine may also occur, without those 
distinctive characteristics given in the first paragraph ; but as 
the treatment in either case is so very similar, we do not deem 
it necessary to make a separate subject of it. 



Treatment. — We may attempt the cure of this inveterate 
complaint, by the use of the ladies' slipper, in doses of one tea 
spoon full of the pulverised root two or three" times a day, or if 
the nervine tincture is preferred, this may be given in doses of 
two or three tea spoons full, the same number of times. The 
diaphoretic powders should also be administered occasionally; 
or a tea of the bayberry, or some other astringent article, may be 
substituted. Bitters should also be taken regularly, three or four 
times a day; and the whole surface of the body may be sponged 
or washed once a day, with a weak solution of pearlash in water, 
to moisten and relax the skin. The diet should consist of a large 



54 DIARRHCEA. 

proportion of animal food, as this affords less sugar tban vegetable 
aliment, and at the same time affords more nourishment to the 
feeble powers of the system. Though it is said, that an animal 
diet, in some instances, has aggravated the disease. 

An acquaintance of ours, in whom we have the utmost confi- 
dence, informed us, that he had often prescribed the zu a ter agri- 
mony, in diabetes; and in every case it had effected a cure. 

After pursuing the plan which we have recommended for a 
reasonable time, and the complaint does not appear to be subsi- 
ding, according to our wishes, or if it be a bad case, or of long 
standing, we should take the patient through a course of medi- 
cine; and repeat it at proper intervals until he be cured. 

Between the courses, the same plan should be pursued as 
recommended in the first instance. 



DIARRHOEA OR LOOSENESS. 

Diarrhoea consists in frequent and copious discharges from 
the bowels, accompanied by griping, and sometimes by slight 
vomiting. 

In this complaint there is evidently an increase of the peristal- 
tic motion, which may be produced by a variety of causes, 
applied either to the body in general, or which may act solely 
upon the intestines. 

Of those causes which act generally upon the body, we may 
notice catching cold, which gives a check to perspiration, and 
thus determines the flow of the fluids to the intestines, instead 
of permitting it to escape by the skin; certain diseases, as teeth- 
ing, gout, rheumatism, fever, &c. as likewise passions of the 
mind. 

Of those causes which act directly upon the intestines, may- 
be enumerated; first, substances taken into the stomach, and 
acting upon the organ by over-charging it; or which from 
their nature, produce a morbid effect upon the stomach, and 
intestines, such as vegetable substances which are apt to ferment 
and become sour, &c; secondly, the animal food generated in 
the body, and poured into the intestines, as acrid bile, &c. 

The stools in darrhcea, assume various appearances; and 
hence has originated many different names according to those 



dropsy, 85 

appearances. Sometimes they are of the common color, but 
very loose and copious; sometimes they are of a bright yellow; 
sometimes white and frothy; sometimes they consist of mucous; 
sometimes they are quite fluid or watery; and at other times 
they consist of food and drink passed without being digested. 
We regard these different appearances of the stools, however, 
as a matter of small consequence, as the plan of cure must be 
the same in all. 



Treatment. — -Common cases of Diarrhoea may generally be 
removed by a few doses of the tincture of myrrh, diaphoretic 
powders, bitters, bayberry, or any of the astringent articles 
mentioned in the materia medica. The butternut syrup, bitter 
root, rhubarb, or any other cathartic which we shall hereafter 
recommend, may be resorted to, if the other articles do not rea- 
dily remove the complaint; or if none of them are likely to 
answer the purpose, a course of medicine must be resorted to 9 
and repeated as occasion may require. 

Between the courses, the bitters and other means should be 
continued a3 the symptoms may demand. 



DROPSY, 

Dropsy is an accumulation or retention of serous or watery 
fluid, in some part of the body; to which different names are 
given by systematic writers, according to the part of the body 
in which the water is lodged. 

When it is collected in what is called the cellular mem- 
brane, which is situated between the skin and flesh, it is termed 
anasarca, or dropsy of the cellular membrane. When the water 
is collected in the thorax or chest, it is called hydro-thorax* or 
dropsy of the chest. When in the cavity of the abdomen, it is 
called ascites, or dropsy of the abdomen, &c. 

Dropsy sometimes appears to arise from family predisposition; 
it is also caused by frequent salivation, or the occasional use of 
mercury; excessive or long continued evacuations; a free use of 
spirituous liquors; affections of the liver, spleen, pancreas, mefen- 
tary, &c. : it also often ensues as a consequence of other diseases, 



56 DROPSY. 

as jaundice, darrhcea, dysentery, consumption, intermittent fevers, 
&c; or the sudden suppression of some accustomed evacuation, 
the striking in of eruptions of the skin, and by whatever has a 
tendency to weaken the powers of the system. 

Anasarca, or dropsy of the cellular membrane, which is the 
most common form of the disease, shows itself first by a swelling 
of the feet and ankles, which is most visible at evening, and 
disappears during the night. 

The tumefaction or swelling, is soft but inelastic, hence when 
it is pressed upon with the finger, the mark or pit which it makes, 
remains for some time in the skin which becomes paler where 
the end of the finger rested than any where else. 

By degrees the swelling ascends upward, affecting the thighs, 
trunk of the body, and finally, the face and head. The internal 
parts now, perhaps, become affected, and, from the effusion of 
water in the cellular tissue of the lungs, the breathing becomes 
difficult, especially when lying down. The patient now also 
has a cough, accompanied with an expectoration of a watery 
fluid; the urine is commonly in small quantity, high colored, and 
deposits a reddish sediment; the bowels are generally costive, the 
perspiration obstructed, the countenance yellow, with much 
thirst. To these symptoms succeed torpor, heaviness, and a slow 
fever. 

In some cases the water oozes through the pores of the skin; 
whilst in others, it being too gross to pass through the cuticle 
or scarf-skin, it raises it in blisters. Such an accumulation 
sometimes takes place, that the skin of the legs, being incapable 
of bearing further distention, bursts asunder. 

Any disease of the internal organs arising in the advanced 
stages of dropsy, great emaciation, St. Anthony's fire, much 
drowsiness, dark or purple spots or swellings, discharges of blood 
hot fever, great thirst, and a quick small pulse, are to be regarded 
as very unfavorable symptoms. 

This disease is always to be regarded as of more easy cure, 
when it arises from weakness or debility, than when it arises 
from obstructions of the liver or any other of the abdominal 
viscera; as likewise when recent, than when of long standing. 

The skin becoming moist, with diminished thirst, and increased 
flow of urine, may be regarded as favorable symptoms. In 



DROPSY. 57 

some few cases, the disease goes off spontaneously, either by a 
vomiting, purging, a profuse perspiration, or an unusual dis- 
charge of urine; but this does not often occur. 

Ascites, or dropsy of the belly, is attended by a tense swel- 
ling of the abdomen. The v/ater, in this form of the disease, 
is usually collected within the peritoneum or caul; and is conse- 
quently diffused amongst the intestines; though sometimes it is- 
found between the peritonseum and external parts or walls of 
the abdomen. The same causes, in general, which produce 
anasarca, may produce ascites. 

Ascites is often preceded by loss of appetite, sluggishness^ 
inactivity, dryness of the skin, oppression at the chest, cough, 
diminution of the natural discharges of urine, and costiveness of 
the bowels. Shortly after the appearance of these symptoms, 
a swelling is perceived in the lower part of the abdomen, which, 
as the disease advances, gradually extends itself, and keeps on 
increasing, until the whole belly or abdomen becomes uniformly 
swelled and ten3e, 

This complaint may be distinguished from ordinary bloating 
or an inflammation of the bowels with wind, by the elasticity in 
the one case, and the fluctuation which attends the other. In 
general, the fluctuation of the water, in dropsy, may be felt by 
placing the left hand on one side of the abdomen, and then 
gently striking on the other with the right. In this experiment 
the water may be felt, by the left hand, to move or rush from 
one side of the belly to the other. In some cases this rushing or 
fluctuation will be obvious to the ear. 

As the collection of water increases, the breathing becomes 
more difficult, the countenance exhibits a pale or bloated ap- 
pearance, an immoderate thirst arises, the skin is dry and parched 
and the urine is scanty, thick, high-colored, and deposits a brick 
colored sediment. The pulse is variable, being sometimes con- 
siderably quickened, and at other times slower than natural. 
Sometimes fever attends this complaint, but it is often absent. 

This species of dropsy may always be regarded as of difficult 
cure. The urine having been originally but little diminished, 
or becoming more copious; the swelling of the belly subsiding, 
the skin becoming moist, the respiration becoming free, and the 
strength having been but little impaired, may be regarded as 

8 



58 DROPSY. 

favorable circumstances: on the contrary, intense local pain, 
great emaciation, with fever, and the disorder having been 
induced by a diseased state of the liver, or other viscera of the 
abdomen, must be looked upon as unfavorable symptoms. 

Hydrothorax, or dropsy of the chest, is distinguished by an 
oppression in breathing, particularly after any exertion or when 
lying down, difficulty of lying upon one side, sudden starting 
from sleep, with anxiety, palpitations of (he heart, irregularity 
of the pulse, cough, occasional faintings, paleness, anasarcous 
(dropsical) swellings of the legs, thirst and diminution of urine, 
which is high colored, and on cooling deposits a pink or red 
sediment; but the most certain distinguishing symptom of hydro- 
thorax is a sensation of water, perceived by the patient, in the 
chest, on certain motions of the body, or as if the heart were 
moving in fluid. 

The accumulation of water in the chest may also be tested by 
striking with the hand upon the chest, when the patient is stand- 
ing upon his (eet^ or by pressure upon the abdomen, either of 
which will increase for the moment the sense of suffocation or 
difficulty of breathing, as well as the other symptoms attending 
this commonly fatal disease. 

The causes which immediately give rise to hydrothorax, are 
much the same with those which produce the other kinds of 
dropsy. In some cases it comes on without any other dropsical 
affection being present, but it is often an attendant of other 
dropsical complaints. It is frequently a disease of old age, and, 
like other dropsies, it often succeeds debility, arising from any 
cause whatever. It is most common to males who have addicted 
themselves to free living, and especially to the use of intoxica- 
ting liquors. Those who have long suffered from gout or asthma, 
are peculiarly liable to hydrothorax. 

This complaint often becomes considerably advanced before 
it is very perceptible; and its presence is not readily known, 
because the symptoms are often obscure. 

It often comes on with a sense of uneasiness at the lower end 
of the sternum, (breast bone) and difficulty of breathing, which 
is much increased by any exertion or motion, and is always worse 
when the patient is in bed. Along with these symptoms there is 
a coughj at first dry, but which, after a time, is attended with 



dropsy. oy 

an expectoration of thin mucus. There is also a paleness of the 
complexion, and an anasarcus (dropsical) swelling of the feet 
and legs, together with thirst, and diminished flow of urine. 
Sometimes the face swells and pits under the finger, especially 
in the morning, with a sense of debility and loss of flesh. When 
such appearances as these are met with, we have just grounds to 
suspect that there is a collection of water in the chest. The symp- 
toms which have been described, gradually increase, but their 
progress is slow, and a considerable time commonly elapses before 
the disorder is fully formed. 

The difficulty of breathing at length becomes excessive. The 
patient is unable to lie down for any considerable time, and the 
head and trunk of the body must be supported almost erect. — 
The sleep is frequently interrupted on a sudden by alarming 
dreams, out of which the patient quickly starts up in bed, with 
a sense of suffocation. These paroxysms are attended by con- 
vulsive breathing, resembling an attack of spasmodic asthma, 
with violent palpitations of the heart, which are frequently exci- 
ted by the most trifling voluntary motion, or by a fit of coughing. 

In this distressing situation, the patient is under the necessity 
of having his body in an erect posture, with his mouth open, 
and he betrays the utmost anxiety for fresh air. The face and 
extremities become cold; the pulse is feeble and irregular; and 
a pain, or numbness, frequently extends itself from the heart, 
towards one or both shoulders. Excepting a livid hue of the 
Ifps and cheeks, the countenance is pale and ghastly, and indi- 
cates a peculiar anxiety; whilst the upper part of the body is 
covered with a profuse clammy sweat. Drowsiness, or delirium, 
frequently attend the latter periods of hydrothorax; and occa- 
sionally a sensation of water floating about can be distinctly 
perceived by the patient, on any sudden change in the position 
of the body. 

The difficulty of breathing increases until the action of the 
lungs is at last entirely interrupted by the quantity of water in 
the chest, when death puts an end to the sufferings of the pa- 
tient. 

We have now given a general description of the most usual 
forms of dropsy, and we deem it proper, further to add, that 
each may exist separately, or any two, or all may be combined. . 



60 dropst. 

Hydrothorax can rarely, if ever, be cured; ascites, or dropsy of 
the abdomen, can often be relieved, though it seldom admits of 
cure; whilst anasarca, or general dropsy, in its early stages may 
almost always be cured, if properly and perseveringly treated . 
But if all three of these forms of dropsy are combined, as is 
often the case, the complaint is rendered desperate. 



Treatment.— The object to be aimed at in the treatment of 
dropsy is to evacuate the water, and then to increase the vigor 
and tone of the system, so that its future accumulation may be 
prevented. 

To answer the first intention, thorough courses of medicine 
should be administered, and in order to assist in carrying off the 
water, the application of the vapor bath, or steaming, should 
be long continued, and every means adopted which may have a 
tendency to promote a free and copious perspiration. 

Dr. Thomson, who has treated this complaint, with a success 
surpassing by far any former example, informs us that he some- 
times took dropsical patients through three courses of his medi- 
cine in two days, and in ordinary cases, a course every day. 
We would recommend the same course, or at least the daily use 
of the vapor bath, if not a full course of medicine. No other 
means equal to the vapor bath can be used to remove the water, 
and when to this is added the whole course of medicine, we 
have the double advantage, of discharging the water from the 
cellular tissues, and of increasing the vigor of the system. 

In the intervals between the courses, the powers of the system 
must be sustained hy the use of hot bitters, which may be taken 
three times a day, in tea spoon full doses, and the diaphoretic 
powders twice a day, in similar doses. 

Cathartics have often been known to produce a good effect in 
dropsical cases, and may therefore, be resorted to occasionally, 
if found beneficial; for this purpose, some of the purgative pre- 
parations, hereafter mentioned, may be used. But whether 
purges are resorted to or not, the utmost attention should be 
paid to keeping the bowels open by the daily use of injections, 
if necessary. 

In order still more to facilitate the removal of the water, we 
may employ such remedies as increase the discharge of urine. 



DROPSY. 6 1 

For this purpose, various articles have been employed. The 
common clivers or clevers, in strong tea, is often used with 
advantage. A decoction of the inner or green bark of the 
common or white elder, is also recommended, as a good diuretic. 
A few drops, or more, of the spirits of turpentine on sugar, has 
often been used with advantage, to promote the discharge of 
urine, which is a matter of consequence in the case of dropsy. 
A number of diuretic articles will also be found, in our materia 
medica, from which a choice can be made. 

Our remarks thus far, upon the treatment of the complaint 
under consideration, apply to dropsies in general; and in anas- 
arcous dropsy, that is dropsy of the cellular membrane, or gene- 
ral dropsy, the means which we have recommended, will com- 
monly effect a cure. In ascites, or dropsy of the belly, and in 
hydrothorax, the event will be far more doubtful. 

Dropsy of the belly will often require the operation of tapping s 
and*even then, the prospect of cure will be by no means certain. 
To perform this operation, an instrument termed a trocar is 
employed in a very simple manner. This instrument is about 
three or four inches long; either flat or round. On one end is 
a handle, and the other is made very sharp. The part between 
the handle and edge, is covered by a silver tube which is in size 
just sufficient to admit the trocar into it. 

To perform the operation' of tapping, the patient may either 
sit in a chair, or lie on the edge of a bed, when "a long cloth or 
towel should be passed round the upper part of the abdomen, 
and be securely fixed behind, by an assistant; this presses the 
fluid downwards, and at the same time gives support to the dia- 
phragm, (midriff,) preventing its sudden descent, which would 
otherwise be very apt to produce fainting. The operator seated 
in front on a low chair, takes the trocar, previously smeared 
with oil, in his right hand, and holding the handle firm in his 
palm, he places on the tube his fore ringer, which not only pre- 
vents the trocar entering too far, but also serves as a guide to 
the instrument. The point of the trocar is then to be applied 
to the abdomen, about one inch and a half below the navel in 
the lined alba, and steadily pushed through the skin and muscles 
of the abdomen, giving it a slight half kind of rotary motion, 
(turning first a little one way and then the other,) as it is pushed 



62 DROWNING. 

forward. Its entrance into the cavity of the abdomen is render- 
ed evident by the cessation of resistance, which the operator 
will be sensible of immediately on the point of the instrument 
entering the abdomen, when he must desist from further pushing 
it forward. 

The operator then, with the thumb and fore finger of the left 
hand, gradually pushes forward the tube of the trocar, while, 
with the same fingers of the right, he withdraws the trocar, 
leaving the tube for the water to flow through, which may be 
received in some proper vessel, which must be at hand to re- 
ceive it. As the water continues to flow, the towel or cloth 
which is around the abdomen, must be drawn proportionably 
tighter. Should the tube become stopped by lymph or the caul, 
it must be removed by a blunt probe, which, for the want of a 
metallic one, may be made of a tough piece of hickory, made 
very smooth, and small enough to pass through the tube. 

The water being evacuated, the tube is to be taken between 
the thumb and fingers of the right hand, and slowly withdrawn, 
while with the fingers of the left, the edges of the wound are 
forced together. A pad of lint should be placed over the 
wound, and a broad bandage applied round the abdomen to give 
sufficient compression to the bowels, and which may also in some 
measure prevent a reaccumulation of the water." 

The water being now evacuated, every effort should be made 
to increase and keep up the vital force of the system ; and restore 
the tone of the organs. To prevent the reaccumulation of the 
water, diuretics will be very useful, and the vapor bath, or a 
full course of medicine, should be often resorted to, and faith- 
fully persevered in, until health is fully restored. The tone of 
the organs may be improved, as heretofore noticed, by the use 
of bitters and the diaphoretic powders; and to promote the flow 
of the urine, the bitters may be taken in cider, if it can be pro- 
cured, a dose of which may be put into such quantity of warm 
cider as the patient can drink at a time. 



DROWNING. 



The act of drowning illustrates the principle which we set 
forth in the first volume of this work, that life is a forced state. 



DROWNING. 63 

When a person is immersed in water, the breathing is en- 
tirely interrupted; hence the living stimulus derived from the 
air, is cut off, and life very soon extinct. But the living ma* 
chinery does not immediately become so much impaired, or, in 
other words, the organs do not so lose their tone but that on the 
application of suitable stimulants, the wheels of life may again 
be put in motion, and the person be restored to life. 

In drowning, the person struggles violently, and attempts to 
inhale air, but soon forces the little which may remain in his 
lungs out, and bubbles rise to the surface of the water: the 
struggles then become more violent, the person rises to the top 
of the water, and inspiration is again attempted; he then sinks, 
and the air is expelled from the lungs. During these struggles 
a small quantity of water is swallowed ; the pupils of the eye 
become dilated; the eyes protrude and are glassy; the tongue 
and gums assume a leaden or lived color, and death follows 
generally in the space of from one to four minutes. Whilst 
these circumstances are taking place, the circulation of the 
blood becomes gradually more slow and feeble, and great anxi- 
ety is felt about the front of the breast; and after a short time 
convulsive spasms arise, the organs of respiration cease to act, 
and the person expires; soon after which the skin becomes 
purple, particularly about the face and neck. 

It is supposed by most persons, that in the act of drowning, 
the lungs become filled with water; but experience has shown 
that this is not the fact; the quantity being found, upon exami- 
nation by dissection, to be very inconsiderable. 

Dissections of drowned persons, do not show that any of the 
organs essential to life, are injured; but that the right cavity of 
the heart, together with the veins and arteries leading to and 
from that cavity, are filled with blood, whilst every other part 
of the blood-vessels is almost entirely empty. 

Livid and dark brown spots on the face, with great rigidity 
and coldness of the body, a glassy appearance of the eyes, and 
flaccid state of the skin, are said to denote a perfect extinction of 
life ; but the only certain sign is the actual commencement of 
putrefaction; and therefore, in all cases where this symptom is 
not present, and we are not acquainted with the length of time 
the body may have been under water, every exertion should be 



DROWNING. 



immediately made for restoring it to life; because, for aught we 
know, the machine may only be stopped, and nothing more may 
be necessary than to give it a new impulse, to enable it to renew 
its functions. 



Treatment. — immediately on taking the body of a drowned 
person out of the water, it should, in the most easy and speedy 
manner, be conveyed to the most convenient, or suitable house, 
stripped of the wet clothes, and wiped dry with warm linen or 
iiannel, when it should be laid between blankets made warm 
before a fire, or with a warming pan. During this, if there 
be no fire in the room, one should be made sufficiently large 
to warm the apartment thoroughly, minding also to admit 
enough air to keep the atmosphere pure and fresh. 

Care should be taken both in conveying the body to the house 
and afterwards, not to let the head hang back, or forward, but 
to keep it in the most natural position; and so soon as possible, 
an injection must be administered, composed of warm water, or 
of pennyroyal, or any other warm tea, to either of which must 
be added, the fourth of a tea spoon full of capsicum, and the 
same quantity of the pulverized seeds or the tincture of lobelia, 
and a tea spoon full of the tincture of myrrh. This must be 
kept in the rectum for some time, by the application, if neces- 
sary, of a cloth, or by some other means. The injection should 
be repeated at such intervals as may be judged necessary, by 
the physician or other skilful attendant. 

Whilst some of the assistants are attending to what has just 
been advised, others should be preparing the necessary means 
of applying the steam bath, as expeditiously as possible. To 
do this, place three or four chairs side by side, over which a 
thick blanket must be spread in such manner as to allow it to 
reach to the floor at the front of the chairs, in each of which let 
a person be seated, and take the drowned person wrapped in a 
thin blanket, on their knees. Another thick blanket is then to 
be spread over the body so as completely to cover it, and reach 
down to the floor; two small spiders, kettles, tin pans, or any 
other convenient vessel, containing a small stone previously made 
hot, and enough hot water to make a moderately warm steam, 



BROWNING. 65 

must be placed under the last named blanket which will confine 
the vapor to the body of the drowned person. And in order to 
facilitate its application to the whole surface of the body, the 
blanket should be held up by the assistants, loosely from the 
body. 

It must be carefully borne in mind, not to increase the heat 
of the steam too suddenly, or the patient may by this means be 
lost, even after symptoms of life have made their appearance. 
The steam should at first be bat moderately warm, and gradually 
and slowly increased as the signs of returning life successively 
make their appearance. 

After the body has been placed over the steam, as just de- 
scribed, another dose, consisting of a half or whole tea spoon 
full of the anti-spasmodic tincture should be administered, and 
repeated at the discretion of the physician or other discreet 
attendant. Blowing it into the lungs, and then pressing on the 
abdomen to force the air out again, so as to imitate as near as 
possible, the natural breathing, is much recommended by most 
authors; but the practice of doing this with a bellows, is highly 
disapproved of by Dr. Thomson, who has been very successful 
in resuscitating drowned persons. Bleeding which has also been 
customary, should not be permitted ; as likewise the old custom 
of rolling the patient upon a barrel, or upon the ground ; of vio- 
lently shaking, or carrying him on the shoulder of another per- 
son, with the head hanging down, because either have a powerful 
tendency to seriously injure the patient. 

The signs of returning life are, according to Dr. Thomson, 
a muscular motion about the eyes, and in the extremities; to 
which may be added, water and froth issuing from the mouth 
and nostrils ; feeble, irregular, and convulsive efforts to breathe ; 
and gasping. The pulse beats at intervals, and is small, quick, 
and weak; the face becomes less livid, and is sometimes distorted 
or violently convulsed; a rumbling is heard in the bowels; and 
by degrees the breathing becomes more free, and the pulse 
more regular. Vomiting will sometimes take place spontane. 
ously, but oftener from the effects of the anti-spasmodic tincture, 
if that have been given; whilst sense and motion gradually 
return. 

9 



66 DYSENTERY. 

When the senses have become completely restored, and the 
person has obtained the control of his limbs, he should be put 
into bed and kept in a moist sweat for ten or fifteen hours, by 
giving the diaphoretic powders, or cayenne pepper and the 
application of hot stones or bricks, &c. But should the patient 
continue dejected, silent, and listless, he should be taken through 
a regular course of medicine, and if necessary, repeated as 
circumstances may require. 



DYSENTERY. 

This complaint consists in frequent and painful discharges 
from the bowels, of mucous and bloody stools; though sometimes 
they are nearly natural in appearance, but in small, hard balls, 
which are termed by medical writers, scybala, attended by 
griping pains, and commonly with fever. 

Dysentery occurs chiefly in autumn, or the latter part of sum- 
mer, though it is often met with at other seasons, and is fre- 
quently occasioned by cold and moisture quickly succeeding to 
intense heat or great drought, whereby a sudden check is given 
to perspiration, and a determination of the fluids is made to the 
intestines. It is also occasioned by the use of unwholesome and 
putrid food, and by noxious exhalations and vapors from marshes 
and stagnant waters. It is also alledged by many eminent 
writers, that the most prolific cause of dysentery is contagion ; 
whilst many others equally eminent, disbelieve in the conta- 
giousness of this complaint altogether. The probability is, that 
in some instances, and under certain circumstances, it may be 
contagious; and one case, and only one, has fallen under our 
notice, which seemed to have been communicated by contagion ; 
but in general, we think, dysentery is not a contagious disease. 
The free use of fruits has been assigned, says Dr. Thomas, as 
one causa productive of dysentery, but erroneously, for they 
have quite a contrary effect, and tend to preserve from it those 
who partake freely of them. 
Jpytentery is much more prevalent in warm climates than in 
*nd partk*flarljr during the rainy seasons. It may 



DYSENTERY. 67 

readily te distinguished from a diarrhoea by the appearance of 
the stools, and by the peculiar painful griping, and tenesmus, 
attending the dysentery. 

This complaint is sometimes preceded by loss of appetite, cos- 
tiveness, sickness at the stomach, and slight vomiting, attended 
with chills, which are succeeded by heat, and frequency of the 
pulse. Then come on griping pains, and an increased propen- 
sity to stool; though it sometimes happens that these symptoms 
appear first. And it may also happen in mild cases, that there 
will be no fever, or other derangement of the system, than the 
affection of the intestines. 

As the disease progresses, the stools become more frequent 
and less abundant, and in passing through the inflamed parts of 
the intestines, they cause great pain, so that every cracuation if 
preceded by severe pain* 

The stools vary both in color and consistence, being sometimes 
composed of frothy mucus streaked with blood, and at other 
times, with an acrid or burning watery fluid, resembling the 
washings of meat. Sometimes a thick glassy mucus is voided, 
and at others pure blood ; and occasionally lumps of coagulated 
mucus, resembling bits of cheese, are evacuated, and in some 
instances a quantity of purulent matter is passed. 

So long as the stools exhibit those various appearances, and 
are voided frequently, it is seldom that any thing like natural 
fceces can be perceived amongst them; and when any thing of 
the kind does appear, they are in small hard balls, called scybala, 
which being passed, gives some temporary relief from the grip, 
ing and tenesmus* , 

Tenesmus is an almost constant inclination to go to stool, 
without the ability of voiding any thing that affords much relief, 
and is a most troublesome and distressing symptom in dysentery. 

When the symptoms which have been despribed, run high, 
and are attended by a high fever, pain of the stomach and whole 
abdomen, great prostration of strength, stranguary, hiccup, or 
with a tendency to putrefaction, and foetid and involuntary dis- 
charges of stool, the disease may be regarded as of a highly 
dangerous character, and may terminate fatally in a few days. 
But when the symptoms are more mild, the complaint is fre» 



DO DYSENTERY. 

quently protracted to a considerable length of time, producing 
great emaciation and debility. 

If dysentery attacks persons laboring under scurvy, consump- 
tion, or whose constitutions have been much impaired by any 
disease whatever, it will be pretty sure to prove fatal. It also 
sometimes occurs with intermittent and remittent fevers, which 
also renders it much more dangerous and difficult of cure. 

Severe griping pains, with great tenesmus, frequent inclina- 
tion to go to stool and but little voided, the evacuations being 
very foetid, great debility, violent fever, or cold clammy sweats, 
hiccups, coldness of the extremities, livid or dark colored spots 
on the skin, and a weak irregular pulse, may be regarded as 
very unfavorable if not fatal symptoms. Whereas the inclination 
to go to stool becoming less frequent, and the evacuations of a 
more natural consistence, with a diminution of the fever, griping 
and tenesmus, are favorable symptoms; but a relapse is very 
liable to occur from any exposure to cold, wet or fatigue* 

Dissections of those who have died of dysentery, show that 
the internal coat of the intestines, but more particularly the lower 
parts, termed the rectum and colon, are affected by inflamma- 
tion, and its attendant consequences, such as ulceration, erosions, 
contractions, scirrhosities, and gangrene. The peritonceum, (caul) 
and other coverings of the abdomen, have also an inflammatory 
appearance. 



Treatment. — Dysentery, in a great many instances, may be 
cured by the most simple treatment, and in a surprisingly short 
time, whilst at other times it is one of the most difficult diseases 
to manage, which humanity is afflicted with. 

On the first attack of this complaint, a table spoon full of the 
compound tincture of myrrh, with half the quantity of the bark 
of the root of the bayberry should be taken, which, in many 
cases of slight attack, will effect a cure; or a large swallow of 
the tincture of myrrh, or of Dr. Thomson's No. 6, alone, may 
have the same effect. But if one dose does not remove the 
complaint, it should be repeated, at intervals of from thirty to 
sixty minutes, according to the symptoms;, and if this course 
does not produce the desired effect in a short time, an injection 



DYSENTERY. 69 

must be administered. This may be composed of a tea of bay- 
berry, beth root, hemlock, blackberry root, or any other astrin- 
gent article, with the addition of a little cayenne, and two or 
three tea spoons full of the tincture of myrrh, or of No. 6, and 
repeated, together with the other articles directed to be taken 
into the stomach, at suitable intervals, until a cure is effected. 
The diaphoretic powders, and the bitters, or tonic cordial, 
may also be advantageously employed, with the means just 
recommended, at the discretion of the practitioner. 

But if the means just advised do not afford the desired relief, 
a course of medicine ought to be resorted to; or if the attack 
be violent, or if it prevail epidemically and the cases in general 
are obstinate, in either case, the patient should be immediately 
taken through a thorough course of medicine, and repeated at 
discretion, until the urgent symptoms have subsided. Between 
the courses of medicine, the patient must have the bitters, dia- 
phoretic powders, and tonic cordial, alternately, or in any way 
which the judgment may dictate as best. A strong tea of bav- 
berry, or in case there is much blood discharged, witch-hazle 
leaves may be substituted for the bayberry, and given in half 
tea cup full doses, and the same may be given by injection, at 
intervals, until the disease is removed. A tea of the dewberry 
root, is also highly serviceable in dysentery; and brandy and 
loaf sugar burnt together may also be used occasionally, either 
at the commencement, or after stages of the complaint. 

The abdomen may be bathed with pepper and vinegar, or the 
tincture of myrrh, with the addition of a little cayenne, to make 
it more pungent; and it should be applied with much friction 
or rubbing with the hand. Fomenting the bowels with cloths 
wrung out of hot water, may also be resorted to, and will 
often afford relief from the pain which attends this distressing 
complaint. 

Purgative medicines may also be resorted to, and by some are 
thought highly advantageous. The butternut syrup, castor oil 
with the addition of half or a whole tea spoon full of spirits of 
turpentine, or Bunnel's, or any other of the pills hereafter re- 
commended, are thought to be the best articles for this purpose. 
But injections ought mostly to be relied upon, and should be 
frequently administered through the whole course of the disease* 



70 DYsPEPsv. 

We have also known some cases of dysentery cured by the 
use of ripe fruits, and especially peaches, and perhaps they 
might be useful in all cases of this complaint. 

To restore the strength, after the disease is overcome, we may 
use the tonic cordial, in doses of from one to two great spoons 
full to the fourth of a tea spoon full, two or three times a day, 
and the bitters, an equal number of times, in half tea spoon full 
doses, which should be continued until the cure is completed. 



DYSFEPSY, OR INDIGESTION. 

This complaint, it is said, chiefly arises in persons between 
thirty and forty years of age; and often continues for years, 
without any aggravation or remission of the symptoms. 

Excessive grief and uneasiness of mind, intense study, profose 

evacuations, indulgence in strong drink, excess in eating, and 
above all, the too common use of poisonous medicines, such as 
calomel, arsenic, opium, &c. which by destroying the tone of 
the stomach and intestines, weaken the digestive powers, and 
produce dyspepsy. 

A long and disagreeable train of symptoms, attend this com- 
plaint, such as loss of appetite, sickness at the stomach, heart- 
burn, flatulency, sour, foetid, and otherwise disagreeable eructa- 
tions or belchings from the stomach, a sense of gnawing in the 
stomach when empty; pains in the stomach or side; great cos- 
tiveness, with chillings or increased sensibility to the impressions 
of cold ; paleness of countenance, languor, unwillingness to move, 
lowness of spirits, and disturbed sleep. To these may be added, 
intolerable feelings, especially in the morning; weak, faint, and 
trembling sensation in the stomach, and sometimes extending to 
the intestines ; bad taste in the mouth, more especially in the 
morning, disagreeable breath, &c. &c. 

Dyspepsy, of late years, has become a much more common 
complaint than it was formerly, and has assumed the title of 
"fashionable." This increase is to be attributed to two different 
causes — the one is the use of so many poisonous medicines ; the 
other, the improvements in cookery. 

Every thing taken into the stomach, of a poisonous nature, 
must unavoidably injure its tofie, and thus weaken its power of 



DYSPEPSY. EISSFJHI "'""' |71 

digesting the food. Hence we find the history of the greater 
number of dyspeptic cases, to be simply this; "so long ago, or 
such a time, I had the fever, and was salivated by mercury, and 
have not enjoyed any health since." And what a frightful pic- 
ture of the disastrous and deadly effects of this one article might 
be presented to the world; and happily would it be for the 
human race if this had been the only article which the medical 
faculty had arrayed against the health and happiness of the 
family of man. 

And with regard to the improvements in cookery, we have else- 
where said, that they were like the pretended improvements in 
medicine, refinements in error. The thousands who have fallen 
victims to the modern method of cookery, the design of which 
is to whet the appetite by dainties, could they be told, would 
astonish the ignorant and confound the wise. The original 
object of cooking, was to prepare food for its more easy mas- 
tication, and digestion; but this object has become perverted, 
and the design now is to prepare the food so as to make it most 
agreeable to the taste ; in doing which it is rendered far more 
indigestible and unwholesome; whilst at the same time, in con- 
sequence of its having been rendered more palatable, we are 
induced to eat too much. We thus have our stomachs filled 
not only with indigestible food, but we also have it overloaded; 
and even if it has not been rendered, in the process of cooking, 
indigestible, the overloading of the stomach overstrains the 
digestive powers, and lays the foundation for that dismal train 
of symptoms which are attendant upon the dyspepsy. 

The daily filling of the stomach even with wholesome food, in 
greater quantity than the digestive powers can dispose of, or 
than the body requires, may be compared to the overstraining 
of any kind of machinery; it must soon wear out and become 
incapable of performing its office. And every kind of machinery, 
it is at once evident, can have the capacity of performing only a 
certain amount of labor or business; just so with the digestive 
organs; and all that is required of them beyond this, is impair- 
ing their capacity of performing their natural healthy functions, 
and brings on the train of symptoms which always attend the 
complaint under consideration. 



72 DYSPEPSY. 

Good wholesome food, taken in moderate, but sufficient quan- 
tity, and proportioned to the employment, or other circumstances 
of the individual, is most conducive to health; and all persons 
should beware of eating so much at any time as to produce any 
unnatural fulness, or any other unpleasant sensation about the 
stomach. As a general rule, all persons should stop eating be- 
fore the appetite is completely satisfied ; and they should more- 
over eat slow, and chew their food well before swallowing it. 



Treatment. — One of the first things to be attended to in the 
cure of dyspepsy, is to regulate the bowels, which are almost 
always in an obstinately costive state. The best means of keep- 
ing the bowels loose, is the use of a handful, or more, if neces- 
sary, of clean wheat bran, once, twice or three times each day, 
or so much as will keep the stomach and bowels clean and in 
good order. This is the most simple, safe, and efficacious method 
of cleansing the stomach, and removing the costiveness attend- 
ing indigestion, of which we have any knowledge. One cause 
of this complaint is the eating of superfine flour, which ap- 
proaches so near to the nature of starch, as to be partly indiges- 
tible. This clammy viscious food, as well as sweetmeats and 
other such pernicious articles, cause a redundancy of acidity, 
and a cold viscid phlegm in the stomach, and clogs the intes- 
tines by its tenacity; hence the mixture of a sufficient portion of 
bran, is found by experience if persevered in, to neutralize and 
absorb and carry off those acid and viscious substances, and by 
its roughness, scours and cleanses, and keeps clean the stomach 
and bowels, and by mixing with the other articles of food, pre- 
vents the tenacity or stickiness, which constipates the bowels 
and destroys their healthy action. 

Many persons who know no better, are in the habit of taking 
physic to obviate costiveness ; but this is a bad habit, as the in- 
testines becoming habituated to the stimulation of the physic, 
thereby lose their tone, and the difficulty is rendered worse. 
Bran, on the other hand, acts in harmony with the laws of na- 
ture, as food does, and removes costiveness without producing 
any injurious effects whatever, upon the intestines. 



DVSPEPSY. 73 

Our own experience, ever since the year 1816, has confirmed 
all that we have said respecting the virtues of bran, and it could 
be attested perhaps by hundreds of others, who have since from 
our recommendation, adopted its use. In the early part of life, 
the publisher of this work, was afflicted for eight years, with a 
grievous chronic dysentery, or bloody flux, which he finally 
cured by the constant use of cayenne pepper and sweet potatoes. 
But the debility which this long and wasting complaint induced, 
particularly the loss of tone which the intestines sustained, even- 
tually produced an obstinate state of costiveness which has fol- 
lowed him to the present time. After trying every thing which 
his own mind could suggest, or the ingenuity of the faculty devise, 
and after he had despaired of ever enjoying health, and even 
considered himself at the brink of the grave, the idea of using 
bran first occurred to him, and he immediately commenced the 
experiment; and to his inexpressible satisfaction, found it to an- 
swer his fullest expectations. From that to the present time, he 
has been in almost the daily use of bran, and finds it the only 
thing that regulates hi3 bowels in harmony with the laws of life. 

Bran may be taken in the hand, and from the hand into the 
mouth, taking a few swallows of water, to wash it down; or it 
may be stirred into a bowl of coffee or tea, and eaten with a 
spoon, as may best suit the patient. The best time to take it, is 
in the morning, before eating, or at breakfast; and the quantity 
necessary to loosen the bowels must be ascertained by experience ; 
but from one to three handfuls, taken once or twice a day, ac_ 
cording to the obstinacy of the case, will probably be found 
sufficient. 

Another remedy which has also been advantageously used in 
costive habits, is parched corn. After the corn has been nicely 
parched, it should be pounded fine in a mortar, and eaten with 
milk, or in any other way which may suit better. 

Whilst pursuing the course just recommended to remove the 
costiveness which almost always attends indigestion, the patient 
should also take of the spiced, or other bitters, to which should 
also be added a quantity of the bitter root, proportioned to the 
degree of costiveness. Injections should also be used, together 
with such means as are recommended under the head of costive- 
ness. 

10 



74 EAR ACHE. 

If after continuing the use of the means which we have recom- 
mended for a reasonable length of time, the complaint does not 
yield, the patient should be taken through a course of medicine, 
which must be repeated as the circumstances of the case may 
demand. Two or three times a week, will commonly be often 
enough; minding between the courses, to pursue the means 
recommended for removing the costiveness, and regularly taking 
the bitters three or four times a day, until the costiveness ceases, 
and the food is well digested. 



EAR-ACHE, OR INFLAMMATION OF THE EAR. 

Ear-Ache, in some instances, is attended by an excessive 
throbbing pain in the ear, though rarely any fever. The pain, 
however, is often very mild, attended with but little inconve- 
nience, and goes off without the aid of medicine. 

But in the more violent forms of inflammation of the ear, at- 
tended with excrutiating throbbing pains, coma, delirium, and 
sometimes convulsions, the most active measures should be adopt- 
ed, or suppuration will undoubtedly take place, and perhaps the 
hearing be destroyed. Ear-ache is caused by the circumstances, 
in general, which produce other inflammations, and particularly 
by partial exposures to cold. 



Treatment. — If the case be mild, nothing more perhaps may 
be necessary than filling the ear with cotton or wool wetted with 
the tincture of myrrh, or No. 6; or a little of the tincture may- 
be dropped in the ear. An ointment made by slicing up onions* 
and frying them in lard, and then strained, is an excellent reme- 
dy in all cases of ear-ache. A little of it must be dropped into 
the ear, and the ear filled with cotton or wool. On going to 
bed, a hot stone wrapped in a cloth, should be placed near the 
ear, and the head covered so as to steam the ear and side of the 
head ; or the head and whole body may be steamed with water 
and hot stones, in the usual way. 

If the pain however, continues, a few drops of the anti-spasmo- 
dic tincture must be occasionally dropped into the ear, minding 



IMMODERATE SWEATING. 75 

to keep the hot stone to the side of the head, for the purpose of 
warming and softening the affected part. But if all this does 
not afford the desired relief, and the pain continues severe, with 
other bad symptoms, we must administer a course of medicine, 
and repeat it if necessary. If, notwithstanding all that has been 
done, suppuration is likely to take place, it should be promoted 
by the application of poultices. 



ERUPTIONS OF THE SKIN. 

Eruptions of the skin are of various kinds, as for instance, the 
eruption of small-pox, measles, nettle-rash, &c. 

Children are very apt to have eruptions of the skin, which is 
often called a breaking out, or rash. If these rashes strike in, 
as it is termed, the child becomes very sick, and will remain so 
until the rash comes out on the skin again. When a child has a 
rash on it, great care should be taken to prevent any exposure 
to cold, as taking cold drives the rash in. 



Treatment. — In general little or nothing need be done so 
long as the rash keeps out on the skin, but if it strike in, saffron 
tea, diaphoretic powders, hot bitters, or almost any kind of 
warming tea should be freely given, and if relief be not soon ob- 
tained, an injection of catnip tea should be administered, and 
repeated as the case may require. If this course of treatment 
do not afford relief, the child should be taken through a course 
of medicine; and repeated as the circumstances of the case may 
require, until a cure is effected. 

There is also another kind of eruption sometimes met with, 
which is attended with an intolerable itching. The best means 
of affording relief in such cases, in addition to what has been 
recommended, is a tea of the root of the narrow leafed or sour 
dock, drank several times a day. 



IMMODERATE SWEATING. 

Immoderate Sweating is commonly an attendant upon some 
other complaint, though it is sometimes an original disease. It 



76 FALLING OF THE FUNDAMENT. 

is always the effect of weakness, accompanied by an unusual 
determination to the surface of the body. 

The effect of profuse perspiration, when it prevails as a dis- 
ease, is to increase the debility by which it is caused. It is most 
commonly met with in the last stages of consumption, and 
during the sweating stages of intermittent fevers, when much 
weakness, and debility of the cutaneous vessels prevail; and 
especially during sleep. 



Treatment. — The use of bitter and astringent tonics, will be 
highly useful in cases of debilitating sweats; and in some in- 
stances, a few drops of sulphuric acid, in a little water, taken 
occasionally, have a good effect. But the remedy most to be 
relied upon, in such cases is cold bathing. The patient should 
take a dose of cayenne, or hot bitters, when he should be stripped, 
and have a quart or two of cold water poured on his shoulders, 
so that it will run down over the whole surface of the body, and 
then be wiped dry, and go to bed. Showering in this way may 
be done before the patient goes to sleep, or afterwards, or both, 
as may seem most prudent. In the colliquative sweats which 
attend the last stage of consumption, no method of cure can be 
relied upon. 



FALLING OF THE FUNDAMENT. 

This complaint is most commonly met with amongst children 
of a weak habit, or who have been much afflicted with frequent 
and severe purgings. It is also sometimes met with in grown 
persons, who have a peculiar weakness of the part. 

Prolapsus of the fundament may be a troublesome though not 
a dangerous disease. 



Treatment. — In all cases of a falling of the fundament, whe- 
ther of young or old, the part of the gut which is protruded, 
should be washed with a strong tea of witch hazle leaves, pond- 
lilly, or some other astringent article ; and injections of the same 
may also be administered, when the protruded part must be 



FALL1NG-31CKNESS. 77 

gently forced back with the finger, which may be smeared with 
oil io prevent any irritation of the part. 

It will also be advisable to make use of bitter and astringent 
tonics, in the stomach, and astringents by injection, until the 
complaint is removed. 

The cold bath will also be highly serviceable in this complaint. 
It may be applied either to the whole body, as recommended 
for immoderate sweating, or cold water may be poured upon, 
or near to the part effected, or both may be resorted to, at dis- 
cretion. 



FALLING-SICKNESS, OR EPILEPSY. 

In epilepsy there is a sudden deprivation of sense, accom- 
panied with convulsive motions of the whole body. 

Epilepsy attacks by fits, and after a time goes off, leaving the 
patient most commonly in his usual state; though sometimes a 
degree of stupor and weakness remains after the fits, especially 
if they are of frequent occurrence. It is oftener met with 
amongst children than grown persons, and boys are said to be 
more subject to its attacks, than girls. 

Fits of epilepsy return periodically, and the paroxysms occur 
more frequently in the night than the day; by which it would 
appear that this complaint was in some measure influenced by 
that state of the body induced by sleep. It is also sometimes 
said to be counterfeited, in order to extort charity, or excite 
compassion. 

Epilepsy is distinguished, by systematic writers, into sympa- 
thetic and idiopathic ; being considered as sympathetic, when 
produced by some other disease, such as acidities in the stomach, 
worms, teething, &c. and as idiopathic when it is a primary 
disease, being neither dependent upon nor proceeding from any 
other complaint. 

The causes which give rise to the falling-sickness are blows, 
wounds, fractures, and other injuries, done to the head by ex- 
ternal violence, together with lodgments of water in the brain, 
tumors, concretions, &c. Violent affections of the nervous 
system, sudden frights, fits of passion, great emotions of the 



78 



FALLING-SICKNESS, 



mind, acute pains, worms, the irritation of teething, poisons, &c. 
are causes which likewise produce epilepsy. 

An attack of epileptic fits is sometimes preceded by a heavy 
pain in the head, dimness of sight, noise in the ears, palpita- 
tions of the heart, wind in the stomach and intestines, with 
weariness, and some degree of stupor; at other times there is a 
sense of something like a cold vapor or aura arising up to the 
head; but it more commonly happens that the patient falls 
down suddenly without much or any previous notice; the eyes 
are distorted, or turned so that only the whites of them can be 
seen; the fingers are closely clenched, and the trunk of the body, 
particularly on one side, is much agitated ; the patient foams at 
the mouth, and thrusts out his tongue, which often suffers great 
injury from the muscles of the lower jaw being affected; he 
loses all sense of feeling, and not unfrequently voids both urine 
and fasces involuntarily. 

The spasms after a while abate, and the patient gradually 
recovers, but feels languid and exhausted, and retains not the 
smallest recollection of what passed during the fit. 

When the disease arises from an hereditary disposition, as it 
sometimes does, or if it comes on after the person has arrived 
at mature age, or if the fits recur frequently, and are of long 
duration, it will probably be difficult to effect a cure. But when 
its attacks come on at an early age, and is occasioned by worms, 
or an accidental cause, it may in general be removed without 
much difficulty. It has in some instances been entirely carried 
off by the occurrence of fever, or a cutaneous eruption. It has 
also been known to terminate in apoplexy, and in some instances 
to produce a loss of the mental powers, and in idiotism. 



Treatment. — When epilepsy is caused by worms, teething, or 
injuries of the head, &c. these difficulties should be removed, 
by pursuing a proper course of treatment, at the same time 
making a free use of umbel or the nervine tincture, to give tone 
to the nervous system. And where the general health is other- 
wise impaired, proper measures must be taken to restore it; to 
do which the common course of medicine, with the bitters, &c. 
must be resorted to, and persevered in till the general health is 
restored. 



FAINTING 



79 



In all cases where the patient is sensible of the approach of 
the fits, he should take freely of the nervine tincture, or a dose 
of the anti-spasmodic tincture, which will have a tendency to 
prevent a recurrence of the fits, and thus break the chain of 
morbid association. 

During the fit, injections should be given of catnip tea, or 
any of the astringent articles recommended in the materia me- 
dica, to which should be added a tea spoon full of the anti-spas- 
modic tincture, or instead of this, cayenne and the pulverized 
seeds of lobelia, in proper quantity. From half to a whole tea 
spoon full of the anti-spasmodic tincture should also be occasion- 
ally given by the mouth, all of which will have a tendency to 
shorten the fit, and break the habit to which the system has 
become subject. 

In cases where the time of the return of the fits is known to a 
degree of certainty, the taking of the patient through a course 
of medicine at that time will tend to prevent the return of the fit, 
and thus destroy the connection of the disease. 

We are well aware that cases of epilepsy which occur after 
mature age, are very difficult of cure, but they are, nevertheless, 
not all of the same hopeless character; we may, therefore, in 
most instances attempt the cure, on the principles laid down; 
varying the mode of treatment at discretion, to suit any pecu- 
liarity which may attend each or any particular case. 



FAINTING, OR SYNCOPE. 

Fainting consists in a decreased action, and sometimes total 
cessation of the pulse and breathing. It is often preceded by 
anxiety about the breast, a sense of fullness ascending from the 
stomach towards the head, vertigo, or confusion of ideas, dim- 
ness of sight, and coldness of the extremities. Sometimes, how- 
ever, it comes on without any premonition, and occasionally 
without any apparent cause. The attacks are frequently attended 
k with, or end in, vomiting, and sometimes in epileptic or other 
convulsions. 

Fainting is caused by sudden and violent emotions of the 
mind, such as joy, grief, or fear; and by pungent, disagreeable 



80 FAINTING. 

odors, derangements of the stomach and intestines, debility from 
disease or from loss of blood, spontaneous or artificial, or by 
drawing off the water in dropsy. Another fruitful cause of 
fainting is the tight lacing, and wearing of tight corsets, so com- 
mon with females in the fashionable walks of life. 



Treatment. — During a paroxysm of fainting, the face or 
bosom, or both, may be sprinkled with cold water, which in 
many instances will be sufficient to rouse the patient and restore 
the lost action of the heart and lungs. Stimulating the nostrils 
with hartshorn or volatile salts, will also be very proper and 
useful. This may be done by holding an open bottle of either 
of those articles near the nose, or by rubbing some about the 
nose, or upper lip. Camphor may also be used if neither of 
those articles be at hand. 

But if these means fail, we must have recourse to stimulants, 
such as essence of peppermint, cinnamon, or wintergreen; or a 
dose of cayenne, or of the anti-spasmodic tincture, maybe given, 
and repeated as the circumstances of the case may require. — 
Stimulating injections will also be highly serviceable in cases of 
long continued faintings, and may be safely resorted to in cases 
of this kind. 

If the complaint appears to be connected with, or caused by 
a disordered state of the stomach, an emetic should be given, 
and, if necessary, repeated between the fainting fits, where they 
recur periodically or frequently; and also using proper means 
for restoring the energy and tone of the system, such as cayenne, 
bitters, diaphoretic powders, &c. 

It should, however, be remembered that in cases of fainting 
from either the intentional or accidental loss of blood, little more 
need be done than to lay the patient down on his back or side, 
sprinkling the face or breast with cold water, and applying 
stimulating substances to the nose. To restore the lost energy 
of the system which the loss of blood always occasions, stimu- 
lants and tonics, as above recommended, must be resorted to, 
and continued a suitable length of time. We scarcely need 
add, that every cause known to excite fainting, should be 
avoided. 



GIDDINESS. 81 

GIDDINESS, OR VERTIGO. 

Giddiness is a swimming of the head, in which every thing 
appears to the patient to go round, and he staggers and is in 
danger of falling down. 

Vertigo proceeds from different causes, such as an over deter- 
mination of blood to the head, foul stomach, dyspepsy, hypo- 
chondriasis, and hysterics. 

Little or no danger attends this complaint, unless it proceed 
from an over-fulness of blood in the vessels of the brain, in 
which case, if it be not timely relieved, it may terminate in 
apoplexy or palsy. 

Where giddiness arises in consequence of some other disease, 
it will disappear on the removal of the other difficulties; but in 
all cases where it proceeds from an over determination to the 
head, means should be used to divert the blood to the other parts 
of the system, whereby the head will be relieved. 



Treatment. — In order to restore an equable action to the 
blood, the patient should have repeated doses of the cayenne or 
diaphoretic powders, and be steamed, or have red hot stones 
cooled so as not to burn the bed, and then wrapped in a wet 
cloth and applied to the feet and legs. Or if the patient is 
steamed he ought to have a hot stone placed at his feet in* bed, 
t© keep up a perspiration; as by this means the vessels of the 
body and extremities become relaxed, and allow the blood to 
pass more freely through them. A portion of some mild physic 
might also assist in diverting the blood from the head. 

Should the means, however, which have been recommended 
fail of the desired effect, an emetic and regular course of medi- 
cine must be resorted to, and especially if there be sickness at 
the stomach. After the course of medicine, the bitters, diapho- 
retic powders, or capsicum, should be continued, and if any 
symptoms of giddiness remain, the patient must continue in bed 
with the application of hot stones as before directed. The use, 
of stimulating injections will also be highly proper in any stage 
of this complaint. 

11 



GOUT. 



GOUT. 



The gout is a very painful disease, the most distinguishable 
symptoms of which, are severe pains at some joint, particularly 
the great toe, and also of the hands, which return by paroxysms, 
most commonly in the spring or beginning of winter. 

Gout is divided by systematic writers, into the regular, the 
atonic, the misplaced, and the retrocedent. 

The regular gout chiefly affects the feet and legs; the atonic, 
the stomach; the misplaced, is attended by inflammations of some 
internal parts; and the retrocedant, is a translation of the gouty 
humor, or inflammation, from the joints to the internal parts of 
the system. 

The only disease for which the regular gout can be mistaken, 
is the rheumatism; and cases may occur in which there may be 
some difficulty in distinguishing between them: but the most 
certain way of discriminating the two complaints is to give due 
consideration to the habits of life of the patient, the symptoms 
which have preceded the attack, the parts affected, and the 
symptoms which take place during the paroxysm. 

In the gout, the pains generally attack the small joints, and 
are less liable to shift than in rheumatism; but when they do, 
they commonly fix upon the same joints of the other limb, or 
on some internal part: the part affected, is also more red and 
swelled than it is in rheumatism, and the dyspeptic symptoms, 
which rarely precede rheumatism, are present in a considerable 
degree for some days preceding an attack of gout. 

Rheumatism and gout are, however, sometimes combined, in 
which cases a distinction is neither necessary nor possible. 

The gout chiefly attacks men, and particularly those who 
indulge in high living and lead a sedentary life; and also those 
who are engaged in literary pursuits; and such as keep late 
hours, or are in the decline of life; though it is sometimes met 
with in females of a full and robust habit of body. Men who 
are employed in constant bodily labor, or who live coarsely, 
and drink but little wine or other fermented liquors, are seldom 
afflicted with the gout. Attacks of this complaint rarely occur 
before the age of thirty-five or forty. 



GOUT. 83 

The immediate exciting causes of a fit of the gout, are intem- 
perance in eating or drinking, late hours, intense application to 
study, long want of rest, grief or anxiety of mind, great sensu- 
ality, long continued fatigue, exposure to cold, wet feet, a sud- 
den change from a full to a spare diet, excessive evacuations, 
&c. &c. 

The most common causes which predispose to the gout, are a 
full diet of animal or other rich food, with a free use of spirituous 
and fermented liquors, particularly of wines abounding with 
tartar, together with indolence and inactivity, which are prin- 
cipally to be met with amongst the rich ; and hence their suscep- 
tibility to this disease; whilst the poor, who are obliged to labor 
and live sparingly, are scarcely ever afflicted with this painful 
malady. 

A paroxysm of regular gout sometimes comes on suddenly^ 
without any warning; whilst at other times it is preceded by an 
unusual coldness of the feet and legs, and they become numb 
and the perspiration in them is suppressed; and sometimes a 
sense of pricking all over the feet and legs, takes place; and 
with these symptoms the appetite is diminished, the stomach is 
troubled with wind, and dyspeptic symptoms occur; a feeling of 
torpor and languor over the whole body, great lassitude and 
fatigue are experienced after the least exercise, the bowels are 
costive, and the urine pale. C 

Some sensible affection of the stomach occurs in almost all 
cases of gout, previous to the accession of the paroxysm. 

A fit of the gout usually comes on in the night; the patient 
generally going to bed without suspecting an attack so soon ; but 
after a few hours is awakened by a severe pain, most commonly 
in the first joint of the great toe; though sometimes it attacks 
other parts of the foot, the heel, or the calf of the leg, or per- 
haps the whole foot. The pain resembles that of a dislocated 
or disjointed bone, and is attended with the sensation as if cold 
water was poured upon the affected part; and the pain becoming 
more violent, is succeeded by rigors or chills, and other feverish 
symptoms, together with a severe throbbing inflammation of the 
painful part. Sometimes both feet become swelled and inflamed, 
so that neither of them can be put to the floor; nor can the patient 
endure the least motion without suffering excruciating pain« 



84 



GOUT. 



Towards morning, however, he falls asleep, and a gentle 
moisture breaks out, and terminates the paroxysm, a number of 
which constitute what is termed a fit of the gout. The duration 
of the fit will be longer or shorter, according to the disposition 
of the body to the disease, the season of the year, and the age 
and strength of the patient. 

When a paroxysm of the gout takes place, although there is 
an alleviation of the pain, in the mornings still the patient is not 
entirely relieved from it; and for several evenings in succession, 
he has a return of both the pain and fever, which continue with 
more or less violence, until morning. The paroxysms, however, 
usually become more mild each succeeding evening, till the 
disease at length goes entirely off, either by perspiration, urine, 
or some other evacuation; the parts affected also become itchy, 
the cuticle falls off in scales, with some degree of lameness 
remaining. At first an attack of gout occurs, perhaps, only once 
in two or three years; it then probably comes on every year, 
and at length becomes more frequent and severe, and is of longer 
duration at each succeeding fit. In the progress of the disease, 
various parts of the body become affected, and the complaint 
removes from one joint, or limb, to another; and after frequent 
attacks, the joints lose their strength and flexibility, and become 
stiff and immoveable. Concretions or lumps, of a chalky ap- 
pearance, are likewise formed upon the outside of the joints, 
and affections of the kidneys arise from a deposite of the same 
kind of matter in them, which, although fluid at first, becomes 
gradually dry and firm. 

This effusion occurs, not only during fits of the gout, but like- 
wise in the intervals, and, as the extremities, particularly the 
hands and feet, are the principal seats of the gout, it is there 
that the greatest accumulations of the chalky matter take place. 
This matter is never enclosed in a cyst or little bag, like pus in 
an abscess, but is usually deposited in the cellular membrane, 
the bursa mucosa, or in the cavities of the joints. 

It sometimes happens, that although a gouty diathesis or dis- 
position, prevails in the system, yet from some cause or other, 
no inflammatory affection of the joints takes place; in which 
case, the stomach becomes the principal seat of the malady, and 
the patient is troubled with flatulency, indigestion, violent pain? 



GOUT* 85 

logs of appetite, eructations or belchings, nausea, vomiting, and 
a peculiar sense of coldness in the region of the stomach ; which 
affections are often accompanied with dejection of spirits, and 
other hypochondriacal symptoms. In some instances, the head 
is affected with pains and giddiness, and occasionally with a 
tendency to apoplexy; and in other cases the heart or lungs suffer, 
which gives rise to palpitations, faintings, cramps, and asthma. 
This is what is called the atonic gout. 

It likewise happens sometimes, that after the inflammation has , 
occupied a joint, instead of continuing the usual time, and then 
going off gradually, it ceases suddenly, and is translated to some 
internal part. The name of retrocedent gout is applied to cases 
of this kind. 

In the misplaced gout, instead of the inflammatory affection be- 
ing seated upon the joints, it is fixed upon some internal part, and 
is attended by the same symptoms, which occur in other inflam- 
mations of the same organs. Cases of this kind are rare. 

In fits of the regular gout, there is seldom any immediate dan- 
ger; it is only when the disease appears in its irregular form 
that danger arises, and in which the stomach, heart, lungs, or 
head are affected. In some cases, however, the whole system 
becomes weak and languid, dyspepsy and syncope ensue, and 
the disease terminates in palsy, asthma, or dropsy, which is 
most commonly in the form of hydrothorax or dropsy of the 
chest. 

In the irregular forms of the gout, much more danger is to 
be apprehended, and particularly in the retrocedent form of the 
disease, in which there is violent pain, sickness, vomiting, &,c. in 
which cases patients have been known to die in a few minutes 
after the attack. 

The gout appears to be much under the influence of fear, as 
individuals suffering with it, and unable to walk, have, in conse- 
quence of their houses taking fire, or from some other alarming 
cause, been immediately relieved and enabled to walk. We 
recollect of reading, some years ago, an amusing anecdote of a 
gentleman being cured by fright, which we will relate from 
memory. He was laying on his bed in an upper room, suffering 
the most exquisite agony, and expressing his wishes that the 
devil would come and fly off with his legs. Just at this moment 



86 GOUT. 

a chimney sweeper who had been sent by his master, unknown 
to the gentleman, to sweep his chimnies, and was endeavoring 
to improve himself in his art, descended, by mistake, into the 
gentleman's room. He instantly discovered his mistake, and 
by way of apology for his intrusion, made a bow, adding, "your 
servant, sir — my master will be here presently," and immedi- 
ately vanished up the chimney. This unexpected visit from a 
lad, black and grim with soot, connected with the wishes which 
he almost at the same moment had expressed, created in his 
imagination, the idea that his wishes were about being fulfilled; 
and probably fearing that his body might go along with his legs, 
he instantly bounded from his bed, and retreated to the lower 
part of the house to seek the aid of his family, perfectly cured 
of the gout. 



Treatment. — Although much might probably be done, espe- 
cially in old or debilitated constitutions, to prevent a return of 
the gout, by using mild means, yet during the continuance of the 
fit it is by no means likely that any thing but the free use of the 
vapor bath, with the whole course of medicine, would do much 
towards checking the disease. 

When the complaint goes off naturally, it is commonly by per- 
spiration, and hence we have, from nature, an unerring indica- 
tion, that the vapor bath is one, at least, of the surest and best 
means of cutting short the fits of this most painful malady. The 
affected part should also be bathed with the compound tincture 
of myrrh, made more stimulating by the addition of a quantity of 
capsicum, or with the bathing drops, or a wash of pepper and 
vinegar. This should be applied so as to produce a warm or 
burning sensation on the skin, or it will avail little or nothing in 
affording relief. 

A free use should also be made internally of the cayenne, 
both during the course of medicine as well as afterwards. The 
bitters should likewise be freely used, and the course of medi- 
cine repeated, as often as necessary until a cure is effected. 

If the attack be mild, however, we may attempt to give relief^ 
by the application of hot stones or bricks, to the affected part, 
and by giving repeated doses of the cayenne; at the same time 



GRAVEL. 87 

bathing the part, as just directed. After persevering in this 
course for a reasonable time, if relief be not obtained, a full and 
thorough course of medicine must be resorted to. 

As a preventative, the diaphoretic powders, bitters, or capsi- 
cum may be used at discretion, and persisted in until the symp- 
toms are removed. To relieve the acidity of the stomach which 
so uniformly precedes an attack of the gout, pearl-ash water or 
white ley, should be freely used, and the use of the bitters at 
the same time will strengthen the stomach and check the pro- 
duction of the acid. Should this course not remove the gouty 
symptoms, a regular course of the medicine should be resorted 
to, as the only probable chance of preventing a recurrence of the 
complaint. 

In addition to what has just been recommended, the wrapping 
of the part affected, as well as the whole body, in flannel, will 
be found a good preventative of the gout. The causes which 
produce it, such as indolence and the use of wine or other fer- 
mented liquors, should be avoided; and temperance and active 
exercise rigorously enforced. By strictly observing these rules, 
most persons might undoubtedly avoid the necessity of suffering 
from this painful malady. 



GRAVEL. 

By gravel we understand the formation in, and passage from, 
■the kidneys, of small sandlike concretions, or stones; but if they 
are formed of so large a size that they cannot pass the ureters 
nor urethra, the complaint is then called the stone. It is a sin- 
gular fact, however, that the discharges of small gravel rarely 
terminate in stone. Many have had them during a long life, 
without experiencing any other inconvenience than the pain 
attending their passage along the urinary canals; whilst the 
stone is a disease chiefly occurring between infancy and the age 
of fifteen. Women are less liable to those complaints than men ; 
and the children of the poor, more so than those of the rich. 

The gravel and stone being so nearly allied, and the treat- 
ment being the same in both cases, we shall include both diseases 
under the head of gravel. 



88 GRAVEL. 

The Cause which produces the formation of gravel and stone, 
or calculi as they are termed, is still imperfectly known, though 
commonly attributed to an acid principle in the urine, termed 
the uric acid, which seems confirmed by the benefit derived in 
cases of this kind, from a course of alkaline medicines. 

Those who are in the decline of life, and who have been en- 
gaged in sedentary employments, or who are much afflicted with 
the gout, are most liable to the gravel. Persons who reside in 
cold climates are also much more liable to this complaint, than 
those who live in warm ones. 

A fit of the gravel is attended with a fixed pain in the loins or 
small of the back, sometimes shooting down to the thighs ; numb- 
ness of the thigh or leg on the side affected, retraction of the 
testicle, nausea and vomiting, with sometimes a slight suppres- 
sion of urine. As the gravel removes from the kidneys down 
through the ureter, it sometimes produces such acute pain as to 
occasion faintings and convulsive fits. 

When a stone forms in the bladder, too large to pass, there 
arises a frequent disposition to make water, which flows in small 
quantity, often drop by drop, attended towards the end, and 
afterwards, by excessive pain. The patient cannot bear any 
kind of rough motion ; nor can he make use of severe exercise* 
without enduring great torture; and perhaps bringing on either 
a bloody discharge of urine, or a temporary suppression of it. — 
With these symptoms he has a pain in the neck of the bladder, 
tenesmus, frequent nausea, and sometimes a numbness of one or 
both thighs, and retraction of the testicles. 



Treatment. — Various remedies have been recommended for 
this painful malady, and many cases have been reported verbal- 
ly, of the stone being dissolved by them ; but there are no well 
attested cases of this kind, that we know of, on record. Writers, 
therefore, prescribe no other means of performing a cure, than 
by lithotomy; an operation always attended with much danger, 
especially when the patient is advanced in years, the disease 
complicated with other affections of the parts, and the general 
health much impaired. Under such circumstances it should 
never be attempted. 



GRAVEL. 89 

The gravel and stone, in one sense, form an exception to the 
general rule, that disease is produced by one general cause, and 
may be removed by one general remedy. Although they may 
be produced by the same causes, in common, which bring on 
other complaints, which, as we have heretofore shown, is a fail- 
ure of the living power, yet, when a stone is once formed in the 
bladder, we do not expect that the common stimulants and tonics, 
which act upon the living machine will dissolve it. 

We do not, however, deny, that the same remedy which dis- 
solves the stone, may also act otherwise beneficially upon the 
system; but it does not necessarily follow, that because a reme- 
dy acts in a healthful manner upon the living fibre, it will also 
dissolve or act beneficially, upon a dead substance. But our 
confidence, nevertheless, is such in the goodness of Deity, that 
we believe a remedy has been provided to dissolve the stone, as 
well as to cure all other complaints; and under this impression, 
will throw before the reader the most important means which have 
been recommended to cure both stone and gravel. We may 
also further remark, that we have selected such as will be likely 
to do no harm, and, therefore, any or all of them may be tried, if 
necessary, in any or all cases of this nature ; and eventually, 
perhaps, something may be found that can be relied upon in most 
gravelly complaints. 

Previously, however, to noticing those remedies which are 
supposed to act specifically upon the parts immediately affected, 
we will observe, that the gravelly diathesis or disposition, may 
be, in common, effectually checked by the. use of such means as 
have a tendency to strengthen the powers of the system, and 
restore a healthy action to the organs, and particularly to cor- 
rect the secretion of, or to neutralize when formed, the uric acid 
which is supposed to be principally concerned in the formation 
of those gravelly or stony subtances in the kidneys or bladder. 
Alkaline preparations, such as pearl-ash, soda, or even wood 
ashes, will neutralize the acid; and the common course of medb 
cine , with the use of the capsicum, bitters, &c. will correct the 
secretion, and thus prevent its formation. 

As a solvent of the stone, the juice or decoction of garden 
radishes has been known to perform wonders; in some cases 
after an entire stoppage of urine had existed for many days, and 

12 



90 GRAVEL. 

in one case, after the patient had been given over to die, and 
taken leave of his friends. The virtues of the radish, it is said, 
were discovered by accidentally allowing a cut root of this arti- 
cle to lay during the night, in contact with a stone which had 
been taken from the bladder of a person who had died from this 
complaint, and in the morning the stone was partly dissolved. 
This led to the trial of the juice or tea of the radish in cases of 
gravel; and in many cases which have been reported to us, its 
use was attended with complete success. We think, therefore, 
that this remedy merits a trial. 

The injecting into the bladder, of substances which will dis- 
solve the stone, has been recommended by Fourcroy, and per- 
haps the employment of the radish juice, in this way, might be 
useful. The method recommended for this operation, is for the 
patient first to discharge his urine ; then wash out the bladder 
by injecting warm water into it, and then discharging it j when the 
radish juice or tea, about blood warm, should be injected, and 
retained for half an hour or longer. Weak alkaline prepara- 
tions have also been recommended and used by way of injection 
into the bladder. These preparations should be so weak as to be 
held in the mouth or swallowed without inconvenience ; and if 
the stone contains uric acid, it will be readily dissolved, if the 
injections are persisted in, at proper intervals. The injections 
should all be thrown in very moderately. 

A tea made of Indian corn, has also been recommended for 
the gravel; but with regard to this remedy, we are like Naarnan, 
the Syrian, when directed to wash in Jordan to be cured of his 
leprosy, we think it too simple ; yet, like his servants, we would 
recommend a trial. 

The man root, (Convolvubus Panduratus,) either in tea or tinc- 
ture, is recommended as a valuable remedy for gravel. It shoud 
be taken, in moderate doses, several times a day. 

Another remedy, obtained from Ira Fingh, Esq., whose author- 
ity we consider as highly respectable, is as follows: Take of the 
fibrous roots of the Queen-of-the-meadow, as much as will lay on 
the palm of the hand, and pour a quart of boiling water on it, 
which is to be drank freely and frequently. Then take the 
same quantity of the fibrous parts of pool-root, and a piece of 
the root of masterwort, as large astheiinger and about two inch- 



GRAVEL. 91 

eslong, sliced up, and put them into a quart bottle which must 
be filled with equal parts of whiskey and water. As soon as the 
liquor has imbibed the virtues of the roots, the patient must take a 
wine glass full of it, three times a day before eating. If, how- 
ever, it produces a burning sensation in the stomach, which it 
sometimes does if much weakened by disease, less of it must be 
taken, and the dose gradually increased, as the stomach will 
bear it. This course must be pursued until a cure isl effected, 
which, if the case be a mild one, will require but a few days; 
the stone, as it dissolves, will be discharged with the urine, like 
sand. 

The following mode of treating the gravel, is from Dr. J. D. 
C6rnell, a respectable practitioner, now residing in Lexington, 
Kentucky. 

He directs a tea of the Queen-of-the-meadow to be used, as 
above stated, which is to be continued until the urinary discharg- 
es appear like chalk- At the same time that the patient is pur- 
suing this course, injections into the bladder should be made of 
the following preparation: Take equal parts of red raspberry 
leaves and the inner bark of slippery elm, and steep a strong tea 
of it; to a teacup full of which, add two teaspoons full of the 
tincture of myrrh, or No. 6. In using these injections, we would 
recommend the same course to be pursued as heretofore poticed. 
The patient should also drink, frequently through the day, of a 
decoction of poplar and hemlock bark. 

We have also been very obligingly favored Tvith the communi- 
cation of a highly recommended remedy for the gravel and stone, 
by Horatio R. Keys, the most material part of which was ob- 
tained from the Indians, in Tennessee; but owing to some parts 
of it being unintelligible to us, we cannot insert it in this place* 
We expect, however, to be able to obtain an explanation in time 
to insert it in the materia medica. 

In violent paroxysms of pain so often occurring in gravelly 
complaints, fomentations made by applying to the painful part, 
flannel cloths wrung out of hot water in which hops have been 
steeped, will be found useful ; or the vapour bath may be resort- 
ed to. Injections should also be administered, at the same time 
using freely of the nerve powder or its tincture, But if, notwith- 
standing the use of these means, the pain increases, or does not 



92 HEAD-ACH. 

abate, threatening inflammation, a full course of medicine must 
be resorted to, which will remove the inflammation and tension of 
the parts. The patient should also drink freely of a tea made 
of two parts of poplar bark and one of slippery elm, to strength- 
en and soothe the affected parts. 

Persons afflicted with gravel, should avoid the use of fermented 
liquors, such as cider, beer, and especially wines abounding with 
tartar, and all sour substances; and at the same time giving a 
preference to soft rather than hard water, for ordinary drink. 

It is a matter of common observation, that acids, as well as 
such drinks as are inclined to turn acid or sour in the stomach, 
aggravate gravelly complaints, whilst alkaline subtances relieve 
them. 



HEAD-ACH. 

Thib complaint is caused by foulness of the stomach, or by 
costiveness, the want of free circulation through the head, long 
exposure to the rays of the sun, want of proper rest, or lying 
too long in bed, sourness of the stomach, intense application to 
study, and by too great a determination of blood to the head. 
It is often an attendant symptom of other diseases, such as fevers, 
hypochondriasis, hysterics, &c. 

Head-ach, ha some instances, is general over the whole head; 
at other times it k confined to some particular part ; and occa- 
sionally, cases occur, in which the pain is confined to so small a 
space that it may be covered with the end of the finger. Cases 
of this kind are denominated, in the jaw-wrenching language of 
medical science, clavis hystericus. 

When the head-ach is symptomatic of some other disease, it 
will be pretty sure to go off with the complaint which gave rise 
to it, as in case of fever; but when it comes on suddenly, is acute, 
and is attended with noise in the ears, giddiness, and loss of 
speech, it denotes an attack of palsy or apoplexy. When it takes 
place in persons who are subject to hypochandriacal or hysteri- 
cal affections, is very acute, and attended with much throbbing 
of the temporal arteries, it is apt to terminate in madness. If 



HEART-BURN. 



93 



a head-ach arises in cousequence of some obstinate nervous 
affection, the patient will be liable to frequent returns of it, and 
it will be more difficult to cure than most other cases. 



Treatment. — In many cases, the most simple means will afford 
relief. A little bayberry or bitter root snuff; or taking a dose 
of the bayberry, diaphoretic powders, bitters, or cayenne, will, 
in a great many instances, remove the complaint. 

If it arise from a sour stomach, pearl-ash water or white ley, 
will give relief ; and if from a foul stomach, an emetic should be 
administered. When costiveness appears to be the cause of it, 
laxative bitters, aided by injections, should be used ; and if an 
over determination of blood to the head causes the head-ach, a 
general course of medicine should be administered. 

Cases of what are termed sick head- ach, may be relieved and 
generally cured, by taking an emetic, with cayenne and nerve 
powder, whenever the disease returns; and ought to be followed, 
for a few days, at least, with the use of bitters; at the same 
time paying strict attention to the state of the bowels, endea- 
voring to keep them regular, by the use of laxative bitters, 
injections, bran, parched corn, or any other simple means. By 
pursuing this course at each attack of sick head-ach, many invet- 
erate cases have been entirely cured. 



HEART-BURN. 

This complaint most commonly arises in consequence of dys- 
pepsy, though it often times occurs with individuals who are 
otherwise enjoying good health. 

Heart-burn in its worst form, is a very unpleasant complaint; 
and cases have even been reported in which it produced death. 
Its long continuance, when of a very severe form, will produce 
emaciation and weakness. 

The cause of this complaint is evidently either a debility or 
inactivity of the stomach, or a vitiated secretion of the juices or 
fluids which are concerned in the digestive process 



94 INFLAMMATION OP THE BLADDER. 

Treatment. — To obtain a temporary relief, recourse must be 
had to alkaline preparations, which will neutralize the acid, and 
thus correct the acidity for the present. But if we wish to 
eradicate the complaint, suitable measures must at the same 
time be taken to give energy and tone to the stomach, and pro- 
duce a healthy secretion of the gastric juices. 

In ordinary cases, the stimulating bitters, taken three or four 
fifties a day, will be sufficient, in addition to some of the alkaline 
preparations, to restore the tone and activity of the stomach, 
and healthiness to the juices* But if the ca3e be a bad one, or 
if it prove obstinate of cure, a full course of the medicine should 
be resorted to, and repeated, if necessary, until the difficulty is 
removed. The alkalies and bitters must be continued after the 
course of medicine, until the symptoms of heart-burn are entirely 
relieved. Bathing the region of the stomach, with tincture of 
myrrh, bathing drops, or other stimulating [wash, will also be 
serviceable. 

Persons who are subject to the heart-burn should also be 
careful about their diet; rejecting such articles as they find are 
apt to become sour in the stomach. Animal food and shellfish, 
not being liable to ferment, ought to form a large proportion of 
the food of individuals who are afflicted with this troublesome 
complaint; whilst vegetables, as much as consistent, should be 
avoided. 

Experiment has also proved the fact, that the saliva swallowed 
along with our food, greatly prevents its fermentation ; wherefore 
persons liable to the heart-burn should be very careful in well 
chewing their food before swallowing it. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER. 

Tension or hardness, and great pain in the region of the 
bladder, a frequent desire to make water, with difficulty in 
voiding it, and sometimes a total suppression, together with 
tenesmus and fever, and a hard pulse, are the distinguishing 
symptoms of this complaint. There is frequently also sickness 
at the stomach and vomiting, and in some cases delirium. 



INFiAMMATIOW OF THE BRAIN. 95 

Inflammation of the bladder is rarely a primary disease; aris- 
ing most commonly in consequence of inflammation of the adja- 
cent parts, or from stone in the bladder. It may also sometimes 
be occasioned by a great distension of the bladder, in conse- 
quence of a suppression of urine from any cause whatever. 



-Treatment. — In the treatment of this complaint, care should 
be taken to keep the bowels loose, and to prevent any accumu- 
lation of the faeces in the rectum. For this purpose laxative 
injections should be freely used, and if necessary, some laxative 
medicine taken into the stomach. To answer either of those 
purposes, castor oil, slippery elm, or the butternut syrup, may 
be used. 

The slippery elm taken into the stomach, will also have an 
effect to shield and soothe the inflamed part; and thus have a 
tendency to allay the irritation attendant upon this complaint. 
Frequent doses of the cayenne and nerve powder, should also 
be taken, and a hot stone placed near the part affected. 

Bathing the region of the bladder with the tincture of myrrh, 
or any other stimulating wash, will also have a good effect. 
Fomentation with cloths wrung out of a hot decoction of hops, 
may also be very servicable in allaying the intense pain. 

But if these means do not afford relief, or if the attack be 
very violent, a course of medicine should be resorted to imme- 
diately, and repeated as the circumstances of the case may 
require, as being the most certain means of speedily arresting 
the inflammation. The course above recommended, should also 
be pursued between the courses of medicine, with the addition 
of the bitters, or a tea of poplar bark and sumach leaves. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE BRAIN, OR PHRENSY. 

Phrensy, properly speaking, is either an inflammation of the 
brain, or of any of the membranes which surround it within the 
cranium. 

The characteristics of this complaint, are high fever, severe 
pain in the head, redness of the face and eyes, intolerance of 
light and sound, watehfulness, and violent delirium. 



1MJ INFLAMMATION OF THE BRAIN. 

This disease, like many others, is sometimes a primary affec- 
tion, but oftener symptomatic of some other complaint; being 
primary or ideopathic, when it exists independent of any other 
disorder; and symptomatic, when it arises in consequence of 
some other disease, as fevers, &c. 

Violent fits of passion, intense study, excessive venery, exter- 
nal violence, such as blows on the head, concussions, fractures 
of the skull, an immoderate use of strongfdrink, long continued 
exposure to the rays of the sun, &c. &c. are the most common 
causes which give rise to ideopathic inflammation of the brain. 

Primary phrensy is usually preceded by long continued and 
almost constant wakefulness or watching, or if the patient inclines 
a little to sleep, he has frightful dreams ; acute pains at first in the 
neck and back part of the head, which afterwards extend to the 
whole head; deep breathing comes on, with inability to recollect 
circumstances which have lately happened, suppression of urine, 
and an irregular pulse. 

As the disease advances, the eyes sparkle, and are violen tly 
agitated, attended by a ferocity of countenance, with universal 
restlessness, deafness, great confusion of ideas, violent rav ings, 
intolerance of light, visible pulsation in the arteries of the neck 
and temples, with the most furious delirium. The tongue is 
dry, rough, and of a yellow or black color, the face is of a deep 
red, and the pulse is small, quick, and hard. 

When inflammation of the brain arises in consequence of some 
other disease, such as acute fever, or some inflammatory affec- 
tion, it is usually accompanied with inability to sleep, constant 
watching, delirium, picking at the bed clothes, redness and 
fierceness of the eyes, wild look, and deep breathing. 

This complaint is distinguished from madness, by the quickness 
of the pulse, the attendant fever, and pain in the head ; and 
from that kind of delirium which occurs in low fevers, unaccom- 
panied with inflammation, by the appearance of the countenance 
and eyes; for in the true phrensy the face is red, the features 
are rather enlarged than shrunk, and the eyes stand out of the 
head and sparkle ; whereas in the delirium of low fevers, the 
face is pale, the features shrunk, and the eyes are pearly. 

Phrensy, whether primary or symptomatic, is always to be 
regarded as a dangerous and alarming complaint; often proving 
fatal between the third and seventh day; or if long protracted 



INFLAMMATION OF THE BRAIN. 9? 

often terminates in madness and great prostration of strength, or 
in stupor and insensibility. 

Grinding of the teeth, white or ash-colored 6tools, suppression 
of urine, startings of the limbs or twitchings, convulsions, cold 
sweats, fluttering pulse, and coma or sleepiness, denote a fatal 
termination. 

But, on the contrary, if there comes on a copious hemorrhage 
or bleeding from the nose, mouth, or lungs, or urinary passages; 
if the delirium is relieved by sleep, and the patient remembers 
his dreams; and if the perspiration becomes free and general; 
with the deafness diminished or removed ; the pulse less frequent, 
bat fuller and soft, and the feverish symptoms more mild, then 
there are hopes of a recovery. 

There is also an inflammation of the brain, almost peculiar 
to children, and which is commonly termed dropsy of the brain; 
in which an effusion of water takes place in the head, in conse- 
quence of the inflammation. This must also be regarded as a 
dangerous disease, and but few recover from it, under the fash- 
ionable practice of medicine. 

In addition to the causes of phrenzy, which have been enu- 
merated, it is believed that worms have sometimes produced this 
complaint; and we have known one instance in which it seemed 
to prevail epidemically, carrying off a large number of children 
in a short time ; and in one case it supervened on dysentery. 

The kind of phrenzy of which we are speaking, is character- 
ized by fever, sometimes a quick, and at other times a slow pulse, 
frequent rolling of the head on the pillow, a throwing up of one 
hand and drawing up of the foot, whilst the other side may be 
palsied, the cheeks flushed, the eyes sometimes partly closed, 
and sometimes open, and without vivacity or brightness, often 
bearing the most intense light without being sensible of it, and 
sometimes distorted. There is often, also, a grinding of the 
teeth, an incoherence of speech, or complete insensibility, and 
symptoms of the most extreme suffering, which, at length, close 
the scene. 



Treatment. — Whenever an attack of phrenzy is perceived 
no time should be lost in adopting the most energetic measures 
to allay the inflammation. In the first place, three or four of Dr. 

13 



98 INFLAMMATION OF THE EYES* 

Bunnell's pills should be administered, to operate as a purge: 
and if the bowels are costive, stimulating injections should be 
used to forward the operation. 

Whilst we are waiting for the pills to produce the desired 
effect, the patient should have repeated doses of the cayenne, 
which will not only have a tendency to promote the operation of 
the pills, but will also assist in keeping up the strength during 
the operation, and in promoting perspiration. 

Milk porridge, broth, or soup, should also be given to the 
patient whilst he is under the influence of the physic to prevent 
the debility which attends the active operation of cathartics; 
and if the pain in the head be very violent, cold water, or snow, 
or ice and water, may be applied to it by means of wet cloths, 
and repeated as often as they become warm. 

Immediately after the operation of the pills, if the symptoms 
be not very much abated, the patient should be taken through 
a full course of medicine, which must be repeated at suitable 
intervals until the patient is out of danger. Between the courses, 
the patient should have frequent doses of cayenne, whilst 'every 
other means of promoting perspiration should be carefully at- 
tended to; and also frequently administering injections, or if the 
bowels do not continue quite loose, another dose of the pills 
should be given after two or three days. The head should also 
be kept cool with water or vinegar, and raised as high as the 
patient can comfortably permit. 

During the whole course of the disease, the patient must 
be kept as quiet as possible, having the light excluded from him ; 
with nourishing food and cold drink, which if he prefer it, may 
he acidulated with vinegar. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE EYES. 

Soreness of the eyes may arise in consequence of some other 
disease, or it may be occasioned by other causes. 

The most common causes of sore eyes are, external injuries, 
such as blows, bruises, or other wounds on or about the eye, 
extraneous or foreign bodies getting under the eye-lids; exposure 
to cold or to cold winds; acrid fumes, such as the smoke of coal. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE EYES. 99 

wood, or turf; the exposure of the eyes to a strong light; intem- 
perence in drinking; reading, or performing any kind of work 
requiring close attention of the eyes, by candlelight; and it is 
supposed sometimes to arise from an acrimony in the blood. It 
is also thought occasionally to take place from contagion - 
and often prevails as an epidemic, in which case it must proceed 
from a vitiated state of the atmosphere. 

Inflammation of the eyes often comes on with a sensation as if 
sand had by some means got into the eye, which is especially 
the case at evening. In some instances this complaint proceeds 
no further, but gradually goes off. But at other times it is fol- 
lowed by, or accompanied with, heat, redness, and pricking, 
with darting pains. Sometimes they continue in this situation 
through the whole course of the disease ; whilst in other cases, 
the eyelids swell, the vessels of the eye become full and enlarged; 
great pain is excited in moving the ball of the eye; the patient 
cannot bear the light, and water issues from the eye, of so acrid 
a nature that it seems like scalding the skin wherever it 'touches; 
and in the highest stages of inflammation, the whole frye seems 
as if filled with hot water. 

In extreme cases of inflamed eyes, if the inflammation cannot 
be speedily checked, suppuration will ensue, which has some- 
times ended in the complete destruction of the eye-ball, and loss 
of sight. 



Treatment. — A vast many external remedies have been re- 
commended and used for inflamed eyes, sometimes one and 
sometimes another, appearing to afford relief; whilst at other 
times nothing seemed of any avail. 

Washing the eyes with salt and water, or with sweet milk and 
water, will often reduce the inflammation and remove the pain ; 
and in those cases where there is a sensation of sand in the eye, 
with little or no inflammation, the application at evening, of a 
little soft tallow from the candle will give ease. 

A very good eye-water may be made by steeping the leaves 
which remain on the beach tree during the winter, and applying 
it by means of a rag, cold to the eye; or the pith of sassafras 
may be steeped in cold water, and applied in the same way. 



100 INFLAMMATION OF THE EYES. 

We have also heard a wash for the eye highly spoken of, 
prepared nearly as follows: Take of the limbs and twigs of 
sassafras, and steep a strong decoction, which must be strained, 
and a portion of mare's milk added to it. 

Dr. S. Thomson directs an eye-water to be made as follows: 
Take white pond-lilly, marsh-rosemary, witch-hazle, and red 
raspberry leaves, make a strong tea of all or either of these 
articles, and add one third the quantity of No. 6, and a small 
portion of cayenne pepper. A little of this is to be introduced 
into the eyes several times a day; and every morning wash the 
eyes by holding the face in clear water, and open and shut them 
until well washed. 

Dr. W. H« Anderson, of Warren county, Ohio, makes a very 
valuable eye- water by mixing at discretion the tincture of lobelia, 
water, and golden seal roots, finely pulverized, together, which 
in a day or two, may be carefully poured off, and kept in vials 
for use. A little of this may be dropped into the eye, or it may 
be introduced into it in any other way, several times a day. 

A decoction of the golden seal alone, is highly extolled as an 
eye-water by some. 

Poultice9 made of slippery elm, or of lynn or basswood bark, 
mixed with cold water, appled to the eyes, and renewed as often 
as they become warm, have often proved highly beneficial. 
Before they aie laid on the eyes, a thin cloth should be spread 
over them, to prevent the poultice from coming in immediate 
contact with the eyes. 

But if these external applications fail of the desired effect, 
we can recommend nothing better than Dr. Abernethy's rule, 
which he laid down for all diseases, viz: "take care of the sto- 
mach." The common course of medicine, in bad cases, which 
do not yield to other means, such as mild cathartics, with the 
astringent and bitter tonics, must be resorted to, minding also 
to continue the external applications to the eye until the inflam- 
mation and soreness are gone. 

In some instances, the eyes, although the soreness is entirely 
removed, remain weak and diseased for some time. In these 
cases, the eye-water should be made more stimulating with the 
addition of cayenne or brandy. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE INTESTINES, 101 

INFLAMMATION OF THE INTESTINES. 

The characteristics of this complaint are, sharp pains in the 
"bowels, spreading around the naval, nausea, vomiting, obstinate 
costiveness and fever; and is principally to be distinguished from 
colic by the quickness, hardness, and smallness of the pulse, and 
by the pain being increased by pressure on the abdomen, whilst 
in colic this will afford relief. 

The causes of this complaint are, principally, acrid or irri- 
tating substances in the intestines, such as hardened faeces, 
or acrid bile, &c. &c. ; but more frequently the application 
of cold to the feet, or the abdomen itself. This disease is 
more apt to occur with old than young persons, and is very 
liable to a relapse. It also frequently proceeds with great irreg- 
ularity ; the patient being at times comparatively easy, and then 
again in much distress. 

Inflammation of the bowels comes on with an acute pain, 
extending in general over the whole abdomen, but more espe- 
cially around the naval; the pain being greatly aggravated on 
pressure. These symptoms are attended by belchings, sickness 
at the stomach, a vomiting of bilious matter, obstinate costive- 
ness, thirst, heat, great anxiety, and a quick, hard, and small 
pulse. 

As the disease progresses, the pain increases, the bowels 
become affected with spasms, the whole region of the abdomen 
is highly painful to the touch, and appears as if drawn together 
in knots; the most obstinate costiveness prevails, and the urine 
is voided with great difficulty and pain. 

This complaint is to be regarded as one of much danger, and 
may either go off by resolution, or the inflammation may progress, 
and finally terminate in ulceration, scirrhus, or mortification. 
Death may also take place during the inflammatory stage ; and 
mortification sometimes occurs within a few hours from the com- 
mencement of the disease. This is known to have com- 
menced, by a sudden remission of the pain, sinking and ir- 
regularity of the pulse, shrinking of the features, cold sweats, 
fainting, suppression of urine, hiccup, and distension of the belly, 
which gives a sound on being struck with the finger. 

If the pain abates gradually, if the costiveness gives way, and 
the stools appear natural, if a universal perspiration takes place, 



102 INFLAMMATION OF THE INTESTINES. 

and the pulse becomes firm and equal, or if a copious discharge 
of loaded urine, with the same kind of pulse, comes on, a reso- 
lution and favorable issue may be anticipated. 

Its termination in ulceration, which is uncommon, can only be 
known by an abatement of the feverish symptoms, attended by 
occasional pains and rigors, and a discharge of pus with the stools. 



Treatment. — We may commence the cure of inflammation 
of the intestines with the free use of injections, and bathing the 
whole abdomen with a strong decoction of cayenne and vinegar. 
This last will not only materially assist in reducing the inflam- 
mation, but will also help to loosen the bowels, and promote the 
operation of other medicines. 

After the administration of a few injections, some of which 
should be composed of slippery elm bark steeped in catnip tea, 
no time should be 2ost in taking the patient through a thorough 
course of medicine; and whilst under the operation of the emet- 
ic, care should be taken to keep a hot stone or brick near the 
bowels. If the course of medicine do not remove the pain, fre- 
quent doses of the diaphoretic powders and cayenne, as well as 
injections, must be administered, and all other suitable means 
adopted to keep up a lively perspiration. Bathing the bowels 
should also be repeated, as often as is necessary, to keep the ex- 
citement on the skin. 

Purgative medicines are highly improper in inflammations of 
the intestines, and should never be administered. 

The course of medicine must, if necessary, be repeated at 
discretion, according to the violence of the symptoms ; and the 
stength and appetite restored, by the use of bitters. 

As this complaint is exceedingly liable to a relapse, from the 
slightest causes, the greatest care and circumspection should be 
observed after the disease is removed. Improper food, and ex- 
posure to cold, should be carefully avoided, and if costiveness 
occur, it must be immediately removed by injections or mild 
purges. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEYS. 103 

INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEYS. 

This complaint is considered of two kinds, which are no way 
different only in the causes which produce them, and in the seats 
of the inflammation. One kind is occasioned by the gravel or 
stone, and is seated in the internal parts; and the other is pro- 
duced by the common causes of inflammation, and is seated 
principally in the membrane of the external part of the kidney, 
which last is the disease we intend to treat of here ; the other 
having been sufficiently noticed under the head of gravel. 

Inflammation of the kidneys may be distinguished from colic, 
by the pain being seated far back, and by the urine being of a 
deep red color, voided frequently, and in small quantity at a 
time ; and it may be known from rheumatism, by the pain not 
being much increased by motion. 

From the inflammation attending the gravel or stone, this 
complaint may be known by the fever which attends it from the 
first, and by the absence of some of the symptoms attending the 
gravel, such as numbness of the thigh, retraction of the testi- 
cle, &c. 

The causes which give rise to inflammation of the kidneys, 
are, external bruises, strains of the back, acrid substances con- 
veyed to the kidneys in the blood, violent and severe exercise, 
either in riding or walking, exposure to cold, &c. &c. There 
seems in some an evident predisposition to this complaint, par- 
ticularly in persons of gouty habits. 

Inflammation of the kidney is attended with a sharp pain on 
the affected side, extending downward along the course of the 
ureter, and there is a frequent desire to pass the urine, with much 
difficulty in voiding it; the bowels are costive, the skin is dry 
and hot, the patient feels great uneasiness when he attempts to 
walk or sit upright, he lies with most ease on the affected side, 
and is often afflicted with nausea and vomiting, with costiveness 
and colic pains. 

When this complaint continues beyond the seventh or eighth 
day, and the patient feels an obtuse pain in the affected part, has 
frequent returns of chilliness and shiverings, then there is reason 
to apprehend that matter is forming in the kidney, and that sup- 
puration will ensue. 



-104 tNFLAMMATION OF THE LIVER 

Remission of the pain, fever, and tension, followed by a copi- 
ous discharge of high-colored mucous urine, universal sweating, 
or a flow of blood from the hemorrhoidal veins, are favorable 
symptoms. 

The terminations of this complaint are similar to those of 
other inflammations, either by resolution, suppuration, scirrhus 
or mortification, though the latter is rare. In some cases of dis- 
section after death, it has been found that abscesses had been 
formed by which nearly the whole substance of the kidney was 
destroyed ; and a few instances have occurred in which the kid* 
ney was scirrhus and prodigiously enlarged ; whilst others have 
been met with in which it was nearly wasted away. 



Treatment. — This disease must be treated by bathing with 
some stimulating wash, by injections, and by courses of medi- 
cine, similar to what was directed for inflammation of the intes- 
tines. In addition to this, a moderately strong decoction of the 
peach tree leaves or bark, may be taken in the quantity of a pint 
or so, in a day, as directed in the treatment of bloody urine- 



INFLAMMATION OF THE LIVER. 

This disease is generally considered as of two kinds; the ac- 
ute and chronic; the acute exhibiting the ordinary symptoms of 
inflammation; whilst in the chronic, they are often scarcely per- 
ceptible. Dr. Clutterbuck, however, discards the idea of 
such a distinction, and considers them "only different degrees 
of the same affection." 

Besides the causes producing other inflammations, such as the 
application of cold, external injuries, &c, this complaint may 
be produced by passions of the mind, by violent exercise in 
which the liver may receive heavy concussions or jars, by intense 
snmmer heats, by long continued intermittent and remittent fe- 
vers, and by solid concretions, termed gall-stones, in the substance 
of the liver. But it is more frequently produced, of late years, 
by that scourge of civilized man, the use of mercury! 



INFLAMMATION OP THE LIVER. 105 

In hot climates, the liver is more often the seat of inflamma- 
tion than any other part of the system; and hence its common 
prevalence in the East and West Indies. 

In severe cases of liver complaint, or in that kind termed ac- 
ute, there is a pain sometimes in the left side, but more common- 
ly in the right, which is increased on pressing upon it with the 
fingers; There is also a pain in the top of the right shoulder, 
and sometimes in the clavicle or collar bone; and with these 
symptoms there is a cough, oppressive breathing, and difficulty 
of lying, excepting on the side affected. Nausea and vomiting 
of bilious matter often attend, and in one case we saw, in the 
latter stage, the matter thrown up, as well as what passed down- 
ward, resembled coffee grounds; the bowels are generally cos- 
tive, though sometimes relaxed, the stools are clay-colored ; the 
urine of a saffron color, and small in quantity; the appetite is 
lost, and there is great thirst, with a strong, hard and frequent 
pulse, hot skin, and the tongue is covered with a white or yellow- 
ish fur. When the disease has continued for several days, the 
skin and eyes become tinged of a deep or dark yellow, which is 
particularly the case when the disease is caused by gall-stones in 
the liver. 

The symptoms which we have just been describing, are such 
as attend the worst forms of liver complaint; and should we at- 
tempt to give a description of the "different degrees" of this dis- 
ease, we must trace it through an almost imperceptible gradation, 
from the most violent affections of fever and pain, down to cases 
in which the diseased action is scarcely, if at all, perceptible 
even to the patient himself. 

In ordinary cases, however, of liver complaint, there may, or 
may not, be a slight pain in the side or shoulder, with a sense of 
debility and great aversion to motion, though at times the patient 
may feel more active and energetic. He will also often be op- 
pressed with dull, heavy and gloomy feelings, which are gener- 
ally worse in the morning, at which time there will frequently be 
a faint, morbid, and weak feeling in the stomach, sometimes ex- 
tending below it into the intestines. There is also, at times, an 
unpleasant sensation produced by breathing, which is worse or 
better, in correspondence with the morbid feelings of the stom- 
ach. Along with these symptoms there is a most disagreeable 

14 



106 INFLAMMATION OP THE LIVER. 

taste, and collection during sleep, of sticky, nauseous matter, in 
the mouth, with a very bad breath. 

The appetite is commonly impaired, though sometimes it is 
morbidly increased ; the stools are clay-colored, the bowels cos- 
tive ; a weakness and trembling is often induced by slight exer- 
tion, and the whole nervous system will seem to be agitated. 

Inflammation of the liver may readily be distinguished from 
that of the lungs, by the pain in the shoulder, by the yellowness 
of the skin, by the less difficulty of breathing, and by the cough 
Jbeing in general accompanied with an expectoration of matter. 
I This disease, like most other inflammations, may end in reso- 
lution, suppuration, mortification, or scirrhus, in which latter 
case, the liver becomes swelled and hard. A termination in 
mortification is, however, a rare occurrence. When it runs into 
suppuration, the matter may be discharged externally through 
,the side, in consequence of the liver adhering to it; or it may 
pass off by the biliary ducts, into the intestines, or it may 
be discharged into the thorax, or abdomen, in which case it 
will soon prove fatal. It, however, very rarely ends in suppura- 
tion, in cold climates. Persons addicted to the use of ardent 
spirits are most liable to scirrhosities of the liver. 



Treatment. — Liver complaints are often obstinate to cure, 
and sometimes, indeed, are quite beyond the reach of medicine. 
The chronic form, especially, is frequently so insiduous in its at- 
tacks, that it is very often suffered to go on for years, before any 
serious attempts are made to check its progress; when it is, in 
many instances, too late to do any thing more than .palliate the 
symptoms, and make the patient a little more comfortable. 

In cases of inflammation of the liver, the cure may be com- 
menced by giving three or four of Bunnell's pills, which should 
be followed by occasional doses of cayenne ; and if there be se- 
vere pain in the side, it should be bathed with the bathing drops, 
or some stimulating wash, and have a hot brick or stone applied 
to it. During the operation of the pills, the strength of the pa- 
tient should be supported by milk porridge, broth or gruel; and 
after it is over, the bitters, with additional doses .of capsicum, 
ought to be freely used. If the cornplaint be of the acute kind, 



INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS. 107 

and the severe pain of the side be not abated after the pills 
have ceased to operate, no time should be lost in administering a 
thorough course of medicine, which must be repeated, at discre- 
tion, until the violence of the disease has subsided. The pills 
may also be repeatedjif necessary, every two or three days, un- 
til the disease is removed. 

If the complaint be of the chronic kind, the principal depend- 
ence to effect a cure, should be placed in Bunnell's pills, given 
two or three times a week, with the laxative bitters several times 
a day, to keep the bowels loose, and strengthen the digestive 
powers. We ought, however, to administer a course of medi- 
cine after the operation of the first dose of pills, and occasion- 
ally repeat it afterwards. To strengthen the nervous system, the 
nerve powder or its tincture, should be taken in such quantity, 
and at such times as the circumstances of the case may require* 



INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS. 

This complaint is characterized by a dull pain in some part 
of the chest, which is much increased by coughing, a difficulty 
of breathing, and cough, a frequent and commonly full, hard 
pulse, white tongue, high colored urine, &c. 

Inflammation of the lungs is caused, in common, by exposure 
to cold; though it is occasionally produced by violent exertions 
in singing, or by playing on wind instruments. It also appears 
as a symptomatic affection in some diseases, such as measles, ca- 
tarrh, &c. Persons who have had one attack of inflammation 
of the lungs, are found to be predisposed to returns of it.*. 

This complaint comes on with an obtuse or dull pain some 
where in the chest, or side, great difficulty in breathing, especial- 
ly if the patient attempt to lie on the affected side, hard cough, 
dry skin, heat, anxiety, flushing of the face, and thirst. The 
pain in the chest is very much increased by coughing, or by 
drawing a deep full breath. The pulse, at first, is most common- 
ly full, strong, hard and frequent; but in the latter stages, it 
usually becomes weak, soft and often irregular. At the com- 
mencement, the cough is frequently dry; but in some cases it is 
moist even from the beginning. The matter spit up is various 



108 INFLAMMATION- OF THE LUNGS. 

both in color and consistence, being often streaked with blood, 
at which no alarm need be taken. 

If relief is not seasonably afforded, and the inflammation pro- 
ceeds with such violence as to endanger suffocation, the vessels 
of the neck become turged and swelled; the face turns purple; 
an effusion of blood into the cellular substance of the lungs 
takes place, so as to impede the circulation through them, and 
death soon closes the scene. 

Suppuration sometimes occurs, and may happen once in a 
while, during the first week of the disease, but more usually in 
the second, which is to be known by an abatement of the pain 
and sense of fullness in the part, slight shiverings, the patient 
is able to lie with greater ease on the affected side, the fever- 
ish symptoms abate, and the breathing is less painful, but more 
oppressed. 

When the collection of matter comes to maturity, it sometimes 
bursts into the air vessels or cells, and causes immediate suffo- 
cation; whilst at other times it will be spit up. This spitting 
often continues long, and the patient appears as in a consump- 
tion. Sometimes the matter bursts into the thorax, in which 
case there is a possibility of a recovery. 

The complaint is sometimes carried off by a great flow of 
urine, which deposites a copious sediment, or by a diarrhoea, by 
sweats, by bleeding from the nose, or by a free expectoration of 
matter from the lungs, without which last, inflammations of the 
lungs very rarely terminate. 

A high degree of fever, attended with delirium, much diffi- 
culty of breathing, acute pain, dry cough, or if there be an expec- 
toration of a very dark color, or a sudden cessation of the pain, 
or of the expectoration, followed by a change of countenance, or 
a lividness of the lips, and sinking or irregularity of the pulse, 
these denote great danger. 

But, on the contrary, an abatement of the fever, and of the 
pain and difficulty of breathing, taking place on the coming on 
of a free expectoration, or at the accession of any other critical 
evacuation, such as a copious discharge of urine, diarrhoea, or 
bleeding at the nose, we then may calculate on a favorable ter- 
mination. 



INFLAMMATORY SORE THROAT. 



109 



Treatment. — As this disease runs its course, and proves fataJ r 
'cmetimes in a very few days, the most energetic measures should 
be taken at the very onset; as by doing this, much pain and haz- 
ard, and even life itself, may often be saved. A most thorough 
course of medicine should be immediately resorted to, and re- 
peated daily until the violent symptoms are abated, and the pa- 
tient out of danger. A strong tea of the butterfly or pleurisy 
root, taken freely, will be found to relieve the difficulty of breath- 
ing and promote expectoration, as well as to reduce the infiam" 
mation. After the course of medicine, if the bowels are bound, 
a dose of some cathartic medicine should be taken, for which 
purpose oil or butternut syrup will answer a good purpose, al- 
ways remembering, not only in this, but in all other complaints, 
to make injections answer to keep the bowels regular if pos- 
sible. 

In bad cases, much care must be taken to keep up a perspira- 
tion, by the free use of cayenne, and the application of hot rocks, 
as a great deal will depend, in the worst forms of the complaint, 
on attention to this circumstance. After the disease is removed, 
the strength and appetite must be restored by the use of bitters. 



INFLAMMATORY SORE THROAT. 

Slight cases of this complaint are commonly termed sore 
throat; but if it proceed further, and threaten to suppurate, it 
is commonly called quincy or quinzy. 

Inflammatory sore throat or quincy, may readily be distinguish- 
ed from the malignant sore throat, by the greater strength of 
the pulse, and difficulty of swallowing, and by the absence of 
ulcers in the throat, as well as by there being no eruption of the 
skin. 

The causes which usually give rise to this complaint are, ex- 
posure to cold, either from sudden changes of weather, or from 
being placed in a current of air, wearing damp clothes, sitting 
in wet rooms, getting the feet wet, or by coming suddenly out 
of a hot room into the open and cool air. It may also be occa- 
sioned by violent exertions of the voice, blowing on wind instru- 
ments, &c. he. 



110 INFLAMMATORY SORE THROAT. 

It principally attacks youth, and those of a full habit, and 
is chiefly confined to cold climates, occurring usually in the 
spring or fall. 

In some persons there seems to be a peculiar tendency to this 
disease, as from almost any exposure to the exciting causes, it is 
readily induced. 

An inflammatory sore throat manifests itself by a difficulty of 
swallowing and breathing, attended by soreness, redness, and 
swelling, in one or both tonsils, dryness of the throat, foulness of 
the tongue, pains in the part affected, hoarseness of the voice, 
and some degree of fever. 

As the disease advances, the difficulty of swallowing and 
breathing becomes greater, the speech is indistinct, the dryness 
of the throat, and the thirst increase, the tongue swells, and is 
incrusted with a dark fur, and the pulse is full, hard, and fre- 
quent. 

When the symptoms run high, the whole face partakes of it, 
the eyes are inflamed, the cheeks are florid and swelled, breath- 
ing is performed with difficulty, and the patient is obliged to 
be supported in nearly an erect posture to prevent suffocation. 
Deafness, delirium, and coma, sometimes occur. 

If the inflammation and swelling proceed to such a height as 
to stop the breathing, the face will become livid, the pulse 
sinks, and the disease is quickly ended by death. 

The chief danger arising from this complaint is, the inflam- 
mation attacking both tonsils at once, and causing so much swel- 
ling as to prevent a sufficient quantity of nourishment being 
taken; or by wholly impeding respiration or breathing, which 
last, however, seldom happens. Its most usual termination is in 
resolution, more rarely in suppuration, and scarcely ever in 
mortification. 

Slight fever, swallowing not much impeded, the inflammation 
being of a deep red color, moist sweat, and a copious ptyalism 
or spitting, or moderate diarrhoea, may be regarded as denoting 
a termination of the complaint in resolution. 

But if suppuration is likely to ensue, the parts affected become 
more pale, and less painful, a sense of pulsation is felt in them, 
and there are slight rigors or chills. The suppuration some- 
times takes place at the lower part of the tonsils, and then the 



INFLAMMATORY SORE THROAT4 



111 



matter Is discharged into the oesophagus or gullet, and passes 
into the stomach, in which case it is only known to have hap- 
pened by the immediate relief which the patient experiences. 
At other times the suppuration takes place at the upper or front 
part of the tonsils, and the matter is brought up, and discharged 
by the mouth, being of a clotted appearance, often mixed with 
blood, of a nauseating bitter taste, and foetid smell. 

The relief which is often obtained by the discharge of matter, 
is very remarkable from its suddenness ; for the patient, who 
a few moments before was not able to swallow the smallest 
quantity of anything, and moreover, breathed with the greatest 
difficulty, now feels perfectly easy, and is able to eat and drink 
freely. 

Sometimes, however, the disease does not terminate by a 
proper suppuration, but by several small abscesses, which pro- 
duce trifling superficial ulcers, of a white or grey color; whereas, 
those in the putrid or malignant sore throat are of a dark brown, 
or black color. 

If mortification is about to take place, the parts affected lose 
their red shining color, and from being tense and tumid, they 
become flaccid or soft and loose, and their color becomes livid or 
brown ; the pulse, from being strong, becomes small, weak, and 
irregular; the face assumes a cadaverous or deathly appearance; 
cold, clammy sweats break out; the extremities become cold; 
coma and debility ensue ; and death closes the scene ! Termi- 
nations of this kind are, however, very rare. 



Treatment. — In mild cases of sore throat, a strong tea of the 
witch-hazle leaves, with the fourth of a tea spoon full of cayenne 
in each dose, occasionally repeated, will generally remove it. 
In worse cases the throat should be gargled with the same article ; 
at the same time keeping the neck warm by the application of 
a flannel cloth, or woollen cravat. The front part of the neck, 
or throat, may also be bathed with pepper and vinegar, or the 
bathing drops; and the patient should inhale the vapor of vine- 
gar and water, which may be applied by an inhaler, or by put- 
ting the vinegar and water hot into a coffee pot, and then drop- 
ping a small red hot stone into it, closing the lid, and holding 



1 12 INFLAMMATORY FEVER. 

the spout near the face of the patient, who should inhale the 
steam as hot as he can bear it. This process ought to be often 
performed, particularly where there is much pain and difficulty 
of breathing. 

The placing of a small quantity of cayenne pepper, in pow- 
der, on the back part of the tongue, as near as may be to the 
part affected, the patient endeavoring so to breathe as not to 
take any of the pepper into his lungs, has produced the most 
decided and happy effects. The operation should be repeated 
at suitable intervals, until the inflammation is removed. 

But if the use of these means do not afford timely relief, or 
if the attack be sudden and violent, then in addition to these, a 
course of medicine should be resorted to, and repeated as often, 
and at such intervals, as the exigencies of the case may appear 
to require. 

In addition to what has been recommended, a poultice of slip- 
pery elm and cracker, made very stimulating by the plentiful 
addition of ginger and cayenne, and applied to the throat, will 
always be found very servicable ; and in extreme cases, a gargle 
of the tincture of lobelia, with capsicum, has been used. And 
if swallowing be so interrupted that sufficient nourishment cannot 
be taken, the patient must be supported by injections of rich 
broths, soups, or porridge. 



INFLAMMATORY FEVER. 

This lever is characterized by much increased heat, frequent, 
strong, and hard pulse; the urine is red; with but little or no 
affection of the brain at the commencement; although in the 
advanced stages, the mind may be much impaired. 

An inflammatory fever is considered by the generality of medi- 
cal men, as a state of the system directly the reverse of that of 
typhus; as in fevers of the typhus, or typhoid type, instead of 
the pulse being full, strong, and hard, it is small and weak ? 
with symptoms of great debility. But, in reality, the state of 
the system in both cases is the same, varying only in the degree 
of strength or weakness, or in the force of the living power. 
This variation is produced by the exciting causes of the disease 



INFLAMMATORY FEVER 113 

and the state or condition of the system, when those causes are 
applied to it. 

For instance, if a person in the vigor of life, and in sound 
health, is exposed to cold which produces fever, it will almost 
assuredly be of an inflammatory character. On the other hand, 
if a person of weak lax fibres, or one who leads a sedentary and 
inactive life, which always impairs bodily vigor, becomes exposed 
to the causes that produce typhus fever, (contagion and the de- 
pressing passions) the fever will certainly be of the typhoid type 
or kind. These examples, we think are sufficient to illustrate 
our ideas. 

An inflammatory fever comes on with a sense of lassitude and 
inactivity, succeeded by giddiness, rigors, and pains over the 
whole body, particularly in the head and back. These symp- 
toms are shortly followed by rednes3 of the face, throbbing of 
the temples, great restlessness, intense heat, thirst, oppression of 
breathing, and sickness at the stomach. The skin is dry and 
parched ; the eyes appear inflamed, and are incapable of bearing 
the light; the tongue is of a scarlet color at the sides, and furred 
with white through the middle; the urine is red and in small 
quantity; the bowels are costive; and there is a quickness, with 
a fullness and hardness of the pulse, which is not much affected 
by pressure upon the artery. If the feverish symptoms run high, 
and the disease be not removed at an early period, stupor and 
delirium come on at a more advanced stage ; the imagination 
becomes much disturbed and hurried, with violent raving. 

The disease, if left to itself, goes through its course in about 
fourteen days, and terminates, either by a moist sweat, diarrhoea, 
bleeding from the nose, or the deposite of a copious sediment in 
the urine; preceded usually by some variation in the state of the 
pulse. 

If the fever runs high, or continues many days, with a very 
quick pulse, flushed turged face, red eyes, intolerance of light, 
with giddiness, or early stupor and delirium, the event may be 
doubtful; and if, besides these, there is a picking at the bed 
clothes, startings of the limbs, involuntary discharges by stool 
and urine, with hiccups, the disease will then certainly termi- 
nate in death. 

15 



1 14 INFLUENZA. 

But, on the contrary, if the feverish symptoms abate, and all 
the rest become more moderate, and a moist sweat breaks out, 
the urine deposites a brick-like sediment, and the pulse becomes 
more softj or a bleeding takes place from the nose, or a diarrhoea 
comes on, we may then expect a recovery to take place. 



Treatment. — -In an attack of this complaint no time should 
be lost in administering a course of medicine, which should be 
repeated every day until the urgent symptoms are removed. 
The forehead and temples should be wetted occasionally, with 
cold water, or with vinegar and water, if there be much pain ; 
and injections should be freely used. 

If the bowels are much out of order, a cathartic should be 
administered after the first course of medicine, and afterwards 
repeated, if necessary. 

During the recovery, bitters should be used, to promote the 
appetite, and strengthen the digestive powers; and if costive- 
ness arise, injections or some mild physic must be administered. 
Strict attention should also be paid to diet, scrupulously avoid- 
ing to overload the stomach ; and shun all other causes likely 
to produce a relapse. 



INFLUENZA, OR CATARRH. 

This disease consists in an increased discharge of mucus from 
the nose, throat, and wind-pipe, accompanied by a slight degree 
of fever. 

It attacks persons of all ages and constitutions, but more par- 
ticularly the young, and such as have had former affections of 
the lungs; and it may take place at any season of the year when 
there are sudden changes of the weather, but it is most common 
in spring and fall. It often prevails epidemically, and to this 
form it is, that medical writers apply the term influenza; whilst 
cases that occur incidentally, are called catarrh. When it pre- 
vails epidemically, it undoubtedly depends upon the state of the 
atmosphere; though in some cases it has been attributed to con- 
tagion. 



INFLUENZA. 115 

In general, it comes on with a dull pain or sense of weight in 
the forehead, sometimes preceded hy a slight chill, a redness of 
the eyes, and a fullness and heat in the nostrils, which is soon 
followed by a discharge of thin acrid fluid from the nose, together 
with a soreness in the wind-pipe, hoarseness, frequent sneezing, 
dry cough, loss of appetite, and general lassitude; towards eve- 
ning, the pulse becomes considerably quickened, and a slight fever 
arises. 

In the progress of the disorder, the cough is attended by an 
expectoration of mucus, which at first is thin, white, and thrown 
off with some difficulty; but becoming gradually thicker and of 
a yellow color, it is at length brought up with more ease, and 
less coughing. 

Influenza is seldom attended with fatal consequences, except- 
ing with very young children, persons who are old and feeble,, 
or those who are of a consumptive habit; but usually terminates 
in a few days, if not too much neglected, either by an increased ' 
expectoration, or a spontaneous sweat. It, however, in some 
instances, lays the the foundation for pulmonary consumption, or 
produces a tendency to asthma, or dropsy of the chest. Occa- 
sionally, it becomes habitual, and is accompanied with difficulty 
of breathing, especially in winter. 

The description which we have given, only applies to the 
worst forms of this disease, from which it may be traced, by 
imperceptible gradations, down to cases which do not interfere 
with a person's ordinary business. 



Treatment. — In mild attacks, little more need be done than 
to avoid exposure to cold ; whilst in those which are more severe, 
recourse should be had to the diaphoretic powders, hot bitters, 
or cayenne. If the cough be troublesome, from half to a whole 
tea spoon full of the tincture of lobelia, cough powder, or skunk 
cabbage root, should be taken at bed time, and a hot rock 
placed at "the feet. 

In bad cases, the course of medicine must be resorted to, and 4 
if necessary, repeated at proper intervals, until a cure is effected: 



116 INSANITY. 

INSANITY, OR MADNESS. 

Various names have been given to this disease, such as 
derangement, mania, craziness, &c. It consists in a derange- 
ment of the mental operations of the brain, generally unaccom- 
panied with fever. 

Insanity has given rise to a great many ingenious speculations, 
and fine spun theories, respecting its true definition, pathology, 
&c. ; but as these cannot, consistently with our plan, be intro- 
duced here, we must refer those of our readers who wish to 
obtain a knowledge of them, to such works as have either pro- 
fessedly, or incidentally, given the subject a more extensive in- 
vestigation. 

Writers generally divide insanity into two species, the melan- 
cholic, and furious; which are again subdivided, by Dr. Good, 
into several varieties. But of these divisions, we think it un- 
necessary to take much notice. 

Madness is occasioned, in general, by affections of the mind, 
such as anxiety, grief, disappointed love, jealousy, sudden 
frights, violent fits of anger, prosperity humbled by misfortunes 
religious terror or enthusiasm, and by abstruse study; or it may 
be produced by anything which affects the mind so forcibly as 
to take the attention from all other affairs. 

In some cases, insanity proceeds from an hereditary predispo- 
sition or constitutional bias; and of all the maladies, says Dr. 
Thomas, to which the human frame is liable, and which can be 
entailed upon posterity, mental derangement is surely the most 
deplorable. It is an indisputable fact, continues he, that the 
offspring of insane persons are more liable to be affected with 
insanity, than those whose parents have enjoyed sound minds ; 
which shows that a predisposition or constitutional bias to the 
disease may be entailed by either parent. 

The great variety of symptoms and modifications which not 
only attend the onset of craziness, but also occur in every stage 
of it, would render any description of the disease imperfect. The 
different causes which have produced it, the different propensities 
and habit; of life of different individuals, create, of course, a 
great variety of appearances, and difference of symptoms, in 
different patients ; all of which are continually modified by the 



INSANITY. 11T 

circumstances which immediately surround them, or which inci- 
dentally take their attention. 

The most distinguishable symptoms which attend the melan. 
cholic madness are, sadness, dejection of spirits, love of solitude, 
or a disposition not to move, or if he walks, appears to be in a 
great hurry, exhibiting singular gestures, with unwillingness to 
talk, or if he does, his remarks are often very incoherent. 

In furious madness, the complaint often commences with severe 
pains in the head, redness of the face, noise in the ears, wildness 
of the countenance, rolling and glistening of the eyes, grinding 
of the teeth, loud shouting or roaring, violent exertions of 
strength, absurd, incoherent, or obscene discourse, unaccount- 
able malice towards certain persons, particularly their nearest 
relatives and friends, a dislike to such places and scenes as for- 
merly afforded particular delight ; and \vithal,sensation is so much 
impaired, that the unhappy patient will often bear to a most 
astonishing extent, the effects of cold, hunger, and want of 
sleep. 

The common form of insanity is that which is termed inter- 
mittent, in which there are paroxysms divided by intervals of 
quietness, or rationality ; and it is said that patients who are in 
a furious state, recover in a much larger proportion than those 
who are melancholic. Under every form of the complaint, the 
hope of a recovery is usually proportionate to the length of time 
which has elapsed since the commencement of the disease. — 
Advanced age always lessens the chances of cure; whilst youth 
increases them. 

It has been observed, that females are more liable to insanity 
than males. 



Treatment. — This disease requires both a mental and cor- 
poreal treatment; in the former of which, a great deal of skill, 
judgment, and acquaintance with human nature, are requisite to 
apply it to the best advantage. 

It should always be a primary object, to gain the confidence 
of the patient, and secure his respect and obedience, which can 
only be done by a mild evenness of temper, and an agreeable 
dignity of manners When the confidence of the poor maniac 



118 INSANITY. 

is once obtained, a great deal will have been accomplished, and 
the administration of suitable remedies, in future, rendered far 
less difficult. 

If the disease has been occasioned by troubles or misfortunes 
of any kind, endeavors should be used to excite a different train 
of thought, in order that the patient may forget the cause of 
his wo. 

Such kinds of exercise as the patient is most fond of, should 
be indulged; and even laborious employment has been found 
highly useful in removing insanity. In selecting the proper 
kinds of employment, strict regard should be paid to those which 
are least likely to produce allusions to the cause of the disease, 
such are most agreeable to the patient, and which require the 
most bodily action with the least fatigue. 

But in violent cases of madness, the patient should be confin- 
ed alone, in a dark and quiet room, so that his mind may have 
the better chance of being composed, and thus become the more 
readily disposed to sleep. If he appears disposed to commit vi- 
olence, he ought to be confined in such a way as to prevent any 
hazard from that source, but in such a manner as is least liable to 
prove a source of uneasiness or of injury to himself. Where 
malevolence appears to be a prominent feature, and the person 
is very furious, close confinement, in the manner just detailed, 
is doubly necessary, and should be carefully and seasonably at- 
tended to. Great care, however, ought to be taken not to con- 
fine insane persons unnecessarily, as such restraint will inevita- 
bly tend to create an irritation of mind which will protract the 
complaint, and render it more difficult of cure. 

In prescribing medicine for lunatics or crazy persons, the 
strongest tincture, or tea, of the nerve powder, has been found 
of great service; and in one case which has been reported to 
us, that, and the diaphoretic powders and bitters, effected a cure. 
This remedy gives tone to the nervous system in a more powerful 
manner than any other article with which we are acquainted; 
and as those articles which act upon the nerves most probably 
do it through the brain, the ladies-slipper seems eminently caK 
culated to restore the healthy functions to this organ. 

We would also recommend the anti-spasmodic tincture, espe- 
cially in the furious fits, which it possibly might-put a speedy 



JAUNDICE. 119 

end to. Thorough courses of medicine Bhould also be resorted 
to, and repeated at discretion, which we think we would afford 
the best chance of correcting the morbid affection of the brain. 
The courses of medicine, ought to be followed by the bitters; 
and if costiveness prevail, by injections. 

It has, however, been found, that removing a lunatic patient to 
an asylum, or hospital, affords the best chance of cure; as by 
this means he is separated from the objects with which he is fa- 
miliar, and which often call up ideas associated with the cause of 
his derangement; and on this account, a change of situation, 
and removal from his friends, will be the more advisable; for it 
is a fact well known to those who superintend insane persons, 
that patients are rarely recovered at home. It not unfrequently 
happens, that maniacs, who have been brought from their fami- 
lies, and who were said to have been in a violent and ferocious 
state at home, become suddenly calm and tractable, when placed 
in a lunatic asylum. And, on the other hand, it is also a fact, 
that there are many patients, whose disorder speedily recurs af- 
ter having been suffered to return to their families, although they 
have for a length of time conducted themselves, under confine- 
ment, in a very orderly manner. 



JAUNDICE. 

This disease is characterized by a yellowness of the skin, first 
discoverable in the eyes, a bitter taste in the mouth, sometimes a 
sense of pain in the right side, clay-colored stools, and the urine 
obscurely red, tinging things dipped into it of a yellowish hue. 

It takes place usually in consequence of an obstruction in the. 
gall ducts, which occasions the bile to pass again into the blood. 
In some cases, it is supposed to be owing to a redundant secretion 
of bile. 

The causes which produce an obstruction of the biliary ducts 
are, gall-stones, inspissated or thick bile, spasmodic constriction 
of the ducts, and the pressure made by tumors situated in ad- 
jacent parts; hence, jaundice is often an attendant symptom of 
inflammation or scirrhosities of the liver, pancreas, &c, and fre- 
quently likewise of pregnancy. 



120 JACNDICE. 

' Immoderate indulgence in spirituous liquors, predisposes to 
this complaint, as likewise a sedentary life, or the indulgence in 
anxious thoughts, 

When gall-stones are lodged in the ducts, producing jaundice, 
acute pains will be felt in the region of the parts, which will 
cease for a while, and then return again ; great irritation at the 
stomach, with frequent vomiting will attend, and the patient will 
experience an aggravation of the pain after eating. A pain at 
the top of the right shoulder, is also another symptom of concre- 
tions in the gall bladder, or ducts. 

When calculi or gall-stones, are passing through the duct, into 
the duodenum, the symptoms become less obscure and uncertain 
than when lodged in the gall bladder. Sometimes an attack is 
preceded by, or accompanied with, a sense of coldness in the 
back and lower extremities; the person is seized with a sudden 
violent pain, exactly where the duct enters the intestine, and is 
frequently so circumscribed, that the patient will often say, he 
can cover it with his ringer, and sometimes it shoots through the 
back, and extends up between the shoulders. Persons thus 
seized cannot lie down in bed, but are obliged to sit up with their 
body bent forward, which seems to afford a slight mitigation of 
the pain. Nausea and vomiting commonly prevail, so that nothing 
can be retained on the stomach ; and sometimes bile is brought 
up, but not always; nor is vomiting a constant attendant. The 
bowels are invariably bound; indeed, the whole intestinal canal 
seems to partake of the spasmodic action induced in the duo- 
denum by the irritation of the gall-stones. 

Although the pain attendant on the passage of a stone along 
the biliary duct, is more severe than in inflammation of the liver, 
still this state of the organ is seldom induced. Sometimes the 
pain continues for several hours, and then a remission takes place, 
either in consequence of the calculus entering the intestine, or 
otherwise falling back into the gall bladder. After an interval 
of some days or weeks, the paroxysm perhaps returns again, in- 
dicating that the obstructing cause is not yet fully removed. 

Biliary calculi or stones, are of various sizes, from a pea to 
that of a walut, and in some cases are voided in considerable 
number, being pike the bile, of a yellowish brown, or green 
color. They vary also with regard to their figure and hardness ; 



JAUNDICE. 121 

some being very rough and angular, and others oval or round 
and smooth. 

The jaundice comes on with languor and inactivity, often in 
the extreme; loathing of food, flatulency, acidity of the stomach, 
and costiveness. As it progresses, the white of the eye, and then 
the skin, become tinged of a deep yellow; there is a bitter taste 
in the mouth, especially in the morning, with frequent nausea 
and vomiting; the urine is high colored, and tinges linen yellow ; 
the stools are of a grey or clayey appearance, and a dull obtuse 
pain is felt in the right side, which is much increased by pres* 
sure with the fingers. In cases where the pain is very acute, 
the pulse is apt to become hard, and full, with other symptoms 
of fever. 

Where jaundice is occasioned by concretions or stones, ob- 
structing the biliary ducts, or by a redundancy of bile, if taken 
in time, but little difficulty need be apprehended in effecting a 
cure. 

But where it is brought on by tumors of the neighboring parts, 
or has arisen in consequence of other diseases, the event will be 
more doubtful. 

A gradual diminution of the sense of weight and oppression 
about the breast; a return of appetite; the stools becoming copi- 
ous and easily procured; the urine increased in quantity, and of 
a more natural color, are to be regarded as favorable symptoms. 

A violent pain in the right side, or in the region of the stomach, 
the skin becoming of a dark yellow, attended with a quick pulse, 
loss of flesh and strength, with dropsical swellings of the extremi- 
ties, chilliness, wakefulness, melancholy, or hiccup, denote great 
danger. 



Treatment. — In mild attacks of jaundice, a dose of Bunnell's 
pills, and afterwards taking the laxative bitters three or four 
times a day, will remove the disease; or, if necessary, the pills 
may be repeated after two or three days. 

If there is pain in the side, the painful part should be bathed 
with some stimulating wash, and have a hot brick or stone pla- 
ced near it; and if there be pain in or near the pit of the stom- 
ach, the same application may be made to it. When there is 

16 



122 king's evil. 

nausea and vomiting, it should be allayed by the use of strong 
spearmint tea; and perhaps the pearl-ash water, or white ley, 
might also be useful. Injections must also be freely used. 

Where the complaint does not readily yield to this treatment, 
or if the attack be violent, the patient should immediately have 
a course of medicine, followed by the laxative bitters, injections, 
&c. If the disease be caused by a gall-stone passing along the 
biliary ducts, frequent courses of the medicine will have a bene- 
ficial influence, not only by relaxing the parts, but the act of 
vomiting will facilitate the passage of the stone. 

Dr. Ewell says, it is believed that a mixture prepared as fol- 
lows, has destroyed biliary stones, viz: Take sulphuric ether, 
three parts, and spirits of turpentine, two parts, mix, and for a 
dose, take one dessert spoon full, or from two to three tea spoons 
full. 



KING'S EVIL, OR SCROFULA. 

This disease consists in hard, indolent tumors or swellings, 
of those glands termed conglobate, in various parts of the body; 
but particularly in the neck, behind the ears, and under the chin, 
which after a while suppurate and degenerate into ulcers. From 
these ulcers, instead of healthy pus, a white matter, somewhat 
resembling curdled milk, is discharged. 

The first appearance of scrofula is usually between the third 
and seventh year, though it may arise at any time between those 
periods and mature age; after which it seldom makes its first 
attack. 

Children of a lax fibre or habit, with a smooth, soft, and fine 
skin, fair hair, rosy cheeks, and delicate complexion, are most 
disposed to this complaint; but those of a different character are 
not exempt from it. It is also apt to attack such children as 
show a disposition to the rickets, which is marked by a protube- 
rant forehead, enlarged joints, and tumid or swelled abdomen. 

Scrofulous persons are often comely and handsome, and rather 
distinguished for acuteness of understanding and precocity of 
genius. They are, however, seldom robust, or able to endure 
hardship or fatigue, without much exhaustion. 



king's evil, 123 

Scrofula prevails most in those climates where the atmosphere 
is cold and moist, where the seasons are variable. and the weath- 
er unsteady. From latitude 45 to 60 is the principal climate of 
this disease. 

Besides climate, and exposure to moist air and atmospherical 
vicissitudes, every other circumstance which weakens the con- 
stitution, or impairs the general strength of the system, may be 
regarded as predisposing to this disease; thus, breathing an im- 
pure, tainted air, living upon food of an unwholesome or indiges- 
tible nature, which does not afford due nourishment to the body, 
favors an attack of kings evil, by reducing the strength, and 
rendering the person weakly. 

Scrofula, according to Dr. Thomas, is a disease of very fre- 
quent occurrence in England, particularly in the large manufac- 
turing towns, appearing under various forms, and different de- 
grees of severity, from a state of mildness, which hardly betrays 
any perceptible external symptoms, to a state of violence which 
produces the most miserable objects of human wretchedness. 

The attacks of this disease appear to be somewhat affected 
by the seasons. They usually commence sometime in the winter 
or spring, and often disappear or become much relieved during 
the summer and fall. 

The first appearance of scrofula is commonly in small, round, 
movable tumors under the skin, without pain or discoloration; 
which most commonly arise upon the sides of the neck, near the 
ear, or under the chin ; though in some instances, the joints of the 
elbows or ancles, or those of the fingers and toes, are the parts 
first affected. In these last instances, however, the swelling 
appears to be attached to, and almost surrounding, and stiffening 
the joint, 

After a time, the tumors become larger and more fixed, the 
skin which covers them acquires a purple or livid color; and be- 
coming inflamed, they at length suppurate and break into one or 
more little holes, from which oozes a matter in appearance some- 
what healthy at first, but by degrees changes into a substance 
resembling curdled milk. And it is no uncommon thing, to find 
tumors in various parts of the body, in all the different stages, 
from their first formation to those which are discharging matter. 

As the ulcers continue to throw forth this unhealthy kind of 



124 king's evil. 

matter, the tumors gradually subside, whilst the ulcers enlarge 
and spread unequally in various directions. After a while some 
of the ulcers heal; but other tumors being commonly formed in 
some other part, these soon break out; and, in this way, the dis- 
ease may proceed on for years, until at last, appearing either to 
have exhausted itself, or the patient, it comes to an end. The 
scars left after the healing of scrofulous ulcers, are often of a 
peculiarly ugly puckering appearance. 

The eyes sometimes become the seat of the disease, giving 
rise to painful inflammations, ulcerations, and sometimes blind- 
ness. In some instances the bones become affected at the bot- 
tom of deep ulcers, which is to be known by the black and foetid 
discharges from the part; which is occasionally attended by 
pieces of bone. These should be taken from the ulcer as soon 
as they become detached. 



Treatment. — The common course of medicine will be highly 
useful in every stage of this complaint, to correct and purify the 
fluids, and thus check the formation of tumors, or prevent their 
going on to suppuration. 

The tumors should be bathed with highly stimulating washes, 
to promote a healthy action in the vessels of the part, and laxa- 
tive bitters taken several times a day. A good nourishing diet 
ought also to be indulged in, with moderate exercise, in fair 
weather; and if the patient be living in a low, damp situation, 
he should be removed to one more elevated and airy. 

The use of the Vapor and cold bath, will also be found highly 
advantageous, and ought to be daily resorted to until the urgent 
symptoms are removed. 

Particular attention should be paid to the clothing of scrofu- 
lous patients, which ought to be of such a nature as to protect 
them against all inclemencies of the weather, and keep them 
comfortable and warm. In cold weather, a flannel dress should 
be worn next to the skin. Early rising is also regarded as an 
important thing for persons laboring under scrofula. 

If ulcerations have taken place, or the tumors are any of them 
in an inflamed state, the common slippery elm poultice must be 
applied cold, and wetted occasionally with a tea of the tops and 



LOCKED JAW. 



125 



roots of the wild lettuce, or of the beth-root or pond-lilly. In 
warm weather these poultices ought to be renewed every twelve 
or eighteen hours, but in cold weather not so often. 

At each renewal of the poultice, the ulcer must first be washed 
with mild soap suds, then with one of those teas just directed to 
wet the poultice with, and lastly occasionally with the compound 
tincture of myrrh. If the ulcers are very deep, they may be 
washed out with a small syringe for that purpose; taking care 
not to throw the fluids in with so much force as to irritate the 
part and produce pain. 

When this process has produced a change and better appear- 
ance of the discharges from the ulcers, the poultices may be 
omitted, and the healing salve applied ; or sometimes it may be 
advisable to lay a poultice over the salve. 

By pursuing the foregoing directions, administering courses 
of medicine at suitable intervals, with the bitters, to purify the 
fluids and invigorate the system; and by judiciously treating the 
ulcers according to the rules laid down; and persevering a suffi- 
cient length of time, a great proportion of scrofulous cases may 
undoubtedly be removed. 

LOCKED JAW. 

This complaint consists in an almost constant contraction of 
several or the whole of the muscles of the body, whilst the senses 
remain entire. 

The complaint usually termed locked jaw, is caused by 
wounds; whilst another exactly similar to it, is produced by 
colds, &x., which has been treated of under the head of convul- 
sions or fits. 

This disease may be caused by wounds in the flesh, and par- 
ticularly of the tendons or sinews, made either by puncture, 
incision, or laceration ; that is by pricking, cutting or tearing. 
In warm climates, lacerated wounds of tendinous parts, prove, 
as Dr. Thomas observes, a never-failing source of this painful 
and fatal complaint. It also often arises, in both warm and cold 
climates, in consequence of some surgical operation, such as the 
amputation or cutting off a limb,' &x» The disease generally 
shows itself about the eighth day from the accident, or operation. 



126 LOCKED JAW. 

The locked jaw, in some instances, makes its attacks suddenly, 
and with violence; but commonly it comes on in a manner more 
slow and gradual. There is a slight stiffness in the back part of 
the neck, which after a while increases so as to render the mo- 
tions of the head both difficult and painful ; then comes on an 
uneasy sensation at the root of the tongue, with difficulty in 
swallowing, great tightness across the breast, with a pain just 
above the pit of the stomach, shooting through to the back, 
A stiffness now take3 place in the jaws, which soon increases to 
such a degree, that it becomes impossible to open the mouth ; 
and this is the locked jaw. 



Treatment.— We have so much confidence in the botanic 
remedies, that we think a case of lock jaw would scarcely ever 
occur, if such injuries as produce this complaint, were properly 
treated by them. In all cases in which the locked jaw may be 
apprehended, the patient should have frequent doses of the 
nerve powder, and cayenne, with hot stones or bricks applied, to 
produce perspiration, and relaxation of the muscles. 

If, however, symptoms of the lock jaw occur, the patient 
must be carried through a full course of the medicine; and the 
affected part should be bathed or washed with the tincture of 
myrrh, No. 6, or a decoction of cayenne ; which will have a 
powerful tendency to promote a healthy action, and thus remove 
the cause of irritation. 

But if spasms have actually commenced, and the jaws are 
set, we must then have recourse to the anti-spasmodic tincture; 
in addition to which, the above applications must be made to 
the wound. The anti-spasmodic tincture may be given in doses 
of from half a tea spoon full, to two tea spoons full, repeated at 
discretion, according to the symptoms. 

As the jaws are set, and the teeth closed, the best way of 
getting the medicine down, is to hold the cheek, at the corner 
of the mouth, loose from the teeth, and then pour the medicine 
from a spoon, between the teeth and cheek, and it will imme- 
diately find its way to the throat, and afford relief. 

This method of relieving the locked jaw, was first published 
to the world by Dr. Thomson, and is far better than knocking 
out the teeth, as is done by the mineral doctors. 



PUTRID SORE THROAT. 127 

MALIGNANT, OR PUTRID SORE THROAT. 

Soreness of the throat, with fever, stiffness of the Deck, and 
inflammation of the fauces or back part oi the mouth, which 
quickly terminates in ulceration, characterize this disease. 

The putrid sore throat often arises from a humid or moist 
state of the atmosphere, and hence often prevails as an epidemic? 
making its attacks principally on children, and those of weak, 
lax fibres. It is most prevalent in the fall and winter, though 
it may arise at any other season. 

It is also believed to be contagious, and often passes through 
a whole family in that way. 

In some instances it is said to be so blended with scarlet fever, 
as to make it difficult to determine of which affection the disease 
partakes the most. It is also met with occasionally in measles. 

Putrid sore throat commonly makes its attack with cold shiver- 
ings, nausea, and vomiting, succeeded by heat, restlessness, 
thirst and debility; the eyes are red, a stiffness is perceived in 
the back part of the neck, with a hoarseness of the voice, and 
soreness of the throat. On looking at the back part of the 
mouth, there appears a fiery redness in every part, with a slight 
degree of swelling in the tonsils, which, however, is not so 
great as to interfere with breathing, or swallowing. 

Upon further inspection of the mouth, it will very soon be 
found that a number of sloughs of a shade between a light ash 
color, and a dark brown, are to be seen on the tonsils, and other 
parts of the throat, or mouth; the breath is also highly offensive; 
the tongue is covered with a thick brown fur, and the inside of the 
lips is beset with blisters, containing an acrid humor, which when 
discharged, corrodes or excoriates the part upon which it falls. 
There is commonly, also, a discharge of thin acrid matter from 
the nose producing an excoriation of the nostrils. In infants, a 
purging is likewise apt to attend, which possesses the same acrid 
and excoriating character with the humor contained in the blisters, 
and that discharged from the nose. 

There is a considerable degree of fever from the first attack, 
with a small, frequent, and irregular pulse ; and every evening 
the symptoms are increased, with slight remissions in the morn- 
ing, attended with debility and general loss of strength. In 



128 PUTRiD SORE THROAT. 

some cases there is delirium which is of what is termed the low 
muttering kind. 

About the second or third day, large patches or blotches, of a 
dark red color, make their appearance about the face and neck, 
and bj degrees spread, or appear on other parts of the body, 
even to the ends of the fingers, which feel swelled and stiff. 
These eruptions, after a few days, disappear without producing 
any remission of the symptoms. 

Sometimes the inflammation extends up the eustachian tube 
into the ear, producing ulceration, and occasionally deafness. 
The whole neck sometimes swells, and assumes a dark red color. 

As the sloughs continue to spread, they generally become of 
a darker color, the parts between them, at the same time, 
assuming a purple hue; new specks also arise, and the whole 
fauces at length become covered with thick sloughs, which, on 
falling off, exhibit ulcers, sometimes very deeply seated. 

In the worst cases, the fauces appear quite black, the sloughs 
corrode deeper and deeper, and spread throughout the whole 
alimentary canal, and terminate at length in mortification; or 
the symptoms of irritation goon increasing, and a severe purging 
coming on, the patient is cut off, generally before the seventh 
day, and, in some instances, as early as the third. 

When the evening paroxysm of fever runs very high, with 
great debility, depression or irregularity of the pulse, early deli- 
rium, coma, much vomiting, and diarrhoea, accompanied with 
considerable swelling of the throat, and dark colored spreading 
ulcers, very foetid breath, livid spots on the body or hemorrhage, 
we may calculate on the disease terminating fatally. 

But, on the other hand, if the pulse becomes more moderate, 
and stronger, the breathing freer, the skin moist and soft, the 
red patches or blotches abundant on the skin, the back part of 
the mouth becoming more red, with a mitigation of the other 
symptoms, we may then expect a favorable termination. In 
cases where the fever is of a less putrid nature, and the symptoms 
are mild, and where the efflorescence or blotches, is succeeded 
by a remission of fever, and the remission continuing daily to 
"become longer and more apparent, but little danger need be 
apprehended. 



MEASLES. 1£# 

Treatment. — No time should be lost in administeriag a coarse 
of medicine at the very onset of this fatal malady. 

The bowels should be relieved by the use of injections, whilst 
purgative medicines must be carefully abstained from, as they 
would prove highly injurious to the patient. 

A free use must be made of the astringent tonics, such as the 
beth >oot, dewberry, bayberry, &c, with frequently repeated 
doses of the cayenne. On account of the ulcers being seated in 
the mouth, the cayenne may be steeped, and use the tea instead 
of giving the pepper in substance. Occasional doses of the dia- 
phoretic powders, will also be a proper remedy. Pepper sauce 
will likewise be found a valuable medicine, and ought to be 
frequently used, especially if mortification be apprehended. In 
conjunction with the astringent tonics, it is presumed that few 
remedies possess so high a power of preventing putrefaction as 
the pepper sauce. 

Gargles must also be used to wash the mouth; for which pur- 
pose the pepper sauce, and a tea of some of the astringent tonics, 
may be used alternately, several times a day; and the steam of 
vinegar must be often applied, as directed for inflammation of 
the lungs. 

Bathing the throat with stimulating washes, and applying 
stimulating poultices, as directed for the inflammatory sore throat 
ought also to be adopted; and if the throat become so swelled 
or sore, as to prevent swallowing, the strength must be supported 
by nourishing injections. And by pursuing the course which we 
have laid down, with such modifications as the peculiar symp- 
toms of the case, or the judgment of the practitioner may dic- 
tate, there is no doubt this fatal complaint might be robbed of 
many of its victims. 



MEASLES. 

This disease is regarded as an inflammatory infectious fever, 
and is attended with cough, sneezing, a discharge of thin hu- 
mors from the eyes and nose, and a determination of acrid 
matter to the surface of the body, showing itself in red spots 
over every part of it, but never suppurates as in small pox, but 

17 



130 BBASLES. 

Abes away in three or four days with a Jrind of mealy appear- 
ance. 

Scarlet fever sometimes resembles the measles so exactly that 
it is difficult to distinguish between them; but fortunately for 
the suffering sick, in the botanical practice of medicine, this 
is a matter of little consequence. The redness of scarlet fever 
is more equally diffused than in measles, not being in distinct 
spots somewhat resembling flea bites, whilst the skin remains of a 
natural color between them. In the measles, the eruption rises 
more above the skin, and causes a manifest roughness to the 
touch, which is scarcely perceptible in the scarlet fever, except- 
ing a very little roughness sometimes in the arms. In the scarlet 
fever there is seldom a severe cough; the eyes do not water 
much, and the eye-lids are not red and swollen ; all of which 
rarely fail to attend the measles. The time of the appearance 
of the eruption is also different in the two diseases ; in scarlet 
fever it makes its appearance both on the face and arms on the 
second day; whilst in measles it shows itself about the third day 
on the chin and breast, and does not reach the arms or hands 
until the fourth or fifth day of the disease. 

The winter season is most congenial to the spread of measles, 
though they may prevail at any other time, and they attack 
persons of all ages* but children are most liable to them. Like 
the small pox, when genuine, they never affect the same person 
but once in his life. 

Persons of a scrofulous habit, or who are inclined to a con- 
sumption, are liable to suffer very seriously, from the aftereffects 
of measles; and these effects, in all constitutions, are more to be 
dreaded than the measles themselves. A harrassing and dis- 
tressing cough, or inflammation of the eyes, sometimes follows 
the disease; or the patient may get through, and for a time 
appear to be recovered, and sore eyes, a cough, or consumption 
may follow, as a consequence, at some future period. 

Measles sometimes leave behind them a chronic diarrhoea, 
which has proved fatal; and in other cases, a dropsy has ensued. 

In some instances measles makeir the attack in a very mild 
manner, and go through their course without medical aid of 
any kind; and in others, the fever runs high, particularly after 
the appearance of the eruption, and is accompanied by a strong 



MEASiES. 131 

pulse, much coughing, great difficulty of breathing, and other 
symptoms of inflammation of the lungs. 

An attack of measles is generally ushered in by chilliness and 
shivering, succeeded by heat, thirst, anxiety, pains in the head, 
back, and loins, heaviness, and redness of the face and eyesj 
with an effusion of tears, swelling of the eye-lids, nausea, and 
vomiting; and with these symptoms there are, a dry cough, 
hoarseness, hurried breathing, frequent sneezing, and a dis- 
charge of acrid matter from the nose. 

About the third or fourth day, small red spots somewhat simi- 
lar to flea-bites, appear in clusters about the face, neck, and 
breast, and in a day or two more, the whole body is covered 
with them. They do not arise into visible pimples, but by the 
touch are perceived to be a little rough. 

But the fever does not abate on the appearance of the erup- 
tion, as happens in small pox; on the contrary, it is usually much 
increased, and it does not cease until the eruption begins to go 
away. Also the cough, hoarseness, difficulty of breathing, and 
running from the eyes and nose, are aggravated, on the appear- 
ance of the eruption. 

On the fifth or sixth day, the spots are changed from a vivid 
red, to a brownish hue, and they begin to dry away about the 
face, and on the eighth or ninth day, they disappear on the 
breast and other parts of the body ; about which period it is no 
uncommon thing for a diarrhoea to ensue. 

In more malignant forms of the disease, the fever assumes 
the typhoid type, livid spots appear on the body, with other 
symptoms indicating a putrid tendency. The eruption also 
appears earlier in the disease, and all the attendant symptoms 
are of an aggravated form. 

The fever being mild, with a gentle diarrhoea, free and copi- 
ous expectoration, moisture of the skin at the appearance of the 
eruption, denote a favorable termination of the disease. 

But, on the other hand, a high degree of fever, parched skin, 
hurried and difficult breathing, flushed countenance, unusually 
hard pulse, severe diarrhoea, and vomiting after the eruptionj 
with great pain in the head and eyes* coma, or delirium, livii 
color of the eruption, great prostration of strength, and inter* 
mittent pulse, indicate the greatest danger. 



132 MEASLES. 

Treatment. — In rrrild attacks of measles, little more need be 
done than to take freely of the diaphoretic powders, or cayenne, 
and avoid exposure to cold ; and at the same time paying par- 
ticular regard to the state of the bowels, which ought to be kept 
loose by injections, and, if necessary, by adding some of the 
bitter root to the diaphoretic powders. 

If there appears, about the third or fourth day, a manifest 
aggravation of the symptoms, and the eruption does not appear, 
frequent doses of the cayenne must be administered, at the same 
time applying hot stones or bricks to the feet, to produce a 
determination to the surface, and bring out the eruption. But 
if this does not produce the desired effect, within some reason- 
able time, and there is great pain, restlessness, and difficulty of 
breathing, a few doses of the anti-spasmodic tincture, or a course 
of medicine, must be administered, either of which will rarely 
fail of fetching out the eruption, and produce a mitigation of 
the symptoms. 

If, however, the violent symptoms still continue unabated, 
although the eruption has made its appearance, frequent doses 
of the capsicum must be given; and, if the urgency of the symp- 
toms appear to demand it, the course of medicine should also be 
repeated as often as necessary. A mild purge perhaps might be 
beneficial, minding also to make a free use of injections. Some- 
times a looseness of the bowels arises, which may be regarded 
as being beneficial, unless it be so violent as to produce debility, 
when it must be checked by the use of the pond lilly, dewberry, 
or any other astringent articles, and also by the use of astringent 
injections; or, if necessary, by a course of medicine. 

To relieve the difficulty of breathing, the patient may inhale 
the steam of vinegar and water, as directed for influenza and 
inflammation of the lungs. A soreness and rawness of the throat 
often occurs from the severity of the cough, to relieve which, 
slippery elm, or flax seed tea should be taken. The tincture 
of lobelia, or the cough powder, may be used to loosen and 
relieve the cough. 

The use of the vapor bath, occasionally, after the disappear- 
ance of the eruption, will be a good preventative of the sore 
eyes, and other troublesome complaints which are apt to follow 
the measles; and if the cough continue bad, threatening con- 



MERCURIAL DISEASE. 



183 



sumption, the whole course of medicine ought to be adopted, 
and repeated as occasion may require, until the urgent symp- 
toms are removed. 



MERCURIAL DISEASE. 

In the first volume of this work, we dwelt long on the disas- 
trous effects of mercury upon the human machine; and now it 
becomes our duty to point out the best means of relieving the 
system from its destructive consequences. 

The mercurial disease is characterized by great depression of 
strength; a sense of anxiety about the breast; irregular action 
of the heart; frequent sighing; trembling, either partial or uni- 
versal; a small, quick, and sometimes intermitting pulse; occa- 
sional vomiting ; pale contracted countenance; sense of coldness ; 
with the tongue but seldom furred. 

Mercurial medicines have spread their ravages to such an 
alarming extent, that it has become an important part of the 
physician's study, to learn to designate and remove the painful 
and fatal maladies which are produced by this destructive arti" 
cle. A great majority of the cases of liver complaint, and many 
of dyspepsy, which are so common of late years, may be traced 
to the use of mercury. A simple history of hundreds of chronic 
cases, of various kinds is — "I had the fever, was salivated, and 
have enjoyed bad health ever since." 

But we have said much upon this subject, in the first volume, 
to which we refer the reader for any further information he may 
want as to the specific effects of mercury upon the system. 



Treatment. — It has been observed by medical writers, that 
there was no known remedy which would neutralize, or destroy 
mercury, in the system; that those laboring under its morbid in- 
fluence, could only be relieved by such means as would promote 
its evacuation, through the proper emunctories or out-lets, by 
which other useless and injurious matter is removed from the 
body. Plow forcibly then does this sentiment recommend the 
use of the vapor bath or steaming? This process, with the whole 
course of medicine, gives new energy to the living power, relaxes 



131 MERCURIAL DISEASE. 

the constricted vessels, and thus enables the living machine to 
relieve itself of any poisonous matter by which it may be as- 
sailed or encumbered. 

When, therefore, we have reason to suspect that an individual 
is suffering from the effects of mercury, retained in the system* 
we should resort to steaming in the most thorough manner. — 
Nothing but the highest heat which can be borne, will be suffi- 
cient to drive this dangerous substance from the body. 

In general, the same taste will be experienced in the mouth 
whilst undergoing a process for removing mercury from the sys- 
tem, that was felt when the calomel was first taken; and in some 
instances salivation has ensued, and even purging. 

The face often becomes swelled whilst in the Vapor bath ; to 
relieve which, the patient should cover his head, so as to admit 
the hot steam to his face, and keep it exposed to the vapor as 
long as he can bear it; which process must be repeated until 
the swelling is gone. Or, after the steaming, when the patient 
is in bed, take a red hot stone, or brick, and cool it just so as 
not to burn, then wrap it up in a cloth wet with vinegar and 
water, with a dry one outside of this, and place it near the face, 
covering the head and inhaling the steam as hot as it can be 
borne. 

The steaming should be often repeated, the patient at the same 
time taking freely of the cayenne, and occasionally a full course 
of medicine. The bitters, made very warm with cayenne, must 
be taken frequently during the day, and a dose of the nerve 
powder at night, or if there be much nervous agitation or trem- 
bling, the nerve powder, or its tincture, must be taken occasion- 
ally through the day. If costiveness prevail, the bitter root, or 
yellow parilla root, must be added to the bitters. 

The patient should live on a good nourishing diet, and take 
gentle exercise in the open air when the weather is dry, but, by 
all means, avoiding any sudden and violent exertions of strength, 
as fatal consequences have been known to result from such 
causes. 



M0RTI1FCATI0N., 135 

MORTIFICATION. 

Wound*, amputations, inflammations, ulcers, and some dis- 
eases, have a tendency to terminate in mortification, the first 
process of which is termed gangrene. 

The symptoms of gangrene in wounds, amputations, inflam- 
mations, and ulcers are — First, a sudden diminution of the pain 
and fever; secondly, a livid discoloration of the part, which from 
being yellowish, becomes of a green hue 5 thirdly, a detachment 
or separation of the cuticle or external skin, under which a tur- 
bid or dirty looking water is found; and fourthly, a subsiding 
of the swelling, tension, and hardness, while at the same time a 
crepitus or crackling, is perceived on touching the part, owing 
to a generation of air in the cellular membrane. But when the 
part has become black and of a fibrous or thready appearance, 
and destitute of natural heat, sensation, and motion, it is then 
said to be in a state of mortification. 

In putrid complaints, such as fevers, and sore throat, and in 
dysentery, inflammation of the intestines, and in any other dis- 
ease ending in mortification, the symptoms, so far as visible, bear 
in common, the same general appearances and characteristics 
which are discoverable in mortification of wounds, ulcers, &c. 

In dysentery, inflammation of the bowels, &c, where mortifi- 
cation is about taking place, there will be a cessation of pain, 
and fever; the pulse becomes small, weak, and irregular; the 
face assumes a cadaverous or deathly appearance; the extremi- 
ties become cold, with cold clammy sweats over the whole body; 
the patient becomes comatose or sleepy, with symptoms of great 
debility. 



Treatment. — A variety of articles are used as external appli- 
cations, in cases of the mortification of wounded, or ulcerated 
parts. A poultice of charcoal and yeast, or of the bark of sassa- 
fras, pounded fine, boiled, and thickened with corn meal, with 
the addition of a small quantity of cayenne to either poultice, 
will be found very valuable remedies to prevent or check morti- 
fication. A poultice made of the bruised root of the wild indigo, 
boiled, and thickened with corn meal, has also been highly re- 
commended as an application to mortified parts. The addition 



136 MUMPS. 

of a little capsicum, it is highly probable, would increase the 
anti-septic power of this poultice as well as the others; though 
either would be highly valuable without it. 

The poultices should be frequently renewed, and at each re- 
newal, the ulcer ought to be washed with soap suds, then with 
a tea of witch-hazle leaves, white pond lilly, dewberry, or some 
other astringent article, and lastly with the tincture of myrrh; 
when a fresh poultice must be immediately applied. 

If mortification has gone so far that the life of the part is com- 
pletely destroyed, that part which is dead will separate from the 
living when the mortification ceases, and it should then be re- 
moved. After its removal, the wound should be dressed with 
the salve, and if there be symptoms of inflammation, or any other 
bad action in the part, one of the poultices heretofore recom- 
mended, or the common elm and ginger poultice, may be applied 
over the salve. 

The internal remedies for mortification, which form a very 
necessary part of the treatment, are such as increase the energy 
and tone of the whole system. For this purpose, occasional 
courses of medicine will be highly useful; and between these 
the diaphoretic powders, bitters, and cayenne, may be used 
alternately, or in such way as the judgment may dictate. 

Wine is also considered highly useful, especially if the com- 
mon bitters be infused in it, in the proportion of about an ounce 
of the bitters to a quart of wine; which may be taken in doses of 
two or three table spoons full, once in four or five hours. 

A tea of the wild indigo, taken internally, is highly recom. 
mended by Dr. Thacher, as being valuable in mortification, 
either internally or externally applied. He recommends the 
tea to be taken internally, at the same time that the poultice is 
applied externally. 

MUMPS. 

Mumps are distinguished by a movable swelling, arising some- 
times on one, and sometimes on both sides of the face and neck, 
at or near the angle of the jaws. 

This disease is contagious, and the same individual is liable 
to it but once in his life; and hence it often prevails epidemi- 
cally, particularly amongst children. 



H1UMP8* 



137 



The mumps sometimes come on, especially when they attack 
persons who have arrived at, or near to, mature age, with a sense 
of lassitude and inactivity; chills and slight fever; stillness and 
pain about the lower jaw, with sometimes nausea, and vomiting. 
The salival glands then begin to swell, and continue to enlarge 
until the fourth day, when the swelling begins to decline, and in 
a few days is entirely gone. 

In some cases the swelling suddenly subsides, with an increase 
of fever, when the disease becomes transferred to the breasts of 
females, or to the testicles of males. Such cases. as these are usu- 
ally caused by taking cold. When it attacks grown persons, 
therefore, great care should be taken to avoid exposure. 

Sometimes, also, when the swelling of the face suddenly sub- 
sides, before the fourth day, the disease (ixes itself in the head, 
with an increase of the fever, attended with delirium, and some- 
times with fatal consequences. 

In a few instances where the swelling has been very large, 
suppuration has taken place, and occasioned great deformity, or 
by bursting inwardly, has produced suffocation. 

There is, however, in general but little danger from mumps, 
excepting when the brain becomes affected, which, by proper 
treatment, may always be prevented. 



Treatment. — In common, this complaint needs no medical 
treatment; all that is necessary being to keep something tied 
about the face to keep it warm, and in every way, avoiding ex- 
posure to cold. 

If, however, there should be much fever at the onset of the 
disease, with nausea and vomiting, a course of medicine ought 
then to be administered, and followed by the bitters and diapho- 
retic powders. Or, in milder cases, the patient may take the 
diaphoretic powders, or cayenne, and use ether necessary means 
to promote perspiration, such as sitting before a warm tire, 
covered with a cloak, coat, or blanket; or he may lie in bed 
with a hot brick cr stone to his feet 

If the swelling of the neck should suddenly disappear, with an 
increase of the fever; and the disease seems likely to seat itself 
in the testicle, the breast, or the head, immediate recourse must 
then be had to a course of medicine, which ought to be repeated, 

18 



138 NIGHT MARE. 

if necessary, as the circumstances of the case may require. The 
bitter3, diaphoretic powders, or cayenne should be used after, or 
between the courses. The bowels must also be attended to, 
especially if ccstiveness prevail, administering injections, or per- 
haps a mild purge. 

The part which the swelling has left, ought to be bathed with 
some stimulating wash, and have a warm stone placed near it, to 
promote the reproduction of the swelling. 

If the testicles of males, or the breasts of females, become 
swelled, in addition to the courses of medicine, just prescribed, 
the parts must be bathed with the bathing drops, or some other 
stimulating wash, and have cloths wrung out of hot water ap- 
plied to the part, or warm stones wrapped in wet cloths may be 
substituted for the cloths. 

A white bean poultice, applied to the testicles, has been high- 
ly recommended, in cases where the mumps are transferred to 
those parts. 



NIGHT MARE, OSL INCUBUS. 

This complaint comes on during sleep; and those of a ner- 
vous temperament, whose digestive powers are weak, or whose 
bowels are much disordered, are most liable to attacks of it. 

Night mare comes on with a sense of weight and oppression 
at the chest, often accompanied with a distressing dream; the 
person makes ineffectual efforts to speak and move; he moans 
and groans, and at length awakes, oftentimes frightened, and 
much fatigued ; having palpitations of the heart, with tremors, 
anxiety, and lassitude. 

Sometimes the oppression and anxiety are so extremely great, 
that the person is under the most serious apprehensions of suffo- 
cation; in which cases there is much exhaustion and debility; 
and the apprehensions are not much weakened on being awa- 
kened. Indeed, cases have been reported of its having, in a 
very few instances, proved fatal. 

The causes which give rise to this complaint are, anxiety 
grief, despondency, intense thought, late hours, and heavy sup- 
pers. A spasmodic constriction of the diaphragm or midriff, and 



PAIN OF THE FACE. 139 

muscles of the chest, h believed to be the proximate cause of 
night mare. 



Treatment. — A dose of the nerve powder, or tincture of the 
same, or of the hot bitters, or cayenne, at bed time, will, in 
general prevent it. Where it depends upon a weakness of the 
digestive functions, tonic remedies ought to be resorted to; and. 
if costiveness prevail, means must be used for its removal. The 
vapor bath may also be used. 

As a preventative, the person should endeavor to be as cheer- 
ful and tranquil as possible; take proper exercise; avoid food 
that is hard to digest, and never indulge in a hearty supper, 
especially of meat, immediately before going to bed. 



NEURALGIA, OR PAINFUL AFFECTION OF THE FACE. 

This is one of the most painful chronic complaints to which 
the human frame is subject; but fortunately, it is of rare occur- 
rence. 

The most frequent seats of this affection are the nerves over 
the cheek bone and just below the eye, the ala or wing of the 
nose, upper lip, teeth, or gums. Sometimes the forehead and 
temples, and inner corner of the eye, and even the globe of the 
eye itself, are affected. 

This complaint comes on with acute pains shooting from about 
the mouth to the eye or ear, over the cheek, palate, teeth, &x. 
which is attended with convulsive twitchings of the flesh or mus- 
cles of the parts. The pain attacks very suddenly, and is very 
peculiar, darting along the course of Ihe nerves which are af- 
fected; and occurs in paroxysms of the most agonizing torture, 
succeeded by intervals of longer or shorter duration. 

The same affection of the nerves has also been witnessed in 
the breast, foot, and uterus. 



Treatment. — Frequent doses of the best tincture of nerve 
powder, with the use of the stimulating or hot bitters; repeated 
courses of medicine, and occasional doses of the anti-spasmodic 



140 PALST. 

tincture, seem to promise the most efficient aid in treating this 
distressing malady. 

Bathing the parf immediately affected, with the bathing drops, 
or any other stimulating wash, should also be tried; together 
with the application of a hot stone wrapped in a cloth wet with 
vinegar and water, near the part. 

A method often resorted to by the medical faculty, is to divide, 
that is cut off the affected nerve between the painful pari: and 
the brain; but although this often effects a cure, it sometimes 
only removes the complaint to other branches of the same nerve, 



PALSY. 

Palsy is characterized by a loss of sensibility or feeling, and 
the power of motion, in sems part of the body, particularly of 
the left side. 

This complaint may arise in consequence of an attack of apo- 
plexy, or by any thing which prevents the passage of the nervous 
power or influence, from the brain to the organs of motion; and 
also by pressure on the nerves, ir consequence of dislocations, or 
fractures of the bones, wounds, or other external injuries. It is 
also caused by the handling or using white lead, as in painting; 
by the posionous fumes of metals; and by whatever has a ten- 
dency tc relax, weaken, or enervate the body; hence those who 
lead • :edenlary, luxurious, and irregular life; or such as are 
enr ^ed in intense studies, or laborunder great distress or anxi- 
ety of mind, are subject to palsy. 

The aged, and inarm, are far more liable to its attacks, than 
the young and robust. 

Palsy generally comes on with a sudden and immediate loss 
of motion and sensation in the part; though in a few instances it 
is preceded by numbness, coldness, paleness, and sometimes 
slight convulsive twitches. If the head is much affected with the 
disease, the eye and mouth are dravrn to one side, the memory 
and judgment are much impaired, and the speech is indistinct 
and incoherent. 

Sometimes the paralytic affection is confined to one arm, very 
rarely to the leg and thigh, and occasionally to the tongue, caus-. 



PALSY, 14 1 

ing stammering, or loss of speech. In some instances the bladL 
der, and lower part of the intestines, become diseased, when the 
urine and stools pass off involuntarily. 

If palsy attack any vital part, sue!) as the brain, heart, orlungs, 
it very soon proves fatal. When it arises as a consequence of 
apoplexy, it is considered difficult to cure; and paralytic affec- 
tions of the lower limbs, arising from injuries of the spinal mar- 
row, by blows or other accidents, are generally incurable. 

This complaint, though regarded as highly dangerous, parti- 
cularly in advanced life, is sometimes removed b}' a diarrhoea, or 
fever; and one person, with whom we were acquainted, was 
cured by a great and sudden shock, occasioned by a severe 
wound. 

A feeling of warmth, and a slight pricking pain in the affected 
part, with returning sensation and motion, are favorable symp- 
toms. 



Treatment. — The vapor bath, with the course of medicine, 
will be highly useful in palsy; and ought frequently to be re- 
peated. At the first onset of the complaint, a few doses of tho 
anti-spasmedic tincture has effected a cure. 

Bathing the part affected, and particularly along the back bone, 
with cayenne and vinegar, or the bathing drops, applying them 
with much friction or rubbing, ought always to be resorted to, 
and often repeated; and after this is done, warm bricks orstone3 
should be applied or placed near the diseased part. 

Great care should be taken to keep the bowels loose by injec- 
tions and laxative bitters. Purges arc also highly esteemed by 
some, 

Electricity is a remedy almost universally employed in the 
cure of palsy, and often with the happiest effect. It ought, 
however, to be used with care, applying it only in slight shocks, 
often repeated. It is also recommended not to apply it to the 
head ; as it is supposed that danger might arise from applying it 
to that part of the body. 

Galvanism has likewise been employed, and highly extolled 
in the treatment of this complaint. 



142 mis. 

FILES. 

The piles consist of small tumors situated on the verge of the 
anus or fundament, which are separate, round, and prominent, 
and at other times the tumor consists in a tumid ring entirely 
surrounding the fundament. 

In some cases there is a discharge of blood from these tumors, 
which generally takes place when the patient goes to stool, when 
the disease is termed the bleeding piles; and in ether instances 
there is no discharge, when it is called the blind piles. 

This complaint may be caused by habitual costiveness, hard 
riding, excesses in drinking, the suppression of some long accus- 
tomed evacuation, exposure to cold, and the frequent use of 
strong purges of aloes. Many persons possess a constitutional 
predisposition to piles, and suifer more or less from it through 
life. 

The piles are sometimes accompanied with a sense of weight 
in the back, and lower part of the belly, together with a pain or 
giddiness of the head, sickness at the stomach, flatulency in the 
bowels, and fever. 

On going to stool, a sharp pain is felt in the fundament, and 
small turners may be perceived to project beyond its verge. If 
these break a quantity of blcod is discharged from them, which 
affords much relief from the pain: but if they continue unbro- 
ken, the patient will experience much torture every time he goes 
to stool, and also feels an inconvenience on sitting down on a hard 
seat. The tumors are sometimes of so large a size internally, 
as to press upon the bladder, and produce much irritation and 
even pain voiding the urine. 

Piles, or hemorrhoids as they are technically called, are by 
no means a dangerous, but often times a troublesome and disa- 
greeable disease. 

A considerable degree of inflammation occasionally attends 
the complaint, which sometimes suppurating, terminates in what 
are called sinuous ulcers or fistulas. 



Treatment. — In the treatment of piles, we may commence 
with bathing the parts with the compound tincture of myrrh, 
and the administration of a stimulating injection. In mild cases? 



PLEURISY. 



143 



the use of either, a few times will effect a cure;" but if costive- 
ness prevail, the injections should never be omitted. 

The application of a block of wood which has been heated 
by boiling in water, or of a hot stone or brick, will also be found 
agreeable, aa well as highly beneficial. A salve made by sim- 
mering the bruised leaves of the Jamestown weed or henbane, 
in fresh butter or hogs' lard, and rubbed on the affected part, it 
is said, will afford speedy relief. 

But if the complaint does not yield to the foregoing prescrip- 
tions, a course of medicine must be resorted to, and, if neces- 
sary, repeated occasionally, until the complaint is removed. — 
The bitters, diaphoretic powders, and cayenne, must be taken 
between the courses; and the fundament ought to have a little 
warm tallow applied to it often. 



PLEUXISY. 

Pleurisy is an inflammation of the membrane which lines the 
thorax, and is attended with an acute pain in the side, difficult 
breathing, fever, and a full, quick, and hard pulse. 

This disease is caused most usually by exposure to cold, ana" 
by such other causes as produce inflammatory complaints; chiefly 
attacking persons of a vigorous constitution and full habit of 
body. 

Pleurisy comes on with an acute pain in the side, which is 
much increased on making a fall inspiration, and is accompanied 
by flushing of the face, increased heat over the whole body, 
rigors, difficulty of lying on the side affected, with cough and 
nausea; the pulse is hard, full, and strong; the tongue white; 
and the urine high is colored. 

If the disease be neglected, or continue long, the lungs also 
become affected, and a high degree of inflammation is sometimes 
induced in them; with occasionally a fatal termination; or it 
may end in consumption. 

If the fever and inflammation run high, and the pain suddenly 
ceases, with a change of countenance, and sinking of the pulse, 
great danger may be apprehended. 



144 poisons. 

On the other hand, if the difficulty of breathing and fever 
abate, with the pain in the side more moderate, moisture of the 
skin, and expectoration ensue, a speedy recovery may then be 
expected. 



Treatment. — The common course of medicine, repeated a3 
occasion may require, with the bitters, diaphoretic powders, and 
cayenne, freely and frequently given, and injections, are the 
proper remedies in this disease, together with the whole course 
recommended for the treatment of inflammation of the lungs, 
to which the reader is referred. 

Purges should not be given in pleurisy, especially whilst the 
pain continues severe, or the fever high. The bowels must be 
kept in proper order by injections, and laxative bitters. 



Poisons are generally classed according to the substance, 
from which they are obtained, as animal, mineral, and veget- 
able. 

Animal poisons are communicated by the bites of mad animals, 
such as dog?, cats, foxes, and wolves; by the bites of snakes 
such as the rattlesnake, pilot or mockasinsnake, and in other 
countries by many other kinds; by the stings of insects, such as 
the bee, the hornet, the wasp, the spider, and in other countries, 
the scorpion; and by infectious matter, such as small pox, mea- 
sles, contagious fevers, &c. 

The mineral poisons are, the preparations of arsenic, copper, 
antimony, mercury or quicksilver, zinc, tin, lead, &c. 

The vegetable poisons are, mushrooms, or a toad stool nearly 
resembling them, laurel, hemlock, nightshade, foxglove, hen- 
bane, prussic acid, tobacco, &lc, 

ANIMAL POISONS. 
The treatment of the bite of mad animals has heretofore been 
noticed; and the poison of contagion will be found under the 
heads of the diseases to which they give rise; and it only remains 



poisons. 145 

for us, under this head, to speak of the poisons communicated 
by snakes and insects. 

The symptoms attending the bite of the rattlesnake, the most 
common venomous reptile in this country, are, nausea and vom- 
iting; a full strong agitated pulse; swelling, first of the bitten 
part, then extending over the whole body; eyes suffused with 
blood.; bloody sweats; hemorrhages from the nose, month, and 
ears; with which there is an indescribable pain, first commenc- 
ing in the bitten part, and gradually extending over the body. 
The teeth chatter, whilst the pains and groans of the unhappy 
sufferer indicate his approaching dissolution. 



Treatment. — The treatment of all venomous bites and stings 
is so similar that, for the sake of brevity, we will make one 
description answer for all. 

When a person is bitten by a venomous snake, on the hand, 
arm, foot, or leg, a ligature or string ought immediately to 
be tied around the limb, between the wound and the body, 
which will have a tendency to check the further absorption or 
passage of the poison into the body. As soon as possible, the 
part must be freely washed with the strongest tincture of lobelia, 
endeavoring to get it to the bottom of the wound, for which 
purpose it might be better to lay the wound open with a knife; 
and whilst this is doing a tea spoon fall of the tincture should 
be taken internally. 

The washing of the wound ought to be continued for some 
time, and aftenvards occasionally repeated. The tincture inter- 
nally, should also be repeated in the course of an hour or two, 
or sooner, if the unpleasant symptoms are not removed, or if 
they return. 

But if, notwithstanding the use of the means just prescribed 
the person becomes worse ; or if the symptoms have assumed an 
aggravated character before medical aid could be obtained, a 
most thorough course of medicine must be immediately resorted 
to, in addition to the external application of the tincture, and 
repeated as the symptoms may seem to require. 

If the part bitten should suppurate, it must be treated the 
same as any other sore or ulcer. 

19 






148 poisons. 

The bites and stings of insects, may be treated precisely on 
the same plan recommended for those of the rattlesnake. The 
lobelia appears to possess the power of disarming the poison, 
not only of animals, but of vegetables and minerals, of its pow- 
ers, and rendering it harmless upon the system. Bites and 
stings should, therefore, be immediately washed with the tinc- 
ture or tea of this most valuable and important article, and if 
the animal be very venomous, or the system disturbed by the 
absorption of the poison, a dose of it should be taken internally, 
and, if necessary, repeated. 



MINERAL POISONS. 

The symptoms which arise from all the mineral poisons are 
very similar. Their taste, in general, is said to be more or less 
like that of ink, and less burning than the taste of the concen- 
trated acids and alkalies. 

The individual sometimes complains of a closing or constric- 
tion of the throat; severe pains are soon felt in the fauces, sto- 
mach, and bowels, which are quickly augmented, and become 
almost insupportable, with nausea and vomiting. 

The matter thrown from the stomach is of various colors, often 
mixed with blood. There is also either costiveness or a diar- 
rhoea, and the stools are sometimes bloody. 

To these alarming symptoms are added, frequent foetid belch- 
ings, hiccup, difficulty of breathing, amounting almost to suffo- 
cation; with a quick, small, and hard pulse, which is sometimes 
irregular. 

An unquenchable thirst also prevails, with difficulty in passing 
the urine, cramps, icy coldness of the extremities, dreadful con- 
vulsions or a general prostration of strength, the countenance 
becomes changed, and oftentimes delirium arises, which may 
be regarded as the forerunner of speedy death. In some cases, 
however, the individual preserves all his mental faculties to the 
very moment of dissolution. 



Treatment. — In cases of persons swallowing any of the min- 
eral poisons, immediate recourse should be had to the tincture 
or any other preparation, of the lobelia, which should be admb- 



POIfiOKS* 14? 

istered in sufficient qaantity to produce speedy vomiting* Stim- 
ulating injections, with the addition of two or three tea spoons 
full of the tincture of lobelia, ought also to be administered to 
arouse the torpor of the bowels, and assist in producing vomit- 
ing. Pennyroyal tea, warm water, or almost any kind of fluid 
drink, should be freely given during the operation of the emetic* 
to promote the vomiting and wash out the stomach* 

After the stomach is well cleansed, the patient should take 
mutton or veal broths, flaxseed or slippery elm teas and milk, 
both for nourishment and to sheathe the bowels, which will have 
a tendency to prevent their being acted upon hy the poisonous 
particles of matter, which may possibly remain after vomiting, 

][ some time elapses before medical aid is or can be procured, 
the anti-spasmodic tincture must be given in repeated doses of 
two or three tea spoons full at short intervals, until vomiting is 
produced, and the urgent symptoms removed. The injections 
ought also to be attended to, as well as the other directions 
just given. 

As soon as convenient after the vomiting, perspiration ought 
to be produced and kept up for several hours; and the health and 
strength of the patient promoted by the use of the tonics, both 
bitter and astringent. The exciting of a free perspiration ought 
to be carefully attended to, as by this means the poisonous mat- 
ter which may have been absorbed and passed into the blood, 
will be thrown out. 

If the patient, notwithstanding the use of the means recom- 
mended, should continue in a debilitated condition, with other 
unpleasant symptoms, he should have a regular course of the 
medicine, which, if necessary, must be repeated, at proper 
intervals, until his health is restored. 



VEGETABLE POISONS. 

Under this head we will include the acids and alkalies. Many 
of the acids, it is true, are formed from mineral substances; but 
still the acid principle legitimately appertains to the vegetable 
kingdom, and the mode of treating poisons from either the vegef 
table or mineral acids, is essentially the same* The alkalies am . 
wholly of vegetable production* 



148 POISONS. 

Acids. — The symptoms which ensue on swallowing any of the 
concentrated acids are, a very unpleasant, sour, burning taste in 
the mouth; an aeute pain in the throat, which very soon spreads- 
to the bowels; an insupportable offensive breath; frequent belch- 
ings; nausea, and copious vomiting of substances of various 
colors, sometimes mixed with blood, producing in the mouth a 
sensation of bitterness, with hiccup. 

Sometimes the bowels are costive, but more often a diarrhoea, 
with the stools more or less bloody; colic pains so acute that the 
individual cannot support the weight of the bed clothes, or even 
of his shirt; these pains also extend to the chest, causing diffi- 
culty of breathing, and great distress; pulse frequent but regu- 
lar; great thirst, whilst drinking only augments the pain, and 
what is swallowed is soon rejected by vomiting. There are also 
shiverings, with an icy coldness of the skin, especially of the 
lower limbs; cold clammy sweats; frequent fruitless attempts to 
make water; great restlessness and anxiety; convulsive motions 
of the lips, face, and limbs; great prostration of strength; with 
the countenance but little altered at first, the complexion soon 
becomes of a pale, or leaden color; and in most cases the men- 
tal faculties remain entire. 

It also frequently happens that the inside of the mouth and 
lips are burnt, thickened, and covered with white or black 
patches, which becoming detached irritate the patient, and 
produce a very fatiguing cough; in which case the voice is 
changed; and sometimes there is a painful eruption of the 
skin. 

The whole of these symptoms are not, however, always met 
with in the same person. And in addition to these effects, nitric 
acid, (aqua fortis) produces yellow spots upon the lips, or other 
parts of the skin on which it may have fallen. 



Treatment. — It is a fact known to chemists, as well as persons 
who are much in the habit of reading, that acids are neutralized 
by the alkalies, whilst alkalies at the same time are neutralized by 
the acids. Thus if pearl-ash be put into vinegar, they mutually 
neutralize each other, so that both the sourness of the vinegar, 
and the burning taste of the pearl-ash are destroyed, which is 
what is meant by neutralizing. And hence the evident propri- 



poisons. 149 

ety, in cases where any of the acids have been taken into the 
stomach, of administering alkaline preparations. 

Orfila, however, in his work on poison, says that the result 
of the many trials he has made is, that calcined magnesia is the 
best antidote to the acids. The poisoned individual must be 
made to drink largely of water, in which magnesia is diffused in 
the proportion of an ounce of magnesia to a quart of water; a 
tumbler full of which must be given every two minutes, in order 
to favor vomiting, and to prevent the deleterious action of that 
portion of the acid which has not exercised its corrosive power. 
However, as magnesia is not kept in every family, the time spent 
in procuring it, at the drug shop, continues Orfila, must not be 
lost upon the patient; he should be made to drink copiously of 
water, which will weaken the power of the acid, or of flaxseed 
tea, to which we will also add slippery elm, or any other mild 
drink. 

Orfila also recommends, in case the magnesia cannot be pro- 
cured, to dissolve an ounce of soap in a quart of water, and 
administered, as we suppose, in frequent small doses. He also 
recommends chalk, which, to do good, must be taken in consider- 
able quantity; and we have good reason to believe that white 
ley, prepared as directed in the preparations and compounds, 
and taken freely, would be highly beneficial. 

We would, however, in all cases recommend that an emetic be 
given as soon as possible, and at the same time prepare, any of 
the foregoing articles, and administer them in suitable quantity. 

Alkalies. — The effects of the alkaline preparations are near- 
ly similar to those which occur in taking the acids; and it is only 
necessary to remark, that the taste of these poisons is acrid 
burning, and urinous. 

Treatment. — An emetic should be immediately administered, 
and at the same time make the patient drink largely of water 
made sour with the addition of vinegar, or lemon juice, to 
neutralize the alkali. No hesitation should be made about 
which to give first, either the vinegar or the emetic, but give 
whichever can first be got. Or if neither can quickly be pro- 
cured, then give warm or cold water, until vomiting takes place. 



150 POISONS. 

POISONS ARISING FROM TAKING THE VEGETABLE IN 
SUBSTANCE INTO THE STOMACH. 

These are divided by Orfila, into irritating, narcotic or stupi- 
fying, and acrid-narcotic poisons. 

The symptoms attending the introduction of irritating poi- 
sons are — more or less of a bitter taste in the mouth; burning 
heat, and great dryness of the tongue and mouth; painful con- 
striction of the throat; nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea; pains 
more or less acute in the stomach and bowels; strong, frequent, 
and regular pulse ; with breathing disturbed and quickened. — 
Frequently the individual staggers in his walk, appearing to be 
intoxicated ; the pupils of the eyes are dilated ; with such a state 
of prostration that the patient appears to be dead ; the pulse 
grows feeble, and death closes the scene. 

Some of this class of poisons produce convulsions of more or 
less violence, stiffness of the limbs, and pains so acute as to force 
from the patient the most distressful cries. 

Narcotic poisons when introduced into the system, produce 
stupor, numbness, heaviness of the head, inclination to sleep, 
slight at first, but soon becomes irresistible; a sort of intoxication, 
with a dull, heavy look; the pupil of the eye may be very much 
dilated, contracted, or in its natural state; there may be furious 
or gay delirium ; sometimes there are pain and convulsions of 
various degrees in different parts of the body ; palsy in the limbs ; 
pulse variable, but in general it is full and strong at the com- 
mencement of the affection; breathing is often a little acceler- 
ated ; with vomiting, especially when the poison has been applied 
to wounds, or given by injection; whilst the convulsions and 
prostration soon increase, and death puts an end to existence. 

Acrid-Narcotic poisons exhibit many, or all the symptoms of 
the other two divisions; with the addition of some others which 
we think it unnecessary to enumerate. This class includes, 
amongst other articles, tobacco, poison hemlock, henbane, fox- 
glove, spirituous liquors, &c. 

Treatment. — The treatment cf poisoning from vegetables of 
all kinds, introduced into the system, either by way of the skin 



TTPHUS FEVER, 



151 



or by the stomach, is so nearly similar that we will make one 
description of it suffice. 

Immediately on any of those poisonous substances being swal- 
lowed, or so soon as practicable thereafter, the person ought to 
have nn emetic, the operation of which should be promoted by 
warm water or pennyroyal tea. The vomiting must be con- 
tinued until the stomach is perfectly cleansed; when proper 
means should be taken to produce, and keep up a free perspira- 
tion, if the patient is inclined to be sleepy, vinegar and water 
may be given to him, which will have a tendency to neutralize 
the narcotic qualities of the poison. If the person continues 
debilitated, with other bad or unpleasant symptoms, the course 
of medicine must be repeated as often as appears necessary, to- 
gether witb the frequent use of the hot bitters. 

In cas "js where poisons have been applied to the skin, produc- 
ing eruptions, or sores, the part should be washed with the tinc- 
ture of lobelia, or a tea of pipsisway; at the same time, taking 
the diaphoretic powders, to promote a determination to the sur- 
face of the body; and if the health becomes affected, pursue the 
course which has just been recommended in other cases of poison, 



PUTRID, OR TYPHUS FEVER. 

This fever takes the name of putrid from the symptoms of 
putrefaction which arise after a short continuance of the disease ; 
it is however, more commonly known at the present time, by the 
name of typhus. In its milder forms it was formerly called ner- 
vous fever. 

Typhus fever may be readily distinguished from such as are 
of an inflammatory character, by the smallness and weakness of 
the pulse; the sudden and great debility which comes on at its 
first attack; by the brown, or black tongue; by the dark fetid 
matter about the teeth; the livid flush of the countenance; and 
by the acrid and more intense heat of the skin: and, in the more 
advanced stages, by the petechias or lived spots, which come 
out on different parts of the body; and by the foetid stools which 
are discharged. 



152 TYPHUS FEVER. 

The most common cause of typhus fever is supposed by some 
to be contagion; but it is only under certain circumstances that 
it is communicated in this way. When patients laboring under 
this disease, are confined in small rooms to which the air has but 
little access, and which are crowded by other persons, who are 
breathing the air contaminated by the exhalations from the pa- 
tient's breath, body, and stools; and these persons themselves 
perhaps unhealthy from the want of proper food and cleanliness, 
it is no wonder if the fever should spread as if by the laws of con- 
tagion. 

Hence it has been observed, that a want of proper cleanliness, 
or breathing a contaminated air, is more probably the cause of 
this disease, than contagion. In towns and cities where it has 
sometimes committed such fatal ravages, its origin has commonly 
been traced to the habitations of the poor, who live in damp and 
filthy cellars, whose living is often unwholesome and scanty, and 
who neglect personal cleanliness. And to this class of persons 
the disease has always proved most fatal, and to them it has of- 
ten been confined. 

Typhus fever may also be caused by whatever enervates or 
debilitates the system. Hence we find persons of a lax fibre, or ; 
who have been debilitated by other fevers, or by long fasting, 
hard labor, continued want of sleep, &c. are liable to be attacked 
by this disease. Persons of intemperate and dissipated habits, 
are also predisposed to typhus fever. 

On the first coming on of this complaint, the person is seized 
with languor, dejection of spirits, great depression and loss of 
muscular strength, universal weariness and soreness, pains in the 
back, head, and limbs, with rigors or chills; the eyes appear full, 
heavy, yellowish, and often a little inflamed ; the temporal arte- 
ries throb violently; the tongue is dry and parched; respiration 
is commonly laborious, and interrupted with deep sighing; the 
breath is hot and offensive ; the urine is pale ; the bowels costive ; 
pulse usually quick, small and hard, and occasionally fluttering 
and unequal. Sometimes a great load, heat, and pain, are felt 
at the pit of the stomach, with a vomiting of bilious matter. 

As the disease advances, the pulse increases in frequency, 
often beating from 100 to 130 in a minute; the debility becomes 



TYPHUS FEVER . 



153 



vastly increased; there is great heat and dryness of the skin; 
oppression at the breast, with anxiety, sighing, and moaning; 
the thirst is excessive; the tongue, mouth, lips, and teeth are 
covered with a brown or black, sticky fur; the speech is inarti- 
culate, and scarcely intelligible ; the patient mutters much, and 
delirium arises. The fever continuing to increase still more in 
violence, symptoms of putrefaction show themselves; the breath 
becomes highly offensive ; the urine deposites a black and foetid 
sediment; the stools are dark, disagreeable, and pass off insen- 
sibly; hemorrhages issues from the gums, nostrils, mouth, and 
other parts of the body; livid spots or petechias appear on the 
skin; the pulse intermits and sinks; the extremities grow cold; 
hiccups ensue; and death finally closes the tragic scene. 

An abatement of the heat and thirst; the tongue becoming 
moist and clean; a moist sweat diffused over the whole surface 
of the body ; the pulse becoming stronger, but less frequent, with 
a free secretion of saliva; swelling and suppuration of the paro- 
tid, axillary, or inguinal glands; a scabby eruption about the 
mouth, and the delirium and stupor abating or going off, may be 
regarded as favorable symptoms. 



Treatment. — On the first attack of this complaint, a course 
of medicine should be resorted to immediately, as by attending 
to it at the onset, the disease may often be cut short at once. 
The bowels must also be carefully attended to, especially if the 
stools be very foetid and disagreeable, or if costiveness prevail, as 
this scarcely ever fails to produce an increase of fever and deli- 
rium. 

Cold bathing has been highly recommended for this disease, 
if applied in the early stages, by Dr. Currie, of Liverpool, as 
well as many others who have adopted this mode of treatment 
by his recommendation. But we think the use of the vapor bath, 
with the cayenne, to promote a free perspiration, and throw out 
of the system the morbid, useless, and putrid matter, and the 
application of cold water, is much to be preferred to the cold 
bath alone. 

The course of medicine must be repeated, if the symptoms do 
not abate after the first course, as often as the symptoms appear 

20 



teTe^a'iffe itjisn^itbefevensh act-ion subsides; when the appetite 
a@£ strength -should be restored with the bitters, wine, &c. If 
His gtook are very oflensqgie, a mild purge may be given; for 
which purpose castor oil, or the butternut syrup may be employ- 
ed^ &«wt injections $.t all times must be freely used. 

During the whole coarse of the disease, the astringent tonics 
with cayenne, must be freely and perseveringly administered, 
both by the mouth and by injection. The pepper sauce will 
also be found a very valuable article, in addition to the astrin- 
gent and stimulant medicines, to change the putrid tendency of 
the fluids, which is so apparent in typhus fevers. The patient's 
drink may consist of water and vinegar, as well because it is 
pleasant and agreeable, as that the vinegar possesses an anti- 
septic power in putrid diseases. 

Every means must be employed to keep up the strength of the 
patient in typhus fevers, whilst nothing should be done that is 
likely to reduce it. The food should be rich and nourishing; 
the drink cool and refreshing; whilst the room must be well 
ventilated, that is, have a free circulation of air through it, but 
never allowed to come in a current upon the patient. The 
stools ought to be removed as soon as passed; and every other 
means used to keep the apartment clean and sweet; and to ren- 
der it more pleasant, both to the patient and attendants, the floor 
should be sprinkled several times a day with warm vinegar and 
camphor. The clothes of the patient as well as of the bed ought 
often to be changed, and kept clean. 

The internal use of yeast has also been recommended in putrid 
fevers. One or two table spoonsful may be stirred into a quart 
of beer, or any other pleasant fluid, of which the patient should 
often drink. 



REMITTENT, OR BILIOUS FEVER. 

By remittent is understood a fever lhat abates, but does not 
go off entirely before a fresh attack ensues ; or, in other words, 
where one paroxysm succeeds the other so quickly, that the pa- 
tient is never without some degree of fever. It may also be 
observed, moreover, that the remissions happen at very irregular 



periods, and are of uncertain s!«yatki% fozm§. MttimtmtQM ifeag;®^ 
and sometimes shorter, 

This fever is principally ind^cedy as well as- the sEriSerasst'ta^ 
fcy the efBuvia arising from marshes and stagnant -srater^ aaJ is 
also apt to take place when calm? close, sultry weafhes &®i«k?y 
succeeds heavy rains or great inundations of water, Iss varans 
climates, where great heat and moisture rapidly succeed t&zh 
otherj remittent fevers often appear under a highly aggravate J 
and violent form, usually prevailing as an epidemic* I© this cli- 
mate it is often very prevalent in the latter part of dry sumiisers 
and in autumn ; sometimes being of a mild character,, and ai 
other times more violent., It appears most apt to attack persons 
of a relaxed habit, those who undergo great fatigue, breathe aa 
impure air, and make use of poor and unwholesome diet. 

Remittent fever generally comes on with a sense of heaviness 
and languor, attended by anxiety, sighing, yawning, and alternate 
fits of heat and cold. The patient then experiences severe pains 
in the head and back, intense heat over the whole body, with 
thirst, difficulty of breathing, and dejection of spirits; the tongue 
is white ; the eyes and skin often appear yellow ; sometimes there 
is a sense of swelling and pain about the region of the stomach; 
nausea and vomiting of bilious matter; with a frequent small 
pulse. 

After the continuance of these symptoms for a while, the fever 
abates considerably, or goes imperfectly off by a gentle moisture 
diffused partially over the body; but returns again, in a few 
hours, with the same appearances as before. In this manner, 
with paroxysms, and imperfect remissions, it proceeds at last to 
a crisis, or is changed into a typhus, or an intermittent. 

The disease of which we are speaking has acquired the popu- 
lar name of bilious (ever, owing to the fact, that in a majority of 
cases, there appears to be an increased secretion of bile which 
is thrown up in vomiting, and also passes off by stool, often giving 
the stools a dark or black appearance. 

Bilious fevers are most commonly to be met with along streams, 
in the neighborhood of marshes, and near stagnant waters; and 
they arise most frequently in the latter part of summer and in 
the fall, but may also Occur at any other period during the warm 
season. 



156' BILIOUS FEVER. 

It often, however, appears in a much more aggravated form 
than that just described; for sometimes a severe delirium comes 
on and the patient may die during the first paroxysm; or the 
remission, perhaps, is scarcely perceptible, and is immediately 
followed by another paroxysm, in which there is a considerable 
increase of all the symptoms. The fever runs much higher, 
the face is greatly flushed, the thirst excessive, the tongue is 
covered with a dark brown fur, breathing is laborious; the pulse 
is quick, throbbing, and tremulous. After a while, perhaps an- 
other short or imperfect remission takes place, but the symptoms 
again return with redoubled violence, and at length destroy the 
patient. 

The symptoms of remittent fever are apt, however, to vary so 
much, according to the situation, and constitution of the patient, 
and also the season of the year, that it is impossible to give a cer- 
tain detail of them; for sometimes those pointing out a redun- 
dancy of the bile predominate; sometimes the nervous are most 
prevalent; and at other times the putrid. 

A remittent fever is always attended with some hazard, parti, 
cularly in hot climates. The shorter and more obscure the re- 
missions are, the greater will be the danger, and each succeeding 
paroxysm will be attended with more danger than the former one 
was. 

On the contrary, the milder the attack, and the nearer the 
fever approaches to an intermittent, the less we may apprehend 
a fatal termination. The grand object aimed at by many of the 
mineral doctors, in the treatment of this disease, is to change it 
into an intermittent fever, when, if they succeed, they think the 
patient out of danger, and abandon him to his fate ; in which case 
he has the consolation of escaping the hazard of being destroyed 
by unnatural, poisonous medicines, and of being cured in nature's 
own way. 

Treatment. — In cases of remittent fever, immediate recourse 
must be had to the vapor bath, with the full course of medicine, 
and free use of injections. A dose of Bunnell's pills, or of some 
other purgative medicine, may be administered if the intestines 
appear much disordered, either before or after the course of 
medicine. Care should be taken after the course, to keep up 



BILIOUS FEVER. 157 

a constant perspiration or moisture of the skin, by the use of the 
diaphoretic powders, or cayenne, and the application of hot 
bricks, or rocks. The quantity of medicine, and the frequency 
of the doses, must be regulated altogether by the effects pro- 
duced; the object is to keep up a perspiration, and if a small 
quantity will not answer, a larger must be used. 

If these means do not remove the urgent symptoms, another 
course of medicine must be administered, if the case be a bad 
one, within four-and-twenty hours; after which the same plan 
must be pursued, as in the first place, to keep up the perspira- 
tion. 

If the stools still appear dark, and are very disagreeable, an- 
other purge may be given to cleanse the intestines; minding dur- 
ing the operation, to give the patient gruel, or nourishing broths, 
as well as the diaphoretic powders, or cayenne, to strengthen 
and stimulate; thus preventing the prostration which usually 
follows the operation of purgative medicines. It ought, however, 
to be carefully borne in mind, that a sparing use should be made 
of purges in this as well as all other complaints, and that the 
surest indications for their use is a looseness of the bowels, with a 
foul appearance, and highly disagreeable smell of the stools. 

The course of medicine must be repeated as often as may be 
necessary, and at such intervals as the case may require, until 
the fever is removed. 

If there be symptoms of nervous irritation, during the course 
of the disease, the nerve powder must be used in such quantity 
as appears requisite to allay them. And if there be great pain 
in the head, with restlessness, the forehead and temples should 
be often bathed with cold vinegar and water, and the whole body 
may be washed with the same, or with a weak solution of pearl- 
ash in water, especially if the means recommended for producing 
perspiration are not attended with the desired effect. 

To restore the appetite and strength, the bitters must be used ; 
and if extreme debility or exhaustion has been produced, wine, 
or brandy may also be taken. 

Great care must also be observed to guard against a relapse, by 
avoiding fatigue, exposure to cold, or damp air, and by strict 
attention to diet. The appetite often being too strong for the 
digestive powers, the patient must be on his guard against eat- 



168 • RHEUMATiSJJ, 

ing too much, as fatal relapses have sometimes arisen from that 
source; and if at any time he should find himself much oppressed 
by food, a dose of bitters, or of the golden seal must be taken, 
•which if it do not relieve, and the symptoms are urgent, indicating 
a relapse, an emetic, or a full course of medicine, should be im- 
mediately administered, Moderate exercise during recovery 
will be useful, but ought not to be carried to fatigue. 



RHEUMATISM* 

This complaint is distinguished into chronic and acute; being 
considered as chronic, when there is little or no fever or inflam- 
mation, but pain; and acute, when both fever and inflammation, 
exist in a high degree. These distinctions, however, are more 
fanciful than real, only indicating different degrees of the same 
disease. 

Rheumatism may arise at any time of the year, when there are 
frequent changes of weather from heat to cold, or from dry to 
wet; but spring and fall are the seasons in which it is most pre- 
valent. It attacks persons of all ages, but adults, and persons 
advanced in life, as well as those whose employments subject 
them to alternations of heat and cold, are most liable to it. 

The acute rheumatism, in some respects resembles the gout, 
though in others it is different. Rheumatism usually comes on 
in a more gradual manner than gout, for the most part giving 
the patient warning by a slow increase of pain. Nor is it so apt 
to be fixed to one part as gout, but often wanders from place to 
place. It seldom attacks the small joints, as gout almost invari- 
ably does, but is commonly confined to the larger, as the knees, 
hips, back, and shoulders. The acute rheumatism is generally 
attended by a continual fever, whilst the gout has periodical 
remissions. 

This complaint often occurs in so mild a form as to produce 
little or no inconvenience, from which it may be traced by 
almost imperceptible gradations up to cases of the most painful 
and inveterate character, attended with strong symptoms of 
inflammation, and a high degree of fever. 

Rheumatism is accompanied with a peculiar pain about the 
joints, most Gommonly, in the knees, hips, or shoulders, some- 



RHEUMATISM. 159 

times attended with swelling and extreme soreness or tender- 
ness to the touch, and a vast increase of pain on being moved. 
In worse cases, or those termed acute, there are also rigors, 
succeeded by fever, thirst, anxiety, restlessness, and a hard, full, 
and quick pulse. 

Little danger is attendant on rheumatism; but a person once 
attacked by it, ever afterward is more or less liable to returns of 
it, and sometimes an incurable stiffness of the joints occurs in 
consequence of repeated attacks. 

Rheumatism is caused, in general, by whatever obstructs the 
perspiration, or passage of the fluids through the vessels of the 
part ; and hence it may arise from any exposure to cold, wearing 
wet clothes, sleeping in damp beds, or rooms, or on the ground; 
or by being suddenly cooled when in a high state of perspira- 
tion. 

Those who are much afflicted with this complaint are very 
apt to be sensible of the approach of wet weather, by the wan- 
dering pains which they often experience previous to a storm. 



Treatment. — A great many different, as well as discordant, 
remedies have been used for the alleviation, or cure of rheuma- 
tism. Nothing, however, that we as yet know of, has sustained 
the character of an unfailing specific; though several have been 
ushered into public notice, as such. 

In mild attacks simply wrapping the affected part in flannel 
often affords salutary relief, and, if persisted in, generally effects 
a cure. In addition to this, bathing the part with the bathing 
drops, or with pepper and vinegar, will be highly serviceable; 
and in cases attended with much soreness, swelling, or pain, it 
ought never to be omitted. 

Sometimes pouring cold water on a rheumatic joint will give 
ease to the pain when nothing else seems to avail or do much 
good ; or first steaming it for some time, and then pouring on 
the water, in many instances will do better. The good effects 
of these means will be further promoted by frequent, or occa- 
sional doses of the diaphoretic powders or the cayenne ; and if 
the patient is confined to his bed, a hot stone or brick should 
be placed near the affected part, not only with a view of pro- 
moting a healthy action in the diseased joint, but also of produc- 



160 RHEUMATISM. 

ing general perspiration, aad giving energy and vigor to the 
whole system. 

In many cases of rheumatic affections, there is such a want of 
action and sensibility in the part, that it becomes insensible to 
the effects of the strongest stimulants. Where this is found to 
be the case,'as it is more or less on all occasions, the full effects 
which would otherwise result from the employment of stimulating 
washes are not produced. In order to favor the operation of 
those external means, the part should be bathed with the strong- 
est infusion of the cayenne in vinegar, and then hold it over a 
lively steam. Or what is more certain, in the worst cases, of 
producing the burning sensation, which is what is wanted, we 
may take the pods of red pepper, and steep them a short time in 
vinegar, or water, then open, and lay them nicely on the painful 
part, and apply a flannel bandage or wrapper over them ; in 
addition to which, if we choose, a hot rock may be placed near 
the part. By pursuing this course, we may be sure of produc- 
ing the desired effect, in a short time. 

An ointment made by boiling peppers in water until the 
strength is extracted, then skimming out the pods, or straining 
the liquor, adding hogs' lard, and simmering down, has been 
highly recommended as an external application to rheumatic 
affections. 

In addition to external applications of every kind, to the part 
immediately affected, the use of the vapor bath will be found 
highly advantageous, nay, indispensibly necessary, in all bad 
cases: and if there be symptoms of inflammation with great 
pain, and fever, the whole course of medicine must be admin- 
istered, and daily repeated until the urgent symptoms are re- 
moved. 

In cases of this kind, the bitters and cayenne must be taken 
several times a day, as well between the courses, as after these 
become unnecessary, until the complaint is entirely removed. 

To strengthen and restore the weakened joint to its healthy 
state, after the pain and soreness have left it, we should bathe it 
daily with some stimulating wash, shower it with cold water, 
and keep it covered with a flannel cloth. 

If stiffness of the joint follows the rheumatism, the part should 
be bathed with some stimulating wash, or the ointment of which 



RHEUMATISM. 



161 



we bave just spoken, or the nerve ointment of Dr. Thomson, 
and be often held over a hot steam of vinegar and water, or herbs^ 
such as tansy, mint, &c. may be used instead of the vinegar. 

In a late work, published by Dr. Gunn, of Knoxville, in Ten- 
nessee, we find a new method of producing perspiration in the 
treatment of rheumatism, very highly recommended by him, on 
practical experience of its virtues in a great many cases, both in 
Tennessee and Virginia. 

The superiority of Dr. Gunn's vapor bath over the common 
method, (if it really be superior) consists in the medicated fluid 
with which the vapor is made. He directs half an ounce of salt 
petre, one ounce of seneka snake root, well bruised, and half an 
ounce of sulphur, to be put into a quart of whisky, and stand five 
days before using. The patient may then be surrounded with a 
blanket, being naked, as for steaming in the common way, and 
having red hot stones placed under him, the liquor just described 
must be poured very slowly, or rather dropped, through an open- 
ing in the blanket on the stones, by which he says a powerful 
sweat will be produced, which should be continued for a quarter 
of an hour, if the patient be strong enough to bear it so long. 
He also directs that if the patient becomes faint or sick, whilst in 
the bath, he should be immediately taken out; but we presume 
that with the aid of the cayenne, or the diaphoretic powders, 
taken before, or during the operation, and by applying cold water 
to the face, breast, &c. the faintness and sickness might readily 
be removed. 

There are also two other remedies often used in the treatment 
of rheumatism, and which are, by some, held in high estimation, 
that we deem worthy of a place here. These articles are a 
tincture of the common poke-weed or pigeon-berry, and the tea 
or tincture of squaw or rattle-root. We have never heard any 
person prescribe the proportions which ought to be observed in 
preparing either of those articles for use, or the quantity to be 
taken as a dose ; but suppose that each one who uses them does 
it at his own discretion. We are constrained, however, to notice 
one circumstance connected with this subject; that the effects 
produced upon the system by a large dose of the tincture of the 
rattle-root, in some instances, is very alarming; though we have 

21 



ltJS RICKETS. 

heard of no case in which any bad consequences have followed 
its use. 

Dr. William Ripley, of Cincinnati, in whose sound judgment 
and practical experience we have much confidence, informs us 
that preparing the rattle-root in tea prevents almost entirely the 
alarming effects which have been known to follow the use of the 
tincture. It is very possible, indeed we think highly probable, 
that a compound of the tincture of the poke-berries and tea of 
the rattle-root might be a more valuable remedy for rheuma- 
tism, than either of them al©ne. 



RICKETS. 

This disease comes on slowly, the first symptoms being a flac- 
cidity or softness and looseness of the flesb, emaciation of the 
body, pale complexion, and slight swelling of the face. The 
head at the same time becomes enlarged, compared with other 
parts of the body, and the sutures and fontanelle are opened or 
separated apart. The head continuing to increase in size, the 
forer end becomes at length unusually prominent, and the neck 
appe :s very slender in proportion to the head. 

Gulfing the teeth is very slow, and much later than is usual; 
and the teeth that do appear soon spoil and are apt to fall out. 
The ribs become mis-shapen, the breast-bone protrudes forward 
in the form of a ridge, the back-bone becomes crooked, the joints 
are swelled, whilst the limbs between the joints seem to be more 
slerder than before, and finally become distorted or crooked. 

With these symptoms there is a great diminution of strength, 
the child is averse to making the least exertion, and is unable to 
walk. Its appetite is not often much impaired, but its stools are 
usually frequent and loose, whilst the abdomen appears uncom" 
monJy full and swelled. 

Children laboring under the rickets, often possess a precocity 
or maturity of intellect, far beyond their years; though occa- 
sionally stupidity, and sometimes futuity or complete destruction 
of mind takes place. 

In some instances the disease proceeds no further, and the 
child gradually recovers its health and strength ; but the limbs 



RICKETS. 163 

are apt to be left, however, in a crooked state. In others it con- 
tinues to increase, till at last every function of the animal eco- 
nomy becomes affected, and the tragic scene is closed in death. 

Rickets seldom appear before the ninth month of the child's 
age, and very rarely shows itself after the completion of two 
years. It is more frequently met with amongst the children of 
the poor than those of higher rank, and is almost solely confined, 
to cold climates where much moisture prevails. 

In some cases rickets are supposed to be a hereditary disease, 
but it is oftener found in connection with a cold, damp residence, 
impure air, inattention to cleanliness, bad nursing, want of suffi- 
cient exercise, deficiency of food and debility. 

The proximate cause of this complaint is supposed to be a 
deficiency of phosphate of lime or bone-earth, which deprives 
the bones of their necessary strength and solidity, in consequence 
of which they become soft and then crooked. 

The rickets, although attended, in the worst cases, with much 
distortion of the bones, and various other unpleasant symptoms, 
very seldom proves fatal, unless where the distortion becomes so 
great as to interfere with the office of the lungs, or some other 
vital organ; or where the digestive powers become too weak to 
digest the food, when it passes unchanged through the intestines. 
Children at the breast are said to be more exposed to peril 
than those that have reached the age of three or four years, 



Treatment. — In the cure of rickets we should proceed on ihe 
plan of stimulating the vessels to greater activity, by the use of 
cayenne, &c. and bracing and strengthening the system by the 
use of tonics, both bitter and astringent. 

We may commence by carrying the child through a regular 
course of the medicine, for which directions will be found under 
the proper head, by looking in the index. After this we may 
give it from half to a whole table spoonful of the wine-bitters, 
three or four times a day, and about the same quantity of a tea 
of the diaphoretic powders, made sweet, and enough cream 
added to make it pleasant. This course must be rigidly pursued' 
and if it does not appear to be mending, another course of medfc 
cine should be resorted to, and repeated, if necessary, at prop#> 



164 RING WORM. 

intervals, until the symptoms become better. Injections should 
likewise be often used. 

The cure will also be much hastened by the daily use of the 
vapor and cold bath, or even by the cold bath alone; tempering 
the water according to the age and strength of the child. Pre- 
vious, however, to putting it into the bath, or pouring the water 
on it^ which is the best way of using the bath, the child must 
have a dose of some warming medicine, and immediately after 
the water is poured on, wipe it dry with a warm towel, and lay 
$ in its cradle, or bed, and cover it warm, where it may lay for 
fifteen minutes to half an hour, or until it has recovered from 
the shock and fatigue of the bath. It should then be taken up 
and dressed. 

The child ought also to be warmly clothed, even the feet y as 
we have seen one case in which occasional inattention to them 
evidently retarded the cure. 

It should likewise have proper exercise, by being taken in fair 
and warm weather, into the open air, endeavoring to carry it in 
such a way as will not be likely to increase the deformity of its 
bones. 

The diet should be nourishing, of easy digestion, and adapted 
to the age of the child. 

RING WORM, AND TETTER. 

These complaints, though not considered as precisely the 
same, are both to be managed in the same way. , 

Ring Worm is more common in warm than in cold climates, 
and shows itself in small red pimples, which break out in a cir- 
cular form, and contain a thin acrid fluid. When the body is 
keated by exercise, these circular eruptions itch, and on being 
scratched, discharge their contents, which falling on the sound 
parts, spread and increase the disease, to a much greater extent 
than at the commencement. 

In some cases, the disease seems so universal, that the whole 
system becomes tainted ; the skin puts on a leprous appearance, 
and is much disfigured by blotches, whilst the unhappy patient 
is im continual torment from the intolerable itching and painful 
excoriation. 



RING WORM. 165 

Tetter consists in an eruption of broad itchy spots dispersed 
here and there over the skin, of a whitish or red color, which 
gradually spread until they meet or run into each other, dis- 
charge a thin fluid, and either form extensive excoriations of the 
skin, or end in bad ulcers. 

After a while scurfy scales make their appearance, which 
peel off, leaving the under surface red; but the eruption soon 
makes its appearance, and goes the same round again and again, 
until the disease is either cured, or goes off spontaneously, which 
latter, however, rarely occurs. Some persons seem to be con- 
stitutionally predisposed to eruptions of this kind. 



Treatment. — Various remedies have been recommended for 
this complaint, and used with different degrees of success. — 
Washing the part with ink made of ink-powder, or with alum 
water, often effects a cure, especially of the ring worm. The 
juice of the black walnut husk or shuck, applied to the affected 
part, is also a useful remedy. 

Washing the part in salt and water, has sometimes effected 
cures when other applications failed; as also the tincture of 
lobelia, and even the anti-spasmodic tincture, have been success- 
fully resorted to as an external application in eruptions of the 
skin. 

A tea of blood-root or red puceoon, steeped in good vinegar, 
has, however, been more highly recommended perhaps, than any 
other article for the treatment of ring worm and tetter. The 
part affected should be washed with this liquid, two or three 
times a day. i 

In a little work recently published, purporting to be the re- 
formed practice of medicine, as taught at the Reformed Medical 
Colleges in New York and Worthington, we find the following 
recipe to make tetter ointment: — "Take of turpentine and fresh 
butter, of each half a pound ; yellow wax, white lilly root, and 
plantain, of each two ounces; sweet oil, and Indian turnip, each 
one ounce; yellow ochre two drachms," (one fourth of an ounce,) 
melt the turpentine, wax, and butter, and then stir in the other 
articles. 



166 st. antho»t's fire. 

The use of the sulphur bath, made by burning the sulphur and 
confining the vapor to the part, or to the whole body, is also highly 
recommended for eruptions of the skin, by some physicians of this 
country, and particularly by those of France. 

The daily, or less frequent use of the vapor bath, by promoting 
the discharges by the skin which it also cleanses and softens, is a 
highly useful remedy in all diseases of this kind. 



ST. ANTHONY'S FIRE, OR ERYSIPELAS. 

This disease is an inflammation of the skin, commencing gene- 
rally with fever, drowsiness, and oftentimes delirium. 

Every part of the body is liable to the attacks of erysipelas, 
but it more frequently appears on the face, legs, and feet, than 
any where else when seated externally; and in warm climates 
it is a more frequent form of inflammation than the phlegmonous 
or those which terminate in suppuration. 

Although the disease under consideration sometimes attacks 
infants, and occasionally youth, yet it seldom occurs before the 
person arrives at mature age; and is most usually met with in ad- 
vanced life, more often amongst women than men, particularly 
those of a sanguine irritable habit or temperament. In some 
people there exists a predisposition to the disease, sometimes 
returning periodically, making its attacks once or twice a year, 
and in some instances much oftener, producing great exhaus- 
tion and debility. 

St. Anthony's fire is brought on by the different causes which 
produce inflammations in general; such as injuries of all kinds, 
the application of stimulant acrid matters to the skin, as blister- 
ing plasters, exposure to cold, particularly during a course of 
mercury, obstructed perspiration, &c. &c. 

In slight cases, where it attacks the extremities, it makes its 
appearance with a roughness, heat, pain, and redness of the skin, 
which becomes pale when the finger is pressed upon it but 
returns to its former color, when the finger is removed. There 
is also a burning and itching of the part; and a slight fever. 
These symptoms continue for a few days, when the surface of 



ST. ANTHONY 8 F1KE. 



167 



the part affected becomes yellowish, the cuticle or scarf-skin 
falls off in scales, and the disease will be at an end. 

But on the other hand, if the attack has been very severe, 
and the inflammation high, there will be pains in the head and 
back, great heat, thirst, and restlessness ; the part affected will 
be slightly swelled; the pulse small and frequent; and about 
the fourth day perhaps, a number of little blisters, containing 
a clear, or in some instances a yellowish fluid, will appear. In 
some cases the fluid contained in the blisters, is viscid or sticky, 
and instead of running out when the blister is broken, it adheres 
to, and dries upon the skin. 

In unfavorable cases, these blisters occasionally degenerate 
into obstinate ulcers, which sometimes end in mortification. — 
This, however, does not often happen ; for although it is not 
uncommon for the skin and blisters, to appear livid, or blackish, 
this usually disappears with the other symptoms of the com- 
plaint. 

This disease appears to be most dangerous when it attacks the 
face. In this case it comes on with chilliness, succeeded by fever, 
thirst, restlessness, with a drowsiness, or tendency to coma and 
delirium, and the pulse is frequent and full. After two or three 
days, a fiery redness shows itself on some part of the face, which 
at length extends to the head, and gradually down the neck, 
leaving every part which the redness has occupied a little 
swelled. 

The whole face at length becomes full and the eye-lids are so 
much swelled as to deprive the patient of sight. Nearly the 
same appearances follow the redness and inflammation of the 
face, as those described on the extremities. 

No remission of the fever follows the appearance of the red- 
ness on the face; but on the contrary, it is increased as the 
inflammation spreads. 

In the course of the disease the disposition to sleepiness and 
delirium sometimes increases, and the patient is destroyed be- 
tween the seventh and eleventh days of the complaint 



Treatment. — As this disease oftentimes goes off spontane- 
ously by a sweat, we should commence the cure by steaming, 
and then giving an emetic; in other words, administer a course 



168 ST. VITUS DAKGB. 

of medicine, and, if necessary, repeat it at suitable intervals 
until the inflammation and fever are removed. 

In proof of the propriety of emetics we not only have the 
general principles of medical philosophy, but also the authority 
of eminent medical men. Dr. Abernethy says, "I'll be hanged 
if erysipelas is not always the result of a disordered state of the 
digestive organs; but how to put it to rights," he very candidly 
says, " I do not know." 

Now we do not introduce this remark of Abernethy's as proof 
direct, of the propriety of emetics, but to show his opinion of 
the cause of the complaint. It is admitted by all perhaps, that 
in disordered digestion, emetics are valuable. 

After the course of medicine, the perspiration must be kept 
up by frequent doses of the diaphoretic powders, and cayenne 
aided by the application of hot bricks, or stones. To allay the 
heat and irritation of the inflamed part, dusting it over with 
flour, or starch, has been highly recommended ; but we think 
the application of cold water a far better means of accom- 
plishing that object. If the inflammation is seated on such 
a part that water cannot consistently be poured on it, cloths wet 
in cold water may be applied instead of it. Stimulating washes 
may also be used both previous to the cold applications, and 
afterwards. 

As a means of strengthening the digestive powers, the bitters 
may be gives three or four times a day, both during the exist- 
ence of the inflammation and afterwards ; and if symptoms of 
mortification show themselves, the most energetic measures 
should be pursued ; for which see under the proper head. 



ST. VITUS' DANCE. 

This disease is marked by convulsive motions, most generally 
confined to one side, and affecting principally the arm and leg. 
When any motion is attempted to be made, various muscles act 
which ought not to, and thus a contrary effect is produced from 
what was intended. 

This complaint is said to be chiefly incident to young persons 
of both sexes, particularly those of a weak constitution, or whose 



st. Vitus' dance. 1§9 

health and vigor have been impaired by confinement, or by the 
use cf scanty and improper nourishment. It makes its attacks 
between the age of ten and fifteen, occurring but seldom after 
maturity. But the only cases of this complaint which we : 4ve 
seen, occurred after maturity, and grew worse with age. These 
cases, moreover, were undoubtedly hereditary in the ma:^ line, 
whilst the females were entirely exempt from the disease, In 
some the symptoms appeared earlier in life than in others, but 
all the males, sooner or later, became affected, and gradually 
grew worse, at least for several years, though the females, as 
just stated, were not known to be afilicted by this unpleasant 
disease. This unfortunate family appeared to have the com- 
plaint equally in all parts of the system, and were never free 
from its influence only when in bed or asleep. A very remark- 
able circumstance connected with the history of this family was, 
that one individual who could scarcely be said to be still one 
moment, was an excellent marksman with the rifle, often, for his 
own and other's amusement, shooting birds on the v/ing. 

St. Vitus' dance, in addition to its being hereditary as has 
just been stated, is occasioned by various irritating causes, such 
as teething, worms, acrid matter in the bowels, offensive smells, 
poisons, &lc. It arises likewise in consequence of violent affec- 
tions of the mind, as horror, fright, and anger. In many cases it 
is produced by general weakness and irritability of the nervous 
system, and in a few it takes place from sympathy at seeing the 
disease in others. 

This complaint is sometimes preceded by a coldness of the feet 
and limbs, or a kind of tingling sensation which ascends like cold 
air up the back, with a flatulent pain in the left side, and obstin- 
ate costiveness. At other times it comes on with yawning 
stretching, anxiety about the heart, palpitations, nausea, difficul- 
ty of swallowing, noise in the ears, giddiness, and pains in the 
head and teeth. 

The disease first affects the legs, by a kind of lameness, and 
the patient drags them after him in an odd ridiculous manner, 
nor can he hold his arms still, but is constantly throwing or mov- 
ing them about in an ungraceful manner, which it is impossible 
for him to avoid. When he eats or drinks, he uses many singu- 
lar jesticulations before he can carry the food or drink to his 

22 



170 SCALLED HEAD. 

mouth ; the head in some eases partaking of the same convulsive 
action. Sometime! various attempts at running and leaping 
take place, and at others the head and trunk of the hody are 
affected by convulsive motions. The eye loses its lustre and in- 
telligence, and the countenance is pale and expressive of vacan- 
cy; swallowing is occasionally performed with difficulty, the 
speech is often impeded, and sometimes completely suspended. 

When this disease arises in children, it usually ceases again 
b«fore mature age, and in adults is often carried offby a change 
from the former mode of life. Unless it passes into some other 
disease, such as epilepsy, or its attacks are violent, it is not at- 
tended with danger. 

Treatment. — As costiveness generally prefails in this disease, 
strict attention should be paid to the bowels, using injections and 
laxative bitters, with occasional courses of medicine to invigorate 
the whole system. The tincture of nerve powder ought also to 
be taken, and if this does not, after a reasonable time, appear 
likely to check the involuntary action of the muscles, we may 
substitute the anti-spasmodic tincture, in doses proportioned to 
the age and symptoms, two or three times a day. 

Where little debility prevails, and much costiveness, repeated 
purgings have been highly recommended, as having been attend- 
ed with great success. If this mode of treatment, however, 
should be ventured upon, every precaution should be taken to 
prevent debility: The bitters, and occasional doses of cayenne, 
©«ght to be administered, to which may be added the nervine 
tincture, with a good nourishing diet, and once in a while a 
i?os!x*e of medicine. 



SCALED HEAD. 

Sa&i£2D, scald, or scalfc head, consists in an inflammation of 
the akin of the head, producing a discharge of a peculiar gluey 
matter, which sticks among the hair, and often gradually increases 
until th« whole head is covered with a scab. 

Children are principally subject to this complaint, particularly 
■ hose of the poor j and frequently arise* in consequence of un- 



SCALLED H1AD. 171 

cleanliness, or from the want of a dae proportion of whoisaofrre 
nourishing food, and possibly from bad nursing. In many in- 
stances it is propagated by contagion, either by using a comb 
imbued with the matter from a diseased head, or by putting on 
a hat or cap worn by a person laboring under the complaint. 

The scald head first commences with a brownish spot on some 
part of the head; which soon discharges a peculiar matter, pro- 
ducing a scab. Other sores soon form on different parts, and, if 
not checked, the whole head, in time, becomes one scab, from 
which issues a very offensive matter. 



Treatment. — We may commence the cure of this unpleaiant 
disease, by anointing the head with oil, hogs' lard, or fresh bat- 
ter, when it ought to be covered with the leaf of skunk, or com- 
mon cabbage, or a bladder may be drawn over it. The oil is to 
soften the scabs; and the cabbage leaves, or bladder, to promote 
perspiration of the head, and thus assist in still further dissolving 
the hard scabs. These applications ought to be made at night; 
and in the morning the leaves must be removed, the head washed 
with soap suds, endeavoring to get the scabs all off; and when 
this is accomplished wash it with a preparation of equal parts of 
the tincture of myrrh, tincture of lobelia, and a strong tea of bay- 
berry, pond-lilly, or beth-root. After the washing, the head must 
be carefully kept from the air by drawing a bladder over it, or 
by the use of a handkerchief or cloth, and if the cose be a bad 
one, the patient ought to have a course of medicine occasionally. 
If the bowels are costive, they must be relieved by injections? 
and kept regular by the laxative bitters, of which the parilla 
ought to form a part, and at the same time taking three or four 
times a day of the diaphoretic powders, to assist in promoting?, 
healthy action in the system. 

The head must be dressed every day, in the following manner: 
after washing clean with mild soap suds, it must be then washed 
with lime water, made by slacking a piece of lime, of the bigness 
of a hen's egg, in a quart of water. After washing with this, 
apply the tinctures of lobelia and myrrh, and the astringent tea 
as before directed, when the following ointment may be applied 
to the core: — Take two table spoonsful of pure tar, one tabk 



172 SCARLET FEVER. 

spoonful of powdered charcoal, two tea spoonsful of sulphur, or 
powdered brimstone, to which must be added of hogs' lard suffi- 
cient to make a soft ointment. When the dressing is completed, 
the bladder cap should be applied to shield the head from the 
air. 

Simply sprinkling the head with powdered charcoal after 
washing, has proved highly efficacious in scalledhead; and drink- 
ing a tea of yellow dock-root, yellow parilla, and sassafras, may 
be regarded as a valuable remedy. The diet should be whole- 
some and nutritive, avoiding salted meats and fish. 

SCARIiET FEVER. 

This disease attacks persons of all ages, but children and 
young persons are most subject to it; and it appears at all sea- 
sons of the year, but is most frequent in the latter part of fall and 
beginning of winter, at which seasons it often prevails as an epi- 
demic. 

Scarlet fever is generally regarded as a contagious disease, 
though it is by some disputed as being such. It is also said by 
some, that the same individual is liable to have it but once in his 
life, though it is pretty generally admitted, at the present day, 
that this is not the fact. 

As an epidemic, scarlet fever does not always assume precisely 
the same character. This diversity probably depends upon the 
difference of constitution in different individuals; different sea- 
sons of the year; different states of the atmosphere; different 
conditions of the individual when exposed to the contagion, 
&c. &c. 

The disorder to which scarlet fever bears the greatest resem- 
blance is measles, for the distinguishing symptoms of which, see 
measles. 

This complaint, like other fevers, commences with languor, 
lassitude, chills, or shiverings, heat, confusion of ideas, thirst, dry 
skin, anxiety, nausea, and vomiting. The stools are usually of 
the common quantity, urine high colored and turbid, and the 
pulse weak and varying from 100 to 120 strokes in a minute. 

About the second or third day, numerous specks, or minute 
patches, of a vivid red color, appear about the face and neck; 



SCARLET FEVER. ITS 

and within twenty -four hours, a like efflorescence is diffused over 
the surface of the body, and occasionally even tinges the inside 
of the lips, cheeks, palate, and fauces. 

Sometimes the efflorescence is continuous over the whole body; 
but, frequently, on the trunk there are intervals of a natural 
color between the patches, with dots scattered over them. There 
is an increase of fever in the evening, at which time the rash is 
most florid or red, and is less so in the morning. 

On the fifth day, the eruption begins to decline; the intervals 
between the patches begin to widen, and the florid hue fades. 
On the sixth the rash is very indistinct, and is wholly gone on the 
seventh. 

But the description which we have given, is of the disease in its 
mildest form. In the more malignant forms of the scarlet fever, 
we find, in addition to the symptoms first enumerated being of an 
aggravated character, soreness of the throat; inflammation and 
ulceration of the tonsils; the breathing is frequent and laborious; 
the pulse quick, small, and depressed. 

In the progress of this form of the disease, one universal redness 
often pervades the face, body, and limbs, with some appearance 
of swelling. The eyes, and nostrils likewise partake more or less 
of the redness ; and a tendency to delirium often prevails. 

Sometimes also a disposition to run into putrefaction takes 
place, which is known by the pulse being small, indistinct and 
irregular; the tongue, teeth, and lips, are covered by a black fur 
or incrustation; with foetid breath; livid color of the cheeks; 
deafness and delirium ; and great prostration of strength, Ulcer- 
ations of the fauces also arise, similar to the putrid sore throat; 
and the tongue is liable to be excoriated by the slightest touch. 
The rash or redness, is usually faint, excepting perhaps a few irre- 
gular patches, which soon changes tola livid or dark red color. 
It also appears later in the disease, i3 very uncertain in its dura- 
tion, and in some instances suddenly disappears in a few hours 
after it comes out; but may perhaps show itself again in two or 
three days. 

When scarlet fever terminates favorably, the fiery redness 
gradually abates, and is succeeded by a brown color; the skin 
becomes rough, and peels off in small scales; the swelling sub- 
sides, and the heakh is gradually restored. 



174 SCARLET FEVER. 

The mild forms of this disease are not to be regarded as dan- 
gerous; but when it partakes much of the character of putrid 
sore throat, or appears much inclined to putrefaction, it must 
be viewed in a more unfavorable light. 



Treatment. — In mild cases of this complaint, nothing more 
may be necessary than to give occasional doses of the diapho- 
retic powders, to promote perspiration, and, if the bowels are 
costive, an injection ought occasionally to be administered; 
whilst the digestive powers may be restored, and the bowels 
regulated with the laxative bitters. 

Dr. CuaRiE, of Liverpool, states that the affusion of cold 
water, at the commencement, and during the hot stage of this 
fever, completely removes the disease and prevent any efflor- 
escence or redness from appearing. His method is to strip the 
patient entirely naked and dash four or five gallons of the coldest 
water he could get, over the body; repeating the operation ten 
, or twelve times in twenty-four hours, if the heat or fever con- 
tinued to return so often. 

He further adds, that he pursued this course with so invari- 
able success, in upwards of one hundred and fifty cases, that 
he could not contemplate it without emotions of surprize, as well 
as of satisfaction. Those who wish to try this practice would no 
doubt increase the good effects of the cold affusion, by adminis- 
tering a dose of cayenne, or of the diaphoretic powders previ- 
ous to applying the water. 

But we think, nevertheless, that using the vapor bath to pro- 
mote perspiration, and then pouring on the cold water, is a more 
sure and speedy method of removing the beat and fever, than 
the cold water alone. 

In bad cases, the course of medicine should be resorted to, 
and repeated as the circumstances of the case may require, until 
a dure is effected. 

If a soreness of the throat takes place, it must be treated as 
directed under the head of putrid sore throat; and where mor- 
tification is apprehended, we should resort to the means recom- 
mended under that head. 



SCURYT. 17U 

If purgative medicines are at all admissable in scarlet fever v 
it must be at the first onset ; and even then, the tendency to run 
into typhus, and end in putrefaction, is sometimes so great as to 
render cathartics dangerous. 

The appetite and strength should be restored with the bitters, 
•wine, nourishing food and gentle exercise. 



SCURVY. 

This complaint, is arranged by Dr. Good, under three differ- 
ent heads or species; which he denominates petechial, land, and 
sea scurvy. 

The first species, or petechial-scurvy, is characterized by nu- 
merous small spots, resembling flea-bites; chiefly appearing on 
the breast, arms, and legs; with a pale countenance. 

The second species, or land scurvy, shows itself in circular 
spots, of different sizes; often in stripes or patches, scattered 
irregularly over the legs, arms, and body; with occasional 
hemorrhages from the mouth, nose, or internal parts; attended 
with great debility and depression of spirits. 

The third species, or sea-scurvy, is characterized by spots of 
different hues, and found principally at the roots of the hair; 
the teeth are loose ; the gums spongy, and apt to bleed ; the 
breath is fetid ; and extreme universal debility prevails. 

All these varieties, however, may be contemplated under one 
head as only different degrees of violence, or mildness, of the 
same disease. The last species named, is not, however, denom- 
inated sea-scurvy from its exclusive prevalence at sea, but be- 
cause it is there that it' is most common, and there that it rages 
with most violence, and produces the greatest havoc. 

The same causes which produce this fatal malady at sea, will 
also doit on shore; and in armies and garrisons reduced to short 
allowance or unwholesome provisions, like causes have given rise 
to scurvy of a most malignant and fatal character; especially 
where they have been worn down by fatigue or anxiety, and 
exposed to a damp air. 

The causes which generally give rise to scurvy are, severe 
labor; weak or unwholesome diet, breathing an impure air, anx- 



176 scuRvr. 

ietj af mind, debilitating menstrual evacuations, and, at sea, by 
living on salt provisions. 

In the worst forms of this disease, there arises a tendency to 
patrefaction; and a singular disposition, as related by Lord 
Anson, in old wounds after being long healed, to break open 
afresh, and become ill-conditioned sores; the same thing also 
happening with broken bones. 

The scurvy comes on gradually with lassitude, weariness, 
faintness, and pains in the limbs; dejection of spirits, anxiety, 
and oppression at the breast; loss of strength, and debility. — 
After this there often are shiverings, nausea, and vomiting. The 
purple spots or eruption, which is the principal characteristic of 
the disease, commonly appears first on the legs, and afterwards, 
at irregular periods, on the thighs, arms, and trunk of the body. 
The spots sometimes appear on the inside of the mouth, tonsils, 
lips or gums; and it is from here the first hemorrhage issues, 
though as the disease advances, blood also flows from the nose, 
lungs, stomach, intestines, and uterus. The bleeding is often- 
times profuse; and the disease is accompanied with dropsical 
swellings of the legs. 

The state of the bowels is various; the stools being sometimes 
frequent and offensive ; whilst at other times an obstinate cos- 
tireness prevails. 

Our description thus far has been principally confined to the 
milder forms of scurvy. In the worst degrees of it, such as has 
sometimes taken place in long sea voyages, all the symptoms 
which have been described become aggravated; and the last 
stage, says Dr. Good, is truly distressing. Blood is frequently 
discharged from the intestines, bladder, and other organs. The 
slightest motion brings on faintness, and often immediate death. 
Catchings of the breath and syncope or fainting, become frequent 
and dangerous; yet the patient is so insensible of his real weak- 
ness, that he often attempts exertion, and dies in the very effort; 
though more often he survives the attempt, for a short time, and 
especially when animated by some happy motive, as the hope 
of getting on shore, and then suddenly sinks into the arms of 
death. 



Treatment. — As diet has a great influence in the cure of 
scurvy, we will first direct the reader's attention to this subject. 



SCURVY. 177 

A person laboring under this disease ought to use no salt animal 
food, but, on the contrary, he should live mostly on vegetables, 
and what meat he does eat should be fresh. Of vegetables, he 
should use of those termed alkalescent, such as garlics, scurvy- 
grass, water-cress, &c; mustard, horse, and common radish, 
and lettuce; all of which may be freely eaten without cooking, 
together with beets, carrots, parsnips, turnips, cabbage, &c, 
which may be prepared by the common process of cookery. 
Sour fruits are also useful. 

The drink may consist of vinegar and water, sour buttermilk, 
or, what is far better, lemon-juice, which must be mixed with 
water, and sweetened with sugar. Indeed, this last article is 
now considered, in conjunction with proper diet, &c, a specific for 
scurvy. 

If the digestive powers have became much impaired, a course 
of medicine ought to be administered, and the bowels stimulated 
by injections. The daily use of the vapor bath will also be 
found highly beneficial, and the course of medicine must be re- 
peated as the exigencies of the case may seem to require. 

The wine-bitters must be taken two or three times a day; and 
a tea made of the roots of the narrow-dock, ought also often to 
be drunk during the intervals between taking the bjfters. We 
have known one bad case of scurvy cured by no other means 
than the dock- root tea, faithfully persevered in. There is no 
doubt that this article possesses in a high degree the power of 
curing this disease. If the fresh roots can he procured, a small 
handful of them may be sliced up and steeped in a quart of 
water, of which the patient may drink from a fourth to half a 
tea cup full several times a day; and if the dried root is used, 
one tea spoon full of the powder may be steeped in half a tea 
cup full of hot water, and taken as a dose, three or four times 
a day, in conjunction with the wine-bitters. 

The common bur-dock has also been advantageously used in 
cases of scurvy, and if the narrow-dock cannot be procured, this 
might be substituted for it. The medicinal powers of smooth 
or broad-leafed-dock, which so nearly resembles the narrow 
kind, is said by some to be fully equal to the narrow-dock in 
the cure of diseases of the skin, for which it is so celebra- 



178 SHINGLEi, 



ted; and in the abience of the narrow, the broad-leafed-dock 
may be used instead of it. 



SHINGLES. 

This disease, in Dr. Good's arrangement, is a variety of tet- 
ter, characterized by an eruption of blisters on some part of the 
trunk; appearing in clusters, which are disposed to spread round 
the body like a girdle. 

The name of this complaint is a corruption of either a French 
or Latin word, signifying a belt or girdle. 

An attack of shingles is sometimes preceded by sickness and 
head-ach; but in most instances, the first symptoms are, heat, 
itching, and tingling on some part of the body, which, when 
examined, is found to be covered with small red patches of an 
irregulap shape, situated near together, upon each of which 
numerous minute elevations or pimples are seen clustered to- 
gether. These pimples, in the course of twenty-four hours, 
become enlarged to the size of small pearls, are perfectly trans- 
parent, and filled with a clear fluid. 

The clusters are of various size?, one, two, or even three 
inches in diameter, and surrounded by a narrow red margin or 
ring. During three or four days, if the disease be not checked, 
other clusters arise in succession, and extend with considerable 
regularity in a line both ways round the body; though sometimes, 
like a sword belt, over the shoulder. 

As the patches which first appeared subside, the blisters par- 
tially run together, and assume a livid or blackish hue, termina- 
ting in thin dark scabs. About the twelfth or fourteenth day, 
the scabs fall off, when the skin under them appears red and 
tender; and where the most considerable sores have been, there 
are pits made hj scars. 

This complaint is generally to be regarded as of little conse- 
quence; though it is sometimes accompanied, especially on the 
decline of the eruption, with an intense deep-seated pain in the 
chest. 

The shingles may occur at all seasons, but it is most apt to 
aripe in summer and autumn. 



SMALL POX* 179 

Persons between twelve and twenty-five years of age are 
most liable to attacks of this disease, though individuals more 
advanced are not exempt from it. It is caused by cold, sudden 
fits of passion, violent exercise, cold indigestible food, and in- 
temperance. Occasionally, it is said to have appeared critical 
in bowel complaints and affections of the lungs. 



Treatment. — In general, little' need be done in affections of 
this kind. If, however, there should be a deep-seated pain in 
the chest, a course of medicine ought to be administered, and 
followed with the laxative bitters and diaphoretic powders. 
The bitters should be sufficiently laxative to keep the bowels 
loose; and if obstinate costiveness attend, a purge may be ad- 
ministered, aided by injections. 

The affected part may be washed with the bathing drops, or 
cold substances may be applied to it. A tea of the dock-root, 
we also think might be useful in this case, as well as in all other 
diseases of the skin. 



SMALL POX, 

This complaint has been very justly regarded as one of the 
greatest scourges of the human race. It is supposed that it was 
unknown to the ancient Greek and Roman physicians, as no 
definite description of the disease has been found in their writ- 
ings. The first account of it is met with in the works of the 
Arabian physicians; and from Arabia the smallpox was intro- 
duced into Europe where it spread devastation and death, 
unrestrained, if not accelerated in its destructive career, by the 
means adopted to oppose it 

Persons of all ages and both sexes are liable to the small pox, 
but the young are more exposed to its influence than persons 
who are very old. It is also said to be more prevalent in the 
spring and summer, than at other seasons of the year. 

This disease is of a highly contagious nature, and the same 
individual is, in general, liable to take the affection but once in 
his life; though a very few instances have occurred, in which 



180 



SMALL POX. 



the same person had a second attack. Some individuals en the 
contrary, appear altogether unsusceptible of the small pox, 
although exposed to its infection, and continue so through life; 
whilst others remain so only for a time, and then readily take 
the complaint. With some also the disease produces but little 
indisposition, though instances of this kind are very rare. 

Small pox commences with restless uneasy sensations, great 
dislike to motion, chilliness and heat, vomiting, soreness of the 
throat, pain in the head, and small of the back, great thirst and 
stupor. On the third or fourth day, the eruption appears on the 
face, neck, and breast, in small spots resembling flea-bites, which 
increase every night for the ensuing four days; during which 
time the whole body commonly becomes spotted with them, 
though the face is almost always much more thickly covered than 
any other part. 

Wherever the pimples appear, the part gradually swells, the 
eye-lids particularly, are often so much distended as to produce 
blindness. The spaces between the pimples are of a reddish 
cast, and, as the pimples suppurate and fill with matter, these 
spaces grow redder. About the eighth day, the suppuration is 
complete; and on the eleventh, the inflammation abates, and 
the pustules, as they are called when filled with matter, begin 
to decline and dry away by degrees and scale off, and wholly 
disappear by the fourteenth or fifteenth day, excepting those on 
the extremities, which, as they come out later, commonly remain 
a few days longer. The fever is inflammatory. 

Such is the ordinary course of the mild forms of small pox, 
but there often are great variations in the severity of the symp- 
toms, according to the degree of fever, and extent of the erup- 
tion, which are proportionate to each other; if the fever is high, 
the eruption will be considerable, and if moderate, it will be 
less and the pustules few. When the pimples are few and scat- 
tered, there will be but little indi&position ; but when they are 
numerous, the soreness, swelling, and fever will be very distress- 
ing. If the patient be an infant, convulsions sometimes occur 
previous to the appearance of eruption, as well as afterwards. 

We have stated that in the mild forms of small pox, the fever 
is inflammatory; and we might also have said that the pimples 
are separate and distinct from each other; but in the more vio- 



SMALL POX. 181 

lent and malignant varieties of the disease, the fever assumes 
the putrid or typhus form; the pustules run into each other» 
becoming confluent as it is termed, and often ends in death. 

The distinct small- pox is not considered dangerous, excepting 
when the fever which precedes the eruption is extremely violent, 
or when it attacks pregnant women, or symptoms of putridity 
arise. When there is a tendency to putrefaction, the disease 
often proves fatal between the eighth and eleventh days, but in 
some instances death is protracted till the fourteenth or sixteenth. 
Small pox is apt to leave behind it a predisposition to inflamma- 
tory complaints, particularly sore eyes, and inflammation of the 
lungs, and not unfrequently scrofula. 



Treatment. — We take the liberty here of laying before the 
reader, a statement of the medical treatment of small pox, fur- 
nished by Dr. Israel Wilson, a respectable botanical practi- 
tioner, in of the city of Cincinnati. We also deem it proper to 
say, that a number of other botanical practioners in that city, have 
had ample opportunity of testing the new practice, and have 
found it highly efficacious. 

" Dr. Wilson states, that he has had about fifteen cases of 
small pox, of which number only one died ; and in this case 
a ravine delirium immediately superevened on the taking place 
of the fever, before he saw the patient, which being a child, he 
was prevented from administering medicine. 

" The following is a statement of the manner in which one 
case was treated, and may be regarded as a fair sample or spe- 
cimen of the general mode of managing all the others. 

" On the 1st of May, 1830, Dr. Wilson was called to see a 
patient affected with a severe pain in the head and back, at- 
tended with stupor and general prostration of the powers of the 
system, and a quick but not full pulse. The case was soon 
recognized to be small pox. 

" In the first place an injection was administered to relieve 
the bowels, which were much constipated or bound ; when a 
regular course of medicine was resorted to, (including steaming) 
after which two more injections were given at short intervals, by 



182 SMALL POX. 

which the bowels were sufficiently opened. The injections were, 
however, continued as often as once in eight 4 hours until the 
eruption appeared, and the pustules became filled with matter. 
The cayenne and astringent compound were likewise freely 
used during the same time ; and after the filling of the pustules, 
the bitters and tonic cordial were resorted to, and continued 
until the patient was entirely well, which was in about two 
weeks from the time Dr. Wilson first saw his patient. 

"Dr. Wilson has not found it necessary to resort in any case of 
small pox, to more than two courses of medicine to produce the 
eruption, when the fever has always abated. The injections 
were made more stimulating than he makes them in other cases 
of disease. 

" It is also worthy of remark, that none of Dr. Wilson's pa- 
tients have had pits remaining in their faces after the disap- 
pearance of the pustules, as is often the case with persons cured 
under the old practice of medicine." 

Other practitioners of the botanical school, however, in the 
treatment of small pox, do not resort to the steaming process. 
Those who omit it, give medicine to promote perspiration; and 
relieve the bowels hy injections or mild purges. To produce 
perspiration, the diaphoretic powders, or cayenne, may be used, 
repeating the doses so often that the system shall be constantly 
under the influence of the medicine, 

Of the comparative value, or success, of treating small pox 
with or without the process of steaming, we are unable to judge ; 
and, therefore, those who may meet with this disease must form 
an opinion for themselves, as we can only say, that from all the 
testimony which we have obtained of those who ought to know, 
we have no hesitation in believing that either mode is far more 
successful than the old method of treating it. We are the more 
particular in thus expressing our sentiments on this subject, in 
consequence of reports of the inadequacy of the botanical prac- 
tice to cure small pox, which have grown out of two recent 
cases of failure ; and also because it is so directly in opposition 
to the mode adopted by the mineral doctors. Their practice 
consists in a diet wholly of vegetable food, purgatives every few 
days, cold drinks, light clothing, and exercise in the open air, or 
in a cool room. 



SMALL POX. 183 

We cannot well leave the present subject without laying be 
fore the reader some account of the very successful use of the 
squaw or rattle-root, in cases of the small pox. 

If the reader do not already know it, he may be informed 
that in the early days of this republic, the jurisdiction of the 
country along the Susquehannah River, about Wyoming, was 
claimed by the State of Connecticut, the laws of which disal- 
lowed of the practice of inoculation. Two physicians, how- 
ever, as our informants state, had so far disregarded the law as 
to inoculate one or two families in a private manner, with a 
view, as was supposed, of introducing the small pox into the 
neighborhood. Unfortunately for the Doctors, however, the 
circumstance got to the ears of the magistrates, and the Doctors 
were obliged to take measures to stop the progress of the dis- 
ease or become liable to a heavy penalty. 

As the physicians were returning from the magistrates, before 
whom they had been cited, to their innoculated patients, they 
were overheard by a person standing behind a tree, talking about 
the peculiar circumstances in which they were placed, and the 
means they should use to extricate themselves from their embar- 
rassments. The person who had secreted himself, continuing to 
observe their movements, saw them dismount from their horses 
and dig something from the earth that they carried away with 
them, which he found upon going to the spot, to be the squaw or 
rattle-root. His curiosity now prompted him to repair to the 
house of the inoculated family, which was near by, where he 
saw the bruised root steeped into a strong tea and freely admin- 
istered to the family ; and as no symptoms of small pox ever 
appeared, he very naturally concluded that the rattle-root tea 
destroyed the virus of the matter introduced by the process of 
inoculation. 

Such is the simple narrative of the circuir stances, as related 
to us by two individuals who lived in the same neighborhood at 
the time, and who were near relatives of the individual who 
made the discovery ; and we have unbounded confidence in the 
facts as stated ; but whether the rattle-root prevented the inocu- 
lation from taking effect is a matter involved in doubt. We 
have, however, more satisfactory evidence of its power to destroy 



|84 SMALL POX. 

the small pox virus, than is deducible from the case just related, 
and which we derived from the same source. 

The individual who made the discovery of the Doctors' using 
the rattle root, very naturally concluded that if it would destroy 
the virus before it had produced its specific effects upon the sys- 
tem, it would also weaken its force and disarm it of its destruc- 
tive powers after those effects had made their appearance. With 
these views, he embraced the first opportunity to recommend a 
trial of it, and found it succeeded beyond his expectations, in re- 
moving the urgent symptoms of this fatal malady, and reducing 
it to a mildness which, under similar circumstances, he had not 
been accustomed to see ; and the experiment, repeated again 
and again, not only by himself, but by others, and the effect 
which followed being so uniformly the same, left no doubt on the 
minds of our informants, that the rattle-root may be regarded as 
a specific against the effects of the small pox poison. 

But before leaving the subject, we will relate one case, amongst 
many others, in which the remedy in question gave ample evi- 
dence of its happy powers. A female, considerably advanced 
in life, took the small pox which made its appearance in its worst 
form, and ultimately arose to such a height that she was aban- 
doned by her physician as beyond the possibility of cure. The 
individual who had made the discovery of the rattle-root, hap- 
pening to be a particular friend of the old lady's, and hearing 
of her hopeless situation, immediately set out to visit her, being 
a distance of many miles. When he arrived, she had been 
speechless several days, and to all appearance was beyond the 
reach of medicine. Her friend, however, true to his purpose, 
and possessing the confidence which experience had given him 
in the virtues of the rattle-root, immediately prepared some of 
the tea, which he commenced giving her, and in a short time 
had tfhe satisfaction of hearing her speak, and eventually to see 
her restored to health. 

We have now stated the most material facts respecting the 
use of the rattle-root in the treatment of small pox, as they 
have been related to us by persons in whom we put the highest 
confidence. But we do not ask the reader to place full reliance 
tfpon the alledged virtues of this root, although in all cases 



INOCULATION. 185 

wherein we have employed it, as a remedy, we have found it an 
article of very active, though we think not dangerous powers. 
It will be little or no disappointment to us if, on trial, it should 
fail to produce the effects which have been attributed to it ; 
though we must confess that we feel some confidence in its vir- 
tues. But even should it, on a fair and full trial, fail, it will 
share no more than the common fate of many other articles 
which have been highly extolled, in consequence of some favor- 
able circumstances attending the first few cases. 

We will close the present article, with a request that those 
who have it in their power to test the virtues of the rattle-root 
in small pox, would cautiously try its effects; as it ought to be 
borne in mind that it is only by experience we can fully ascer- 
tain the value of any article, and by which means alone the 
healing art can arise to that degree of perfection which we 
ardently hope it will, at no distant period, attain. 



INOCULATION AND VACCINATION. 

The object of producing the small pox by inoculation is to dis- 
arm this fatal plague of its terrific powers, as by propagating it 
in this manner it is rendered far more mild than when y commu- 
nicated in the natural way. In the latter mode of taking the 
disease, it is computed that of adults, from one fourth to one 
third die with it ; and of children about one seventh ; whilst in 
cases of inoculation, not more than one dies in five or six hun- 
dred. 

Yet, great as is the intrinsic advantage of inoculation, says 
Dr. Good, there is one evil which has always accompanied it, 
and which it is almost impossible to provide against ; and that is, 
the wider diffusion of the contagion through the atmosphere by 
the indiscriminate use of inoculation in all places. And hence, 
continues he, it has been very forcibly observed, by those who 
have written most warmly in favor of vaccination, that small pox 
inoculation is upon this ground a greater public evil than good ; 
since the multitude, who will not consent to be inoculated, re^ 
eeiving the natural disease more generally than they otherwise 

54 



J8<5 VACCINATION. 

would do, the total mortality from this complaint is greater thai 
before inoculation was had recourse to* 

The method of communicating the small pox by inoculation^ 
like the disease itself, appears to have come from the East, and 
especially from China ; where it seems to have been practised 
from time immemorial^ The first public attempt at inoculation 
in England, was an experiment made upon six condemned crim* 
inals, all of whom were fortunate enough to recover, and thus 
redeemed their lives. 

The matter intended to be used for inoculation, should be ta- 
ken on the seventh or eighth day, or previous to the taking place 
of suppuration, and it is of no consequence from what subject, 
whether young or old, with a disease slight or serious, or even 
from a dead person, it is equally the same. The usual place of 
inserting the matter is between the elbow and shoulder, and is 
done in a very simple manner ; a needle is as good as any thing 
though a lancet is commonly used. All that is necessary, and 
all that ought to be done, is to make the smallest possible scratch, 
or puncture, that will start the blood, into which a minute quan- 
tity of the matter must be deposited. 

The puncture or scratch, does not so completely disappear in 
this case as in vaccination ; but is often scarcely visible for two 
or three days ; about which time a minute pimple will be seen, 
and a little itching may be felt, and sometimes there is a slight in- 
flammation. On the sixth day a pain and weight are felt in the 
arm-pit, proving that the virus or poison is conveyed into the sys- 
tem. On the seventh or eighth day, slight shiverings, headache, 
and pain in the back are perceived, and are immediately follow- 
ed by the eruption, whkh, for the most part, is confined to a 
single pustule immediately at the point where the matter was 
inserted, or a few which directly surround it. 

A rosy, or a narrow deep red circle, surrounds the pustule, 
which, in unfavorable cases, turns of a purplish or livid color, 
and the head or centre of the pustule sinks or flattens. 

The treatment should be the same as that recommended for 
the disease when taken in the natural way. 

Vaccination is the substitution of a still more mild and less* 
dangerous as well as a different disease than that produced by 
inoculation, for the natural small pox, and which is known by the. 



VA6CINATI0N. fS? 

name of Trine or cow pox. The contagion was first derived 
from the cow, and hence its name. 

Cow pox, says Dr. Good, first attracted attention in the county 
of Dorset, England, about forty or fifty years since, as a pustular 
eruption derived from infection, chiefly showing itself on the 
hands of milkers who had milked cows similarly disordered. 
Those who had been thus affected, were found unsusceptible of 
taking the small pox ; and so well were the people satisfied of this 
fact, that an inoculator, who attempted to communicate the 
small pox to one who had been previously infected with the 
cow-pox, was treated with ridicule. A formal trial, continues 
Dr. Good, was made, however, and it was found that no small 
pox ensued. About the same time, a farmer of sagacity of the 
name of Nash, duly attending to these facts, had the courage to 
attempt inoculation on himself, in which he completely succeed* 
ed. And from these, and numerous similar facts, originated the 
practice of what is now generally termed vaccination ; the 
whole honor of which is attributed to Dr. Jenner, and which, 
in all probability, will immortalize his name. To this, however, 
we do not object, after recording the facts of the case ; and 
which, we will only observe, afford additional evidence that the 
great benefactors of the world are not often found in the tem- 
ples of wealth, nor the mazy walks of science, but amongst the 
hardy sons of nature, whose original, untutored minds, unshack- 
led by the forms of science, are left free to pursue the dictates 
of reason, truth, and common sense. 

After it became known that having the cow-pox procured an 
exemption from the small pox, attempts were made to inoculate 
with matter from the human subject, which was found not only 
to succeed, but also to produce a much more mild disease than 
that derived, by milking, from the cow. 

The matter for inoculation, or, as it is now termed, vaccination, 
may be taken from the pustule at any time before the ninth day, 
after matter is formed. But after the ninth day from the time of 
vaccination, the matter usually becomes so inactive as not to be 
depended upon. Good matter is clear or transparent ; and none 
other should be used. 

In performing the operation of vaccination, the same instru 
ments may be used, and the same plan pursued, that was recom* 



188 VACCINATION. 

mended for inoculating; for the small pox, observing great care 
to make the puncture or scratch no deeper than just to start the 
blood, or there will be danger of the matter being washed awaj 
by the bleeding. On the third day after vaccination has been 
performed, a very small inflamed spot appears where the matter 
wasi-iserted in the arm ; which gradually increases in size and 
hardness, and produces a small round tumor slightly raised 
above the level of the skin. About the sixth day, a discolored 
speck appears in the centre of the tumor, which is caused by the 
formation of matter ; and this speck goes on increasing in size as 
the matter augments, until the tenth day ; at which time it ex- 
hibits in perfection, the peculiar character or appearances that 
distinguish it from the small pox inoculation. Its shape is round, 
or sometimes a little oval, the margin or edge is very distinguish- 
able, and is always smooth or regular ; and the centre of the 
pustule is depressed or sunken, so that the edges are elevated 
above it ; being, moreover of a bluish brown color, whilst the 
fluid or matter which it contains is clear and colorless. 

About the eighth day, when the pustule is completely formed, 
a pain will be felt in the arm-pit, with perhaps a slight headache, 
shivering, lassitude, loss of appetite, and increase of the pulse. 
These symptoms may continue, in a greater or lesser degree, for 
one or two days, but always go off spontaneously, without leav- 
ing any bad eflfer.ts behind. During this time the pustule be- 
comes surrounded by an inflamed circle, about an inch or inch 
and a half in diameter, which is an evidence that the vaccine 
matter has produced the proper constitutional effect upon the 
system. 

After this period, the matter in the pustule gradually dries up, 
the red circle fades, and, in a day or two, imperceptibly vanishes; 
so that it is seldom discoverable after the thirteenth day from the 
vaccination. About this time, the pustule hardens into a thick 
scab of a brown appearance ; and, if not removed purposely or 
accidentally, falls off in about a fortnight, leaving the skin sound 
and uninjured. No medical treatment is required in vaccinated 
cow-pox. 



SUSPENDED ANIMATION. 180 

SPRAINS. 

Sprains are the effects of severe strains of the tendons, or lig- 
aments, and most frequently happen in the ankles, knees, or 
wrists. 

Accidents of this kind, especially if severe, are usually fol- 
lowed by a painful inflammatory swelling of the part. 



Treatment. — Many things have been recommended and used 
as external applications to sprains. Wormwood or tanzy, bruis- 
ed and bound on the part, is useful ; or either of those articles 
may be steeped in vinegar, and applied ; occasionally moisten- 
ing the herb as it becomes dry, with some of the vinegar in 
which it was steeped. Chamomile may also be used in the same 
manner. 

The leaves of the common burdock, bruised and applied to 
sprains, is highly recommended, it being said that it will give 
immediate relief. In the first place, however, we would recom- 
mend that the part be bathed with pepper and vinegar, or with 
the tincture of myrrh ; and if redness and inflammation appear, 
cold water ought to be poured on it ; previously taking a dose 
of the diaphoretic powders or of cayenne. 

The sprained limb must also have rest, and should not be 
allowed to hang down; and where weakness remains, after the 
swelling and soreness are gone, in addition to pouring cold water 
on the weak joint, wearing a tight bandage around it will be 
useful. 



SUSPENDED ANIMATION. 

The animal functions may become suspended, without life 
becoming extinct, by different causes, such as drowning, hanging, 
or suffocation; or it may be caused by extreme cold, or by light- 
ning. 

Drowning has been treated of under that head, and it only 
remains for us to speak of suspended animation from hanging, 
suffocation, cold, and lightning. 



196 SUSPENDED ANIMATION. 

In hanging, the appearances discoverable externally, are very 
similar to those which occur in drowning; and the means which 
ought to be used for restoration may be the same as those recom- 
mended in accidents of that kind. 

Under the head of suffocation we include all cases of sus- 
pended animation which are caused by breathing air which is 
unfit for the purposes of supporting animal life; such as carbonic 
acid gas, usually called damps, abounding in wells, cellars, vaults, 
-caverns, &c, and hydrogen, and nitrogen gases, and the gases 
which are generated by putrefying substances. 

In some instances these gases, by being inhaled, produce an 
immediate suspension of the animal functions; whilst in others, 
the circulation and even breathing go on in a feeble and imperfect 
manner. Cases of persons dying in consequence of inhaling 
•carbonic acid gas, have occurred within the last few years with 
an alarming and increasing frequency, in consequence of per- 
sons incautiously descending wells without first asceitaining the 
state of the air contained in them. This is a yery easy thing to 
do, by merely letting down a lighted candle, when, if the well con- 
tains this gas, the candle will go out; in which case it will be 
highly dangerous, if not absolutely destructive, to enter the 
well. In some instances, however, a person may live where a 
candle will not bum. 

The burning of charcoal in tight rooms, also renders the air 
unfit for respiration; and many melancholy cases of death have 
occurred from this cause. 



Treatment. — In the treatment of suspended animation from 
the inhalation of poisonous gases, we may commence with dash- 
ing cold water in the face and on the breast, at the same time 
exposing the patient to a free and pure air. A stimulating injec- 
tion must be administered as soon as possible, and repeated if 
animation be not soon restored. 

The face, temples, and lips, must be bathed with strong vine- 
gar; and hartshorn, or volatile salts, should be held near the 
nose. It has also been recommended to blow into the lungs, or, 
which is better, inflate them with oxygen gas. 

The anti-spasmodic tincture ought also to be given internally, 
by pouring a tea spoon full into the mouth, which may be re 1 



SUSPENDED ANIMATION. fiOPI 

peated at discretion, until the patient is capable of swallowing,, 
when the diaphoretic powders steeped may be administered 
instead of this tincture; and if the patient continue feeble and 
languid after being restored, the vapor bath should be resorted 
to; and if necessary, the whole course of medicine. 

Cold* — In cases of suspended animation arising from this 
cause, the countenance becomes pale and shrivelledy and the 
limbs are stiff. An excessive desire to sleep always precedes a 
suspension of the animal powers when caused by cold, which 
the strongest resolution is incapable of overcoming. 



Treatment. — In cases of this kind, and especially where the 
vital flame is nearly extinct, it is recommended to plunge the 
patient into a cold hath made of sea or salted water for a few 
minute?, then to be taken out, wiped dry, placed in a warm 
room, and rubbed by several persons with warm hands. 

We are, however, inclined to believe that immediately re» 
moving the patient to a warm but well aired room, and occa- 
sionally sponging, or dashing the body with cold water, would 
be better than the cold bath. By immediately placing the body 
fn a warm room, if any breathing remained, the warm air would 
be inhaled into, and have a beneficial effect upon the lungs; 
whilst dashing cold water upon the person would give a shock 
that would more likely be followed with a salutary reaction? 
than would plunging the patient into a cold bath. 

As the warmth and signs of re turning animation become more 
visible, the cold water must be omitted, whilst the warmth of 
the room should be increased gradually; and after the living 
power becomes pretty well restored, the person may be placed 
over a very moderate steam, which should be continued until 
perspiration is produced. 

As internal remedies whilst the patient is insensible, we might 
occasionally pour a little tinGture of myrrh, or tea of cayenne^ 
into the mouth, but not enough for scarce any of it to reach the 
stomach; and injections of warm water, or of penny-royal tea 
ought to be also administered. As the vital flame increases^ 
we may increase the stimulants, bv adding tincture of myrrh to 
ftie injection?, and giving occasional doses of the diaphoretic 



J 92 SUSPENDED ANIMATION. 

powders in tea, and at length when the living power is pretty 
well restored we may give the cayenne both by mouth and by 
injection. H faintiness occurs during recovery, the face, breast, 
or back, should be wetted with cold water or vinegar. 

Lightning. — A stroke of lightning appears to exhaust the 
system of its stock of nervous power, and as a consequence of 
which, the limbs do not become stiff but remain flexible, the 
countenance appears pale, and the blood does not coagulate. 



Treatment. — The treatment of the effects of lightning is thus 
laconically described in the Annual Report of the Royal Humane 
Society, for 18, 8: — 

" When a person is struck by lightning, strip the body, and 
throw buckets full of cold water over it for ten orfifteen minutes; 
let continued frictions, and inflations of the lungs, be practised: 
let gentle shocks of electricity be made to pass through the chest, 
when a skilful person can be procured to apply them; and apply 
blisters to the breast." 

In the extremely flaccid or soft and loose state of the muscles 
as well as of the blood, which succeeds a stroke of lightning, we 
should very naturally conclude that the application of cold wa- 
ter was strongly indicated; as this appears to be the most pow- 
erful means which are readily obtained, of restoring firmness 
and proper tone to the relaxed muscular fibres. At any rate, 
muscular relaxations from other causes, are known to yield to 
cold applications more promptly than to any other external 
means whatever; and hence appears the usefulness and propriety 
of dashing the naked body with cold water when injured by an 
electric shock. And as lightning is usually accompanied by 
rain, it would require but a short flight of fancy, to imagine 
that the All-wise Creator had so designed it that the means of 
preservation should accompany the dangerous element; as some 
are actually supposed to have been preserved by the falling of 
rain, when stunned to insensibility by lightning, in the open air. 

Gentle shocks of electricity, when passed from the chest to 
the back, have been observed also to give firmness of tone to 
the relaxed fibres aud to the blood; and from its surprising 
effects on poultry, upon which Abilgaard performed numerous 



ULCERS. 193 

experiments, there is reason to believe it wouid have a beneii- 
cial influence upon the human system. But the cases to which 
this mode of affording relief can be applied, are so very few, that 
the great and most general dependence must be placed in the 
application of cold water; which, perhaps, to do the most possi- 
ble good, ought fo be continued until the skin and muscles have 
become sensibly firm and more contracted. But instead of the 
blisters upon the breast, as recommended in the Humane Socie- 
ty's Report, we would advise the application of vinegar in which 
pepper has been steeped, or of pepper-pods as directed in rheu- 
matism. 

We also think that stimulants should be introduced into the 
mouth and intestines ; for which we also have the authoiity of 
Dr. Good, who says ki Stimulants of the most active kind ought 
to be resorted to without loss of time." We would therefore 
advise that the anti-spasmodic tincture be occasionally poured 
into the mouth, whilst stimulating injections are thrown into the 
bowels. After the patient has recovered his senses and power 
of motion, if the muscles remain relaxed, and the debility con- 
tinues, the application of cold water may be repeated daily, 
with the use of the bitters and astringent tonics, until the health 
is perfectly restored. 



ULCERS. 

Ulcers are defined a solution of the continuity of the soft 
parts of an animal body ; that is, a dissolving or separating of 
parts which are united. But iu the popular acceptation of the 
term, an ulcer is understood to be an old, or a large sore. 

Ulcers are produced by a variety of causes, and accompany 
several different complaints. Thus we have the simple, the 
sinuous, the fistulous, the scorbutic, the scrofulous, and the venereal 
ulcers, together with a {ew other distinctions which have been 
made by systematic writers. 

The simple ulcer is that which takes place in consequence of 
slight wounds, and usually heals in a short time, without much 
attention. 

25 



1 £4 ULCERS. 

The sinuous ulcer is deeply seated in the flesh, and opens to 
the surface by a small pipe or tube. 

The fistulous ulcer is nearly similar to the sinuous, but the 
pipe or passage is smaller and generally longer, with its orifice 
or mouth and internal surface callous or hardened. Fistulous 
ulcers are most common about the anus. 

Srorbutic ulcers are such as attend the scurvy, of which as 
well as of the scrofulous, we have heretofore spoken. Venereal 
ulcers will be found under the proper head# 



Treatment. — Tn ulcers of every kind, if the general health 
is impaire i,the proper measures must be taken to restore it, at 
the same time that we make applications to the affected part. 
The means to be adopted to answer this intention will, of course, 
depend upon the degree of debility or of indisposition which 
may be present. But in all bad or extensive ulcers, whether 
the health appears materially impaired or not, it will, in general, 
be advisable to administer occasionally a course of medicine; 
and this will be more especially necessary if the ulcer has been 
of long continuance, or is attended by a considerable discharge. 
Bv this means, we not only purify the fluids of the body and dis- 
pose the ulcer to heal, but all the secretions and excretions are 
promoted, and the discharge by the ulcer is turned into its nat- 
ural channel, and the sore may be healed without danger. 

A general tonic and strengthening plan, in other respects, 
must be pursued, such as a daily use of bitters, either the com- 
mon, the laxative, or the wine-bitters, together with moderate 
exercise. 

External applications, are matters of much importance, and 
may be varied according to the appearance or nature of the ul- 
cer, which may readily be distinguished with but little attention 
or observation. 

In general, poultices Ought first to be applied in all cases, but 
especially to those which are painful or inflamed; and these 
ought to be renewed once or twice in twenty-four hours. If the 
weather be very warm, or the discharges great, it will, in gene- 
ral be best to renew them twice ; and if the weather be cold, or 
the discharges small, once will be entirely sufficient. A formic 



VLGERS. 195 

]a for making different kinds of poultices will be found under 
the proper head, in the mate ria medica. 

At each renewal of the poultice, if (he sore is much foul, first 
wash with mild soapsuds, then with a tea of wild lettuce, dew- 
berry root, witch-hazle. or the astringent compound; and if the 
ulcer be a bad one, we may then apply the tincture of myrrh, 
and if still worse, it may be sprinkled with cayenne. The tea 
of the bitter-root is also highly recommended as a wash for ul- 
cers, and we have no doubt of it« eflicacy. 

The poulticesshould all be applied cold, especially if the sore 
be painful, or inflamed, a rd occasionally wetted by pouring cold 
water, or any of the for- mentioned teas cold, between the 
poultice and the ulcer. This will remo\e the inflammation and 
relieve the pain. The poultice must be continued until the in- 
flammation is subdued, and a discharge of healthy matter takes 
place. Healthy matter, or pus, very much resembles cream, 
both in color and consistence. 

In deeply seated ulcers, such as the sinuous, or fistulous, a 
small syringe will be necessary in dressing them. as without this 
they cannot be washed out from the bottom. But in throwing in 
the fluid, it should not be done with so much violence as to irri- 
tate the tender surfaces* of the sore, which will make the wash, 
ing more hurtful than useful, and this is more especially to be 
guarded against after the healing process has commenced. 

In sinuous and particularly in the fistulous ulcers where the 
edges are callous, in which case the surface approaches toward 
a gristle, after washing out as has been directed, the tincture of 
myrrh may be injected ; if it do not create a local action in 
the part, with a disposition to heal, we may substitute a tea of 
cayenne pepper, or even the anti-spasmodic tincture. Ulcers 
with callous edges, or pipes, have lost that sensibility and activ- 
itv in those parts, which render other ulcers sensible of the com- 
mon applications by which they are disposed to heal. Hence 
it becomes necessary to apply more powerful stimulants to 
arouse the vessels to greater activity, as by no other means can 
they be induced to heal. 

After continuing the poultices until the pain and inflamrnatio» 
are gone, and the ulcer discharges good matter, they may be dis- 
continued, and the salve substituted instead of them. Some 



to 



HM> VENEREAL DISEASE* 

times, however, healthy matter may be discharged whilst the 
sore continues red and inflamed. In these cases it is often ad- 
vantageous to lay a plaster of salve on the ulcer, and then 
cover ihe whole with a poultice. 

There is another condition in which ulcers are sorreiimes 
found, of which it may be neces-ary to speak. Here, as in the 
callous ulcers, the action is feeble and languid, and is owing, 
perhaps, to the general debility of the constitution. 

In the cases of which we are speaking, instead of the red or 
florid color of the surface of the sore, and especially of the 
granulations, there is a glassy, half-transparent appearance in 
the part. There is, in fact, an evident want of action and vigor 
in the ulcer. 

Gases of this discription, perhaps, might be best treated with 
warm stimulating poultices; and in addition tothe?e, the stimu- 
lating washes recommended lor the callous ulcer should be free- 
ly used, together with the tonic plan hereinbefore advised to 
promote the general health; and (he diet, as in all other kinds 
of ulcer, must be rich and nourishing. 



VENEREAL DISEASE. 

The venereal complaint is very contagious, and can only be 
communicated by actual contact. "The prevalence of this 
dreadful dis"a=e a nong mankind," says Dr. Gunn, Hs another 
proof, amongst the many others that might be adduced, that it 
is the interest of mankind to be virtuous if they wish to be 
happy. ,, Yet it has sometimes happened that the venereal dis- 
ease was contracted innocently. 

At w^at time this complaint had its origin, or where, is un- 
known; hut it first attracted attention in Europe about the year 
1493, and quickly spread its ravages over large districts; and 
very soon to every commercial part of the world. 

The most u>ual means by which the venereal disease is com- 
municated, is by illicit intercourse between the sexes; and 
hence the disgrace attached to it is such that many persons 
conceal their real situation until their constitutions are ruined, 



VENEREAL DISEASE. 191 

The venerea] complaint, strictly so called, may appear in two 
ways, either in ulcers or, as they are comonly called, chancres, 
on the privates, or the general health may first become affected, 
tho:i:.<ti this la^t is rare. 

Chancyes make their appearance commonly about the sixth 
dav after tiie infection, though sometimes sooner, often later, 
and occasionally not till the lapse of several weeks, in the nVm 
of minute pimples of a peculiar kind, having a hard, inflamed 
b;tse. of a pale red hue, and an irritable or painful point. This 
pimple soon opens with a very small hole, becomes ulcerated, 
and discharges a small portion of clear matter, which produces 
fresh chancres wherever it touches the skin. , 

Atother symptom which succeeds the chancres, is swellings 
called bufoos, which are supposed to be produced by the absorp- 
tion of virus from the chancres, and is communicated to the 
inguinal glands situated in the groin, which become inflamed. 
These tumors, when first perceived, are small, but hard and 
fixed, and attended with an obtuse pain. They gradually 
enlarge, and the pain becomes more acute, which renders walk- 
ing troublesome and unpleasant; and if they are not seasonably 
opened will burst spontaneously, discharging a considerable 
quantity of matter. 

If the disease is not cured in this stage, the whole system, 
sooner or later, will be sure to become affected, when the very 
foundations of life are with quickness and certainty sapped, and 
existence itself rendered a burthen to the unhappy patient. 

The symptoms which attended the constitutional affection 
are; soreness and ulcerations of the tonsils, uvnlu, roof of the 
mouth, and tongue; which renders the voice hoarse and the 
swallowing difficult. Copper colored spots appear on the skin, 
which are at first scurfy, afterwards throwing off scales, and 
eventually produce scabs, covering foul ulcers, growing gradu- 
ally deeper, and discharging an offensive matter. 

The disease still continuing to advance, irregular shooting 
pains are felt through the limbs, and at night become so severe 
as to prevent sleep. The bones at length become diseased, and 
often swelled or enlarged, and finally become rotten. The 
ulcerations in the back part of the mouth are still going on, antf 
spread also to the adjacent bones of the palate and nostrils, 



198 VENEREAL DISEASE. 

which are gradually destroyed and carried away, rendering the 
speech imperiect, and flattening the nose to a level with the, 
face. 

At length the complexion becomes yellow, the appetite is 
impaired or lost, the hair falls off, the strength decays, a hectic 
fever sets in, and death finally comes to remove from the un- 
fortunate sufferer his load of wo. 

Treatment. — So soon as a person discovers that he or she 
has contracted this formidable complaint, which will be known 
by the appearance of the chancres, the part affected should be 
washed thoroughly with the tincture of lobelia, or of myrrh, or 
both may be mixed in equal proportions. This application will 
produce a smarting, but, as Dr. Gunn says, "they are now on 
the stool of repentance," and must therefore prepare their minds 
to bear it. This washing should be strictly attended to three 
times a day, previous to which, however, the sores must be 
cleanly washed with soap suds. After each washing with the 
tincture apply a little lint, or salve to the sore ; and be careful 
to wash the hands, as bad ulcers have been formed on other 
parts by neglecting this wholesome process, after dressing vene- 
real sores. 

As an internal remedy, we would advise a tea spoon full, or 
more, of the tincture of lobelia, with half the quantity of cay- 
enne, at night on going to bed, and a hot stone should be placed 
at the feet to promote perspiration. During the day, the patient 
should drink freely of strong tea of sarsaparilla, and three or four 
times in the day take a dose of the laxative bitters; and twice a 
iay he may take a dose of half a tea spoon full of balsam of fir 
on sugar, which will be more especially necessary if there be 
atiy discharge from the penis, or, in case of a woman, from the 
vagina, or the urinary passage. In cases of these discharges, 
it has also been found useful to inject into the urinary passages, 
a strong decoction of the astringent compound with more or less 
of the tincture of myrrh in it; and we have no doubt the tinc- 

2 ire of lobelia, or the tea of wild lettuce might be also profita- 
ly employed. 

If this course be adopted early in the disease, it will perhaps 
ever fail of effecting a cure : but if the constitutional symp- 



•WHOOPING COUGH. 198 

t»ms, as they are called, have made their appearance, which 
we have heretofore described, the course of medicine must be 
resorted to, and repeated as the case may demand; at the same 
time continuing the external and other remedies, as before di- 
rected. And if ulcers break out, they must be treated agreea- 
bly to the directions under that head. 

If a gleet, which is a discharge from the urethra, remain after 
the disease is removed, whice someiimes happens when treated 
by mercury, the general plan herein directed, as to internal 
remedies, and particularly the use of the tir balsam, and injec- 
tions into the urethra, should be advised, together with the ap- 
plication of cold water to the p-rt. 

It has been usual to confouid clap or gonorrhcBa with the dis 
ease of which we have been treating; though by the most learn- 
ed modern authors it is considered as a distinct malady. The 
symptoms are, burning and scalding sensations in the urethra, in 
making water, which is pretty soon succeeded dy a discharge of 
matter from the same part, at first of a white color, then yellow- 
ish, and finally it becomes of greenish cast. The cure for this 
is the same as that recommended for discharges from the urinary 
passages, in the venereal complaint and gleet, together with 
careful attention to keeping the penis washed clean from the 
matter which is discharged from it. 



WHOOPING COUGH. 

This disease is mostly confined to children, being usually 
propagated by contagion,andis attended with a suffocative, con- 
vulsive cough, and a deep shrill sound termed a whoop, from 
which it takes its name. 

Whooping cough commonly comes on with some little difficul-. 
ty of breathing, thirst, and a gentle quickening of the pulse. — 
Next succeeds a hoarseness, and cough, with difficult expecto- 
ration. These symptoms continuing for a while, they become 
more marked, and the disease assumes its characteristic form. 

Expectoration at first is very moderate, but gradually becomes 
more copious, though it is always viscid or tough. The pecu- 
liar difficulty and great exertions in coughing, bloat the face 



£09 WHOOPING COUGH. 

which turns purple, and the eyes swell and become prominent, 
Vomiting often attends the tits of coughing, which is a gcod 
symptom, and is frequently succeeded by a craving for food. 

The duration of whooping cough is very uncertain, lasting 
from a few weeks to as many months, or even a whole year, go- 
ing off gradually, and often, imperceptibly. And however te- 
dious or distressing it may be, it seldom proves fatal, excepting 
to very young infants, or such as are debilitated by other dis- 
eases. 



Treatment. — Attention in this case must be given to the 
means of loosening the cough, and allaying the spasmodic irrita- 
tion. For either of those purposes, and especially for the first, 
emetics have always been found the most serviceable; to accom- 
plish which, a tea spoon full, or more, of the tincture of lohelia 
may be administered towards bed-time, and previous to retiring 
to bed, half a tea spoon full, or more, of the tincture of lady's 
slipper should be given. During the day, if the cough be 
troublesome, the child ought to drink frequently of a tea of the 
diaphoretic powder, made very sweet, to which plenty of cream 
should be added to make it palatable. 

The skunk-cabbage root pulverized, is also a valuable reme- 
dy in whooping cough. It is both loosening to the cough and 
quieting to the nerves, and may be given in doses of a fourth or 
half tea spoon full, once or twice a day. 

If, however, the symptoms become violent, or attended with 
much debility, we may administer a course of medicine, and re- 
peat it as the circumstances of the case may seem to require: 
and in the latter stages, the bitters should be resorted to. as a 
means of giving tone to the whole system; for which purpose 
the cold bath has also been highly recommended. When coslive- 
ness attends, in any stage, it should be removed by injec ions; 
physic having been found to afford no alleviation to the most 
urgent symptoms. In general, when there is little or no loose- 
ness of the bowels, the best injections for children are made of 
eatnip tea, with the addition of a little tincture of myrrh. 



WORMS. 501 

WORMS. 

Not only the human body, but also the bodies of other ani- 
mals, are liable to have their intestines infested with worms. — 
There are three kinds most usually met with in man. These are 
the small white worm, called also ascarides; the long round worm 
or teres; the tape worm, or tcenia, which is a flat worm, consist- 
ing apparently of joints, and is frequently of great length; some 
of which are reported to have been thirty, forty, and even sixty- 
feet long. 

The different kinds of worms are represented as choosing dif- 
ferent portions of the intestines to live in; for instance, the small 
white worm selecting the rectum; the roundworm, the small 
intestines, and sometimes the stomach; and the tape worm, the 
whole intestinal tube. 

The cause of worms may fairly we think, be attributed to a 
weakness of the digestive powers, and debility of the intestines; 
which may also be assisted by unwholesome food, and a weak, 
vegetable, and debilitating diet. It is a disease most common 
to children, but is often met with in grown persons, particularly 
those of a relaxed habit, whose digestion is weak, and who live 
much upon a milk and vegetable diet 

The symptoms indicating worms are extremely various and 
contradictory, often imitating various other complaints. But in 
general, some one or more of the following will be found present 
in such cases: — Head-ach, dizziness, disturbed sleep, appetite 
i sometimes lost and sometimes greedy, pains in the stomach, grip- 
ings, looseness, very disagreeable breath, gratings of the teeth 
during sleep which is often disturbed by frightful dreams, picking 
at the nose, a peculiar paleness or whiteness about the rnoutb, 
hardness and fulness of the belly, short dry cough, heat and itch- 
ing about the anus, nausea, fever, and sometimes convulsions; 
but the most certain evidence of worms is their ejection from the 
bowels. 



Treatment. — In the cure of worms, three objects perhaps 
ought to be kept in view:— First, cleansing the intestinal canal of 
.whatever morbid matter may be retained in it, and which proba- 
bly may be the element in which the worms live; secondly, 

26 



WORMS. 



strengthening the system generally, and the intestines particular- 
ly; thirdly, destroying the worms by the use of those medicines 
termed vermifuges o'r anthelmintics. ^ 

Of the two first objects, that of cleansing the canal, and of 
strengthening the system, we know that we possess the means ©f 
accomplishing them, at least so soon as the irritation of the 
worms has ceased; but the vermifuge medicines are of doubtful 
character; and moreover, those articles which are known to kill 
worms when applied to them out of the body, are as well known 
to weaken the tone of the stomach and intestines when taken in- 
ternally, and consequently have a strong tendency to defeat their 
own intention. 

These different remedies may all be used at the same time, 
or, at least, we need not wait until one object is accomplished be- 
fore we attempt another. 

The course which we have found, in general, to have the 
best effect in curing worm complaints, is to give the butternut 
syrup, in sufficient quantity to produce a free and thorough evac- 
uation of the contents of the bowels, and during the operation, 
as well as afterwards, to make use of a strong tea of the poplar 
bark, with the addition of a little cayenne pepper. By pursu- 
ing this course we have succeeded in curing several very alarm- 
ing cases of fits arising from the irritation of worms. In each 
case of this kind, however, the stomach had been previously well 
cleansed by an emetic of lobelia. 

The Carolina pink has acquired considerable fame in the cure 
of worms, and we believe not without just cause. Two circum" 
stances, however, we think have conspired to injure the character 
of this valuable herb: — the one is, that by keeping long [Thacher] 
it loses its virtues, and hence frequently fails in producing the 
desired effect; the other is, that some other poisonous weed has 
sometimes been gathered with the pink, and when steeped and 
given along with it, has produced very alarming effects. This 
weed is said to be a vine, and in order to avoid hazard, the pink, 
before being steeped, should be carefully picked over, and every 
thing else rejected. 

If the case be a bad one, we may first administer an emetic, 
and then commence giving a strong decoction of the pink, which 
;.; "' ■■ '■wee*, in which cnse tb? child will often rG ] \*Y. 



YELLOW FEVER. 80S 

the taste of it so well as to drink enough of its own accord. If 
it appears, however, likely to drink an unreasonable quantity, it 
should be restrained, but it may take from one t© three pints in 
twenty-four hours, when it must be smartly purged with the but- 
ternut syrup. The poplar bark tea, as before directed, or the bit- 
ters in decoction or in wine, may be used during and after the 
operation, giving it three or four times a day. 

Instead of the pink, we may, if we choose, give the cowhage; 
the stiff hairs of which are to be scraped from the pods and 
mixed with syrup or molasses until they have become thick, and 
a tea spoon full or more must be administered to the child for 
three successive mornings ;. when it should be followed by a purge 
of the butternut syrup and bitters as before directed. 

The oil or spirit of turpentine, has been also highly recom- 
mended, as well as the oil of worm-seed. The spirits of tur- 
pentine may be given in doses of half or a whole tea spoon full, 
or even more, which may be repeated for two or three days, when 
it should be followed by the butternut syrup and bitters, as be- 
fore directed. If the oil of worm-seed should be preferred, it 
may be given in the manner directed on the vials in which it is 
bought; and after continuing it a few days, it may also be fol- 
lowed by the butternut syrup and bitters, 

Charcoal, it is said, according to the latest and most enlighten- 
ed experience of the medical schools of Europe, is a valuable 
medicine for worms. The mode of giving, or the quantity to be 
given, we have not seen stated, but as the article possesses no 
dangerous powers, no, fears need be entertained in using it. 



YELLOW FEVER. 

This fatal and most distressing disease .is confined either, to the 
not climates of the South, or the hottest seasons of the more tem- 
perate regions of the North. . 

Yellow fever appears, at least in its present malignant form, 
to be a modern disease. It was first noticed in the island o 
Barbadoes, in the year 1 647, and soon, after made its appearance 
in various other islands of the West Indie?; and, in \89% in B©s« 



204 YELLOW FEVER. 

ton. In 1699 it visited Philadelphia and Charleston, after which 
it made its appearance in both those places several times between 
the years 1732 and 1748, during which last year it also appear- 
ed in New- York. — [Dr. Currie.~] 

The next appearance of this fatal epidemic was at Philadel- 
phia, in the year 1793, just one hundred years after its first visit 
to the then British colonies in North America, at Boston. Since 
that date it has several times made its appearance in both Phila- 
delphia and New- York, as well as many other places along the 
sea-board. 

The yellow fever is by some considered as only a more intense 
form or higher degree of remittent fever, whilst others regard it 
as a distinct variety, or even species, of fever. 

Yellow fever makes its attack with a diversity of appearances 
and symptoms, some of which are common to all fevers, and others 
peculiar to itself. Occasionally the symptoms are very mild ; 
but more commonly they are violent and distressing from the be- 
ginning. We cannot perhaps do better in describing this disease 
than to abridge the account given by Dr. Currie, who had sev- 
eral times witnessed its ravages in Philadelphia. 

In general, says he, it attacks suddenly, without any previous 
indisposition, with a chill, pain in the head and limbs, sometimes 
sickness at the stomach, the eyes are red and painful, the pulse 
often frequent and full soon after the cessation of the chill, when 
the skin becomes very hot, face flushed, great oppression and 
stricture about the breast, extreme restlessness, and frequent 
sighing. 

The heat of the skin, and pain in the head and limbs, usually 
increase during the first thirty-six hours, and then gradually 
decrease for the same length of time; so that at the end of sev- 
enty-two hours, the patient is sometimes entirely free from all 
symptoms of the disease, and a speedy recovery takes place; 
but more commonly there is only a short and partial remission } 
which, in a few hours, is followed by a far more distressing train 
of symptoms, particularly a burning sensation in the stomach, 
accompanied with almost constant sickness, and straining to 
vomit. The pulse now becomes small, quick, and irregular-; 
the stomach painful on pressure; and generally a costive state 
of the bowels. 



YELLOW FEVER. 20» 

These symptoms, if not relieved by proper means, continuing 
to increase, are, in a short time, succeeded by a cessation of pain 
and fever, and a vomiting of a flaky, dark colored matter, resem- 
bling coffee grounds, or a mixture of soot and water. This mat- 
ter, which is called the black-vomit, is usually thrown up at short 
intervals, and appears to contain more fluid than has been drank. 

In this stage of the disease, during the intervals from vomiting, 
the patient feels so much ease that he imagines himself out of 
danger, and converses fluently, though often incoherently, some- 
times getting out of bed and walking the room, but is soon exhaus- 
ted, and obliged to lie down. Convulsions, or lethargy, generally 
follow these exertions, and the scene is quickly closed by the cur- 
tain of death! 

The symptoms which distinguish this fever from every other 
that has appeared in this country, says Dr. Currie, are the sud- 
denness'of the attack, commencing in most cases, without any 
preceding lassitude or indisposition; the redness of the eyes and 
flushing of the face, and the long duration of the paroxysm, be- 
ing generally thirty-six hours before any considerable abatement 
takes place. To this may be added, the new and severe train of 
symptoms which soon follow the remission, the golden-yellow 
color of the skin, and black-vomit. 

In some instances, however, instead of the black vomiting, the 
patient becomes comatose or sleepy, and dies without a struggle ; 
whilst in others, putrid symptoms of a most virulent character 
occur, and bleeding takes place from the nose, mouth, eyes, ears, 
or bowels, and even from parts where blisters have been drawn. 
In the first stages of the disease, as it occurred in Philadelphia, 
the tongue was generally covered with a white fur, resembling a 
piece of white muslin. After the third or fourth day, the tongue 
became brown and much drier; but when the black vomiting 
came on, it became moist, and nearly as clean as in health. 



Treatment. — Attacks of yellow fever, require, in general, 
the most prompt and efficient treatment. In the early stages, 
if the strength be not greatly impaired, nor symptoms of putre- 
faction make their appearance, a mild purgative may be ad- 
ministered. But if the attack be violent, and attended with 



YELLOW FEVER, 



great prostration of strength, or if there be symptoms of putre- 
faction, our reliance for cleansing the intestines must mainly be 
placed on injections. 

To allay the excessive heat and dryness of the skin, the alka- 
line wash, so highly recommended by Dr. Rogers, and ethers, 
might be resorted to, and repeated at discretion. This wash is 
directed to be made by dissolving one and a half table spoons 
full of pearl-ash in three gills of hot water, with which the body 
and limbs are to be washed. Simple cold water has been highly 
recommended for the same purpose, and used, we are told, with 
very beneficial effects. In conjunction with either of those rem- 
edies, we ought to administer frequent doses of the diaphoretic 
powders, or cayenne, to promote perspiration. 

When black vomiting has come on, the case is considered 
as hopeless, though some have recovered even in this stage. — 
Dn Cvrrie observes, that this dreadful symptom has more fre- 
quently been relieved by a mixture of equal parts of lime-water 
and new milk, taken in doses of from one to four table spoons 
full every hour or oftener, than by any other remedy. 

But the great dependence in all stages of this terrible malady,, 
must be in repeated courses of medicine ; and the earlier in the 
disease they are employed, the better. The alkali wash, as well 
as the cold water, may likewise be employed between the courses,, 
together with the usual means of stimulating the system and 
promoting perspiration ; such as the cayenne pepper, diaphoretic 
powder, the application of hot bricks, or rocks, stimulating in- 
jections, &c. If pains in the stomach, with nausea, arise, the 
region of the stomach ought to be bathed with the bathing drops, 
or pepper and vinegar, or a large poultice of mustard may be 
applied to it; and if putrid symptoms make their appearance,, 
a free use must be made of the pepper sauce and tincture of 
myrrh. 

The room in which the patient is confined ought to be well 
ventilated, that is, have a suitable admission of pure air; and 
the floor should be frequently sprinkled with vinegar, or with 
camphor, and the stools immediately removed, as well as every 
thing else of a filthy nature. The clothes both of body and v 
bed, must be frequently changed and kept clean. 



APOPLEXY". 207 

During recovery, the patient should make liberal use of the 
wine-bitters, or he may take the bitters in any other form; and 
Hvetm a nutricious wholesome diet; carefully guarding against 
elapses. 

APOPLEXY. 

Apoplexy is characterised by a sudden diminution, or entire 
cessation of sense and voluntary motion, whilst the heart and 
lungs continue to perform their functions. 

This complaint may be distinguished from palsy, by the diffi- 
cult and loud breathing, profound sleep, and the entire suspen- 
sion of voluntary motion; and when to these, we add the absence 
of convulsions, it will be distinguished from epilepsy; and from 
intoxication, by the impossibility of arousing the patient by shout- 
ing or any other means, and in general by the breath not being 
tainted by the smell of spirits. 

Apoplexy chiefly attacks individuals of advanced age; and it 
has been observed, that persons of a corpulent habit, and those 
having a short neck and large head, and who lead an inactive 
and sedentary life, or make use of full rich diet, are more liable 
to it, than those of different habits. 

This disease is generally supposed to arise from compression 
df the brain, caused by an effusion of blood, or serum; which has 
given birth to two distinctive names of serous and sanguineous 
apoplexy, each of which is preceded by a different set of symp- 
toms. 

Sanguineous apoplexy sometimes comes on with giddiness, 
dimness of sight, drowsiness, loss of memory, or faultering of 
the tongue; but it more often happens that the person is taken 
and suddenly falls down; the face becomes red and swelled; the 
veins of the head appear full; the eye-lids are half closed, and 
the eyes prominent and fixed ; the pulse generally full and strong; 
and the breathing difficult and loud. Grinding of the teeth, and 
slight convulsive motions, have been observable in a few instan- 
ces; and if the fit continues for any considerable length of time, 
the pulse becomes weak, slow, and languid; the breathing 
gradually grows shorter and shorter, and finally ceases in 
death. 



208 APOPLEXY. 

In the serous apoplexy, the attack is usually more gradual: 
the face becomes pale and bloated, whilst the veins are depress- 
ed; the pulse is small, weak, irregular, and intermittent; breath- 
ing is impeded and loud; and the extremities are cold. Occa- 
sionally these symptoms are preceded by giddiness, torpor, an 
impediment of speech, and failure of memory. 

Cases of apoplexy occasionally occur, in which one side of the 
body is more affected than the other; which are termed by medi- 
cal writers, hemiplegia, 

A patient laboring under an attack of apoplexy, sometimes 
lays motionless and senseless for several days, and then gradually 
but partially recovers. In these cases he generally suffers the 
loss, either partial or total, of the use of one side, as is the case in 
palsy; and his mind usually sustains a shock from which it rarely 
recovers. 



Treatment. — In tracing the annals of medicine, we find vari- 
ous and contradictory modes of treatment prescribed for this 
frequently fatal disease. Amongst the ancients, the use of warm 
cordials was in high reputation; whilst physicians of the present 
day, disapprove of stimulating the system, and recommend 
bleeding. This practice, however, is to be regarded as of quite 
modern origin, as Dr. Fothergill, and many others who were 
eminent in their" profession, either disapprove of the practice 
altogether, or recommend it in very sparing terms. Emetics 
are generally disapproved of by practitioners of the present day, 
from fears of augmenting the quantity of blood in the vessels of 
the head, though some are found who prescribe them; and, al- 
though writers generally regard them as dangerous, no instances 
have been recorded that we have any knowledge of, in which 
they have proved injurious. 

Whenever an individual is attacked with apoplexy, every 
thing should be removed from about the neck which may have 
any tendency to compress it and prevent a free return of blood 
from the head; and his body moreover should be placed in an 
erect posture. A laxative injection, composed of the butternut 
syrup, castor oil, hogs' lard, or, in the absence of those articles, 
of warm water, with the fourth of a tea spoon full of cayenne 



TEL0NS. 809 

m them, should be administered as speedily as possible, and 
repeated at short intervals until the bowels are evacuated. 

Whilst the foregoing operations are going forward, prepara- 
tions should be making for steaming the patient, which ought to 
be attended to as soon as possible; and particular care must be 
taken to apply the steam or heat by some means to the feet and 
legs. If apoplexy is caused by an over determination of 
blood to the head, which seems to be the most common opinion, 
we know of no means by which it can be diverted therefrom, 
so naturally, and with so much certainty, as by promoting a pro- 
fuse perspiration. 

In steaming, we may commence, if the patient is capable of 
swallowing, by giving a moderate dose of the diaphoretic pow- 
ders, or of the cayenne; and then place him over the steam 
which should be moderate at first, and gradually increased as it 
can be borne, paying strict attention to every symptom of faint- 
ness, and often wetting the face and head with the coldest water 
that can be procured. If the patient be incapable of swallow- 
ing, a tea spoon full of the anti-spasmodic tincture may be ad- 
ministered. 

After continuing the steam for ten, fifteen, or twenty, or even 
thirty minutes, if we have succeeded in restoring sense and mo- 
tion we may then give an emetic. When this is done operating, 
the patient should be again steamed, returned into bed, with hot 
bricks to keep up a perspiration, when a smart purge may be 
administered, which, with the bitters and diaphoretic powders 
continued for a few days, will probably effect a cure. But if 
it does not, the practitioner may pursue such a course, in accord- 
ance with the principles which we have laid down, as his best 
judgment may dictate. 



FELONS. 

Felons are suppurative swellings which appear about the joints 
of the fingers, and give an idea to the unhappy sufferer of the 
most exquisite pain and torture to which the human frame is lia- 
ble. 

This most distressing malady is supposed usually to proceed 
from a bruise which by some means or other injures the periosteum, 



210 FILONS. 

or the membrane which surrounds the bones, producing inflam- 
mation and suppuration. The excruciating pain which always 
attends a felon, arises in consequence of the matter being deeply 
seated in the flesh which cannot give way to make room for it 
as it forms, as is the case when suppurative swellings arise on 
or near the surface. 



Treatment.' — A variety of means have been proposed for al- 
leviating or curing this intolerable disease. Some have prac- 
tised holding the affected finger in boiling tallow or boiling ley ? 
until the pain has subsided. This, although it may seem like a 
painful operation, is said by those who have tried it not to be so„ 
Another remedy is to take several pieces of woollen cloth and 
cut a round hole in each piece the size of the painful part, which 
are then placed on the felon and the felon itself covered with tar, 
which is to be renewed as it dries away. Two irons having been 
previously made red hot, one of them is to be held as near the 
felon as can well be borne, and when this becomes too cool it 
must be returned into the fire, and the other employed in its 
stead, and so continuing to apply the irons alternately until the 
pain and throbbing cease. The woollen cloths are for the pur- 
pose of preventing the hot irons from burning the sound parts, as 
it is necessary to hold them very close in order to have the full 
benefit of the operation. 

When the pain and throbbing have ceased, the cloths and tar 
are to be removed, and the felon covered with a plaster made in 
the following manner: — 

Take castile or good shaving-soap, shave it down very fine, 
and mix with it a little new milk, to the consistence of a plaster 
or salve; spread it on a cloth, apply it to the part, and renew 
it as it becomes dry. The whole of this process is to be gone 
through with whether the felon has been opened or not, and 
will, as our informant assures us, effect a cure. 

Another remedy with which we have been acquainted from 
early years, and have repeatedly proved its efficacy, is as fol- 
lows: — 

Take salt, common soft soap, and sage, green or dry, bruised 
or pulverized, equal quantities of each, well mixed together into 



a ui.lj\j *-% a* 



a poultice, and applied to the part, which must be moistened or 
renewed as often as it becomes dry, and continue until relief is 
obtained. 

From the depth at which the matter is seated in case of felons, 
it is all important to give it vent as soon as possible ; and when- 
ever this is done, immediate relief is obtained. The common 
method is to lay it open with a lancet or knife; but this is highly 
disapproved of by some, and caustics recommended instead of 
the knife. But on the whole, we think that Dr. Thomson's me- 
thod is probably as good, if not better than any other. In pur- 
suing the plan which he recommends, we avoid all hazard of 
hemorrhage, and moreover make a much smaller sore than is 
usually produced by the knife. 

Dr. Thomson's method is as follows: — 

Take a piece of spunk, (punk) about the size of half a pea, 
and burn it on the most painful part, which process may be re- 
peated if it be thought that the flesh is not deadened down to 
the matter. A needle is then to be plunged deeply into the skin 
and immediately out again in the part which has been burned, 
by which means the skin and flesh will be very much elevated, 
when, with a sharp knife, the part that is raised by the needle 
must be cut out. In performing this, care should be taken io 
cut out as small a piece of skin as convenient and at the same 
time cut as deeply into the flesh as possible, in order to let 
out the matter. , If the cutting, however, does not reach the 
matter it ought to be still further opened with a lancet, as we 
conceive, although Dr. Thomson has given no instructions fur- 
ther than to cut out the piece as aforesaid ; but he takes the pre- 
caution to say that it should be sufficiently deep to answer the 
purpose. After^this is done, apply the poultice or salve, which- 
ever seems most proper-, but if there be much pain still remain- 
ing, after the operation, a poultice will be preferable, and ought 
to be often wetted with cold water. We may also observe, that 
a botanic physician who had often performed the operation, in- 
formed us that he usually applied, immediately after the burn- 
ing, a cloth which he kept wet, for some time, with cold water, 
before cutting out the flesh. 

To those who have never experienced the torturing effects ot 
a felon, nor been accustomed to witness their painful operation. 



BULB 3K IV^Jkai. 



the idea of burning and cutting will perhaps appear horrible j 
but persons who have been afflicted in this way, are aware that 
almost any thing promising relief can be cheerfully submitted 
to; and moreover, the pain caused by the burning is said, by 
those who have tried it, to be, comparatively speaking, but 
trifling. 

MILK SICKNESS. 

This disease, so far as we know, is confined to the Western 
Country, and even to particular districts of it; and is also often 
called Sick Stomach, and Puking Complaint. 

The name which is first given, indicates the source whence 
this disease is usually derived, it being from a poison contained 
in the milk; and the two last are indicative of some of the most 
prominent symptoms by which it is attended. 

We are not in possession at present, of any definite or partic- 
ular description of this obstinate, and often fatal malady; but 
from the best information which we have, we present the fol- 
lowing: — 

Milk sickness usually comes on with lassitude and weariness, 
with sense of great exhaustion, and trembling, from slight exer- 
tions. Obstinate costiveness either accompanies or succeeds- 
these symptoms, which are soon followed by sickness at the sto- 
mach, and vomiting. If the costiveness is not removed, the 
sickness and vomiting continue, which in a short time destroy the 
patient. 

Cattle, hogs, sheep, and dogs, are likewise subject to this 
disease, and all alike die with it sooner or later. It is communi- 
cated to cattle and sheep, as is pretty well ascertained, by 
eating the leaves of a poison shrub; hogs and dogs derive it from 
eating the milk or dead carcasses of cattle or sheep that die of 
this disorder, which in them is called the trembles; and man takes 
the complaint from eating either milk, butter, or flesh, of infected 
animals. 

The trembles in cattle, and milk sickness in persons, is con- 
fined, so far as we know, mostly to a few small districts in Ohio 
and Kentucky, and perhaps may occasionally be met with in all 
the Western Slates. 



We have seen several interesting communications from res- 
pectable individuals, on this important subject, but we are not 
able to glean enough from them to enable us to attempt a minute 
description of the shrub from which those persons suppose the 
poison is drawn. 



Treatment. — In the milk sickness there can be no permanent 
relief from the vomiting until the costiveness is removed; and as 
this is attended with great difficulty, the most efficient means 
should be at once adopted. The sickness at the stomach and 
vomiting usually prevents the possibility of administering phy- 
sic in such quantity as to do much good; and reliance must, 
therefore, be principally placed in laxative injections often re- 
peated and long continued. In some cases, we are informed, 
forty injections have been administered before the bowels were 
sufficiently opened. 

Charcoal has of late been highly extolled as a remedy in cos- 
tiveness, and is said to open the bowels when other remedies 
fail. We are not aware, however, that this article has ever 
been applied to remove the obstinate constipation which invaria- 
bly attends the milk sickness, but we are disposed to think it 
well adapted to that purpose, from its being less irritable to the 
stomach than the common cathartic medicines. 

The injections ought to be made of a tea of the butternut 
bark or twigs, or of castor oil or hogs' lard, and warm water, 
occasionally adding about the fourth of a tea spoon full of cayenne 
and administering in large quantity, a:, by this means the harden- 
ed faces contained in the rectum will be more readily dissolved 
and carried out of the system. There will also be an advantage 
on this account, in retaining the injections until several of them 
are administered. 

The most 1 effectual method of checking vomiting in ordinary 
cases, is to administer trie pepper sauce, in table spoon full doses, 
once in fifteen or twenty minutes; and perhaps it might also 
be advantageous in the milk-sickness. It is customary, however, 
with some practitioners to give an emetic, which we think would 
be useful, as spontaneous vomiting is certainly an evidence that 
some irritating matter is contained in or about the stomach. 



*I* CONCLUSION. 



Promoting perspiration will, at the same time, be beneficial, and 
may be done, either by steaming, or by placing hot bricks, or 
stones about the patient in bed. The bowels or abdomen may 
be bathed with pepper and vinegar, or with the bathing drops, 
and then have cloths wrung either out of hot water or a decoc- 
tion of elder flowers, applied to them. After the costiveness is 
removed and the vomiting stopped, the patient should have a 
course of the medicine, if much debility and evidence- of dis- 
order remain, and in every respect treated as a person recover- 
ing from other kinds of sickness. 



CONCLUSION. 

We have now brought our description of diseases, or rather 
the different symptoms of disease, with the method of cure, to 
a close; and we may frankly confess that if it were to write 
over again, we should make some alterations in the arrangement 
of some parts of the work; as well as correct some of the numer- 
ous repetitions with which it abounds, whilst at the same time 
we should endeavor to make some of our descriptions more clear 
and intelligible. The improvements, however, that we would 
endeavor to make, are mostly such as are of little practical 
importance, but which are almost inseparable from the hasty 
manner in which the greater part of these volumes were writ- 
ten and put to press. And the only apology which we have for 
this haste is, the loud and repeated calls which have been made 
for the work, in all parts of the country where it became known 
that such a publication was in contemplation. We trust, there- 
fore, that the reader will make all due allowance for any awk- 
wardness of stile, or barrenness of language, which may have 
occurred in either the present or preceding volume. We may 
also add, that many of the proof sheets were not read by the 
writer, in consequence of ill health, and hence another source of 
error, which may be removed and corrected in a succeeding 
edition. 

In our descriptions of diseases, we have availed ourselves of 
privileges which all authors of popular medical works, since the 
days of Dr. Bstghan, have assumed, of borrowing either the idca3 



CONCLUSION. 21 5 

or language, or both, of preceding writers. Indeed, so much ha* 
been written upon this subject, that a medical treatise cannot 
now be attempted, without servilely copying or otherwise fall- 
ing into the track pursued by others. 

It may possibly have been anticipated by some, that the 
method laid down for the treatment of disease, would have been 
more diversified and extensive, in consequence of the advantages 
which have been derived from experience and the mass of ma- 
terials in our possession. We will remark upon this point, that 
we fully expected ourselves, to have introduced a much greater 
variety into this department, but were deterred from the follow- 
ing considerations, which we deemed important: — The materials 
which we had with much labor and considerable expense col- 
lected for the work were mostly in a detached or unconnected 
form, and, therefore, required much time and. careful attention 
to enable us to introduce them in a proper manner into the work. 
To this we may also add, that many of the articles and com- 
pounds, which we contemplated publishing, were untried by 
ourselves, and therefore we could not speak of them with that 
confidence, which is so desirable in a matter of so much impor- 
tance to the health and well-being of the human family. Some 
articles which we intended to introduce were, moreover, on such- 
authority that we could not consistently give them a formal 
introduction under the head of treatment, although we have 
reason to hope they may prove highly valuable. Before any 
thing is thus recommended, we think it ought to be well tested 
by competent persons upon whose authority the fullest reliance 
may be placed. We, therefore, concluded to arrange the grea- 
ter part of the knowledge we had thus obtained, and which we 
originally contemplated introducing into the treatment of dis- 
eases, under appropriate heads in the materia medica. The 
attentive reader will there find them, with their mode of prepar- 
ation and manner of using, as well as a statement of what cases 
they have been found useful in; and by a judicious application 
he will be enabled to form a correct estimate of their value. 

We may also add, that many valuable communications were 
received at a period quite too late to have been introduced un- 
der their proper heads in the treatment of disease, and were 
necessarily from this circumstance omitted, but will be found in 



216 cotfctusioi*, 

the materia medica. We shall, however, by no means give pub- 
licity to all the recipes and other communications which have 
been so kindly furnished us, but will select such only as appear 
most likely to be generally or extensively useful. 

We will take the opportunity of expressing the obligations 
which we feel ourselves under to numerous individuals, who have 
so generously assisted us by communicating their knowledge and 
experience in aid of this work*, and they will please accept our 
thanks for this, the same as if their names were here mentioned. 
An important communication from one individual, however, was 
received too late for insertion in its proper place, but being, as 
we conceive, of too much consequence to be omitted, we v/ill 
insert it at the conclusion of this article. 

We deem it proper further to observe, that in describing the 
symptoms of disease, it is utterly impossible to give a description 
of any particular complaint, that will always apply in every case, 
to the disease intended to be described. Symptoms often times 
t>ccur which it would be in vain to attempt a description of; 
whilst in other cases, many of those which are described may be 
wanting. It is only by taking them in a group and comparing 
them with the general train of symptoms, that we shall be enabled 
to give a correct name to the disease, in which, however, the 
best read physicians frequently disagree; and hence arises the 
most disastrous consequences from administering poisonous medi- 
cines which, even in the practice of those who approve of them, 
may be wrongly and very improperly used. But there is noth- 
ing of this in a practice where poisonous medicines are excluded. 
If a person becomes sick, we go about restoring him to health, 
regardless of names: if we know the name, well; if not, we are 
not deterred from administering medicines, either a single arti- 
cle or a full course, according to the -urgency 01 violence of the 
symptoms. And hence we are constrained to acknowledge, that 
all the lengthy and tedious descriptions of disease which swell the 
countless volumes written upon medicine, are comparatively of lit- 
tle value. Even the trouble that we have taken and the expense 
which we have incurred in collating, revising, and publishing 
the descriptions given in our own book, we regard more as an 
offering upon the altar of public prejudice, fashion and folly, than 
as a really useful and intrinsically valuable addition to the gene- 



CONCLUSION. 21? 

ral knowledge of the nature of disease, and of the general method 
of treatment and cure. 

We will conclude, by referring the reader to the common 
course of medicine, and general mode of treatment, in all alarm- 
ing cases, rather than to vain attempts at giving a correct name 
to the disease, which is a matter of no consequence compared 
with the knowledge of the means of effecting a cure. 

The course of medicine, so often referred to under the head, 
of treatment, will be found very particularly described in the 
materia medica; together with all the general directions neces- 
sary to enable almost any person, aided by common sense and a 
little experience, to cure the usual maladies incident to a 
family. 

SMALL POX. 

COMMUNICATION FROM DR. W. RIPLEY. 

We could wish that Dn Ripley had gone a little more into 
detail respecting his treatment of the small pox; but as it is, we 
think it valuable, and believe that whilst it goes, in general, to 
substantiate the statement of Dr. Wilson, which will be found 
under the head of small pox, it will also, with a little attention, 
be found sufficiently explicit to answer all the purposes intended: 

"I have always found," says the Doctor, "in the primary* 
fever of small pox, an almost perfect resemblance to ordinary 
bilious fever; but in general the rigors are more severe, and 
continue alternating with flashes of heat, for a longer time than 
is usual in that disease. Bui the action varies in different cases, 
from the lowest typhoid type, to the highest inflammatory form, 
which last is the most common; whilst in general the danger 
increases as it approaches the typhus: and I verily believe that 
no physician can discriminate so closely as to detect the small 
pox by the symptoms alone, before the eruption appears. 

But the difficult}' of discriminating makes no difficulty in prac- 
tice to those who adopt the Thomsonian or Botanic plan, as it 



* By primary fever, is meant, the fever which always precedes the erup- 
tion. 

28 



•218 CONCLUSION. 

requires the same treatment with that form of fever which if 
resembles, and the same motto may be used in either case: — 
'Support the powers of life, and never poison \our patient.' The 
more the symptoms incline to typhus, the greater the deficiency 
of nervous energy; and, of course, the difficulty of keeping the 
determining powers to the surface is increased. In such cases 
it must not be supposed that the danger is over when the erup- 
tion is out, for the tendency to strike in, will be in proportion to 
the diminished energy of the nervous system, which appears in 
the fir>t stage; and the sinking or flattening down of the pustules 
will Derhaps be the first symptom indicating an unfavorable con- 
dition of the system. But where there is more energy, all the 
symptoms of fever may increase, and bile will accumulate in the 
stomach, and a thorough emetic becomes necessary. The third 
preparation! of Dr. Thompson is always best in such cases; and 
if the throat is sore, and hot medicine dreaded, still it is needed, 
and the throat is cured by it. Let the diet be good and nour~ 
ishing throughout. 

To make myself better understood by those who employ no 
Doctor, I would advise a course of medicine in the first place, 
when the cold chills commence ; it will be proper to steam before 
giving an emetic, if the patient is cold, and the pulse low; but 
if otherwise, give the third preparation first, and after the oper- 
ation it will be proper to steam if the fever is off; if not, rub the 
patient all over with a flannel cloth wet with number six.j and 
repeat the dose of third preparation till the fever abates, or as 
often as it rises after an irtermission. In most cases under this 
treatment there is very little fever after the eruption appears, 
through the whole progress of the disease. If the secondary 
fevei || appears, it is when the pustules are .about drying up? 
when the same treatment may be applied as at first, to subdue 
the fever. But beware of refrigerating cathartics: use the sy- 
ringe to keep the bowels in order, with composition tea and 
third preparation." 

+ Our antispasmodic drops are equivalent to this article, and we fh.'nk far 
better 

J Cayenne and vinegar, or the bathing drops, we think equally as good 
for external application in general, as the number six. 

|| This name is applied te the fever which often arises in violent cases, af- 
ter the pustules have appeared. 



— 0^©— 

Containing Cases of Cures performed with 
Satanic tffledicines. 

The following cases are given, not so much with 
a view of showing the value of Botanic Medicines, as 
to exhibit the diversified manner in which they may be 
used, and thus inspire confidence in those who are but 
little acquainted with them. These cures were per- 
formed with what are termed Thomsonian medicines : 
a name now employed to a great extent in a general 
sense, to distinguish innocent Botanic remedies from 
those which are poisonous, either Botanical or Mineral: 
and if there be any thing honorable to Dr. Thomson in 
this distinguishing Botanic Medicine, we think him 
worthy of it, as he was the first individual who com- 
menced the present revolution in medicine, and which 
will eventually c hange the whole poisonous practice ; for 
which he is entitled to the lasting gratitude of the whole 
civilized world. 

But it is obvious to those who are acquainted with 
Dr. Thomson's System, as it is called, that it is too short, 
as well as being otherwise imperfect; an^l loud and re- 
peated calls have been made for a work more extensive, 
and at the same time embracing all the improvements 
and knowledge that has been accumulating since the 
publication of his books, which is the object of the pre- 
sent publication. 



CASES OF CURES 



CASE I. 



A child of Amasa Reed, aged nearly two years, was laboring 
under a violent attack of fever, accompanied by great debility. 
It could not be induced to take medicine in the common man- 
ner. An injection composed of a tea spoon full of Thompson's 
Composition powders in three-fourths of a tea cup full of boiling 
water, was prepared, and when cooled to a lukewarm tempera- 
ture, injected. At intervals of about five minutes injections were 
administered, prepared as follows: 

1 — Haifa tea spoon full of Lady's Slippers; half the quantity 
of Skunk Cabbage; half do. Thomson's No. 6; one third do. of 
Bavberry bark; all diluted with warm water. 

2 — One tea spoon full of pulverized seeds of Lobelia Inflata,. 
in half tea cup full of -arm water. 

3 — Haifa tea spoon full of hot bitters; half do. of Golden Sealj 
one third do. of Lady's Slippers; half tea cup full of hot water; 
when sufficiently cooled, strained. 

During all this time, the child was permitted to drink freely of 
cold water, and once or twice took a little warm pennyroyal tea, 
Soon after the administration of the last injection, the child began 
to vomit. 

At intervals of five minutes, the following injections were given,, 
viz: 

4 — Haifa tea spoon full of tincture of Lobelia; halfdo. of No, 
6; in half a tea rnp full of warm pennyroyal tea. [Child con- 
tinued frequently to vomit.] 

5 — H^lfa teaspoon full of Thomson's Composition; half a do. 
of Ladv's Slipper; mixed with half a tea cup full of warm water. 

[V ^mitintr continued.] 

6 — Haifa tea cup full of strong pennyroyal tea, alone. 



222 APPENDIX. 

7 — Haifa tea spoon full of Bayberry bark; one fourth do. of 
Bitter root (Apocynum Andros&mifolium) in half a tea cup full of 
warm water. 

8— Half a tea cup full of strong pennyroyal tea. 

[^till vomiting occasionally.] 

9 — Same quantity of spearmint tea. 

Immediately after this the child slept for a few minutes; upon 
waking, it exhibited what Thomson denominates the alarming 
symptoms. Its eyes assumed a singular appearance; was rest- 
less, &c. The paroxysm continued for fifteen or twenty minutes. 
After which the child appeared quiet, sleeping the most of the 
time during the succeeding two or three hours. 

In about four hours from the time of the last administration 
of medicine, gave another injection, composed of half a tea spoon 
full of hot bitters, mixed in warm water. At intervals of an hour, 
gave injections as follows: 

11 — Haifa tea spoon full of Skunk Cabbage root; half do, of 
Bayberry bark; half do. of Lady's Slipper. 

12 — Same as the last. 

In two hours from this time, gave one of hot bitters; in six or 
seven hours, gave another of the same. In three or four hours, 
gave another, composed of half a tea spoon full of Lady's Slipper; 
same quantity of Bayberry; do. of Golden Seal; one fourth do. 
of Bitter root; two tea spoons full of No. 6; in a tea cup full of 
hot water, made cool and strained. The duration of the time 
of vomiting was from fifteen to twenty minutes. After the re- 
freshing sleep above alluded to, the child took a little nourish- 
ment; and on the following morning, it ate freely of toast and 
tea. From this time it entirely recovered. 

CASE II. 

Margaret Foglesong, of Lebanon, aged seven or eight years, 
was taken ill with a slight fever. A physician was called, who 
gave her a portion of calomel, to destroy the worms. After its 
operation, she being no better, her father came for me. I at- 
tended, and gave her Composition tea; at the same time, placing 
at her feet a warm stone, wrapped in cloths saturated with water 
and vinegar. The next morning I found her free from fever, set- 



APPENDIX. 223 

ting up, and eating. I left medicine, with directions to give it, 
so as to keep her in a moderate perspiration. As her health was 
so rapidly improving, 1 told her parents that my further visits 
might be dispensed vvi'h, unless she should relapse. Shortly 
after I left the house, the child complained that the medicine 
smarted her mouth; which was tender from the effects of the 
calomel previously administered. Her mother now insisted on 
sending for another physician; which was accordingly done, al- 
though the child was apparently no worse. The physician came, 
and after commenting upon the awful effects of the steam medi- 
cine, (as he called it) and the good fortune of the child in being 
rescued from it so soon, commenced a course of salivation, and 
reduced the patient to the borders of death. 

The calomel, acting on the gums and inner surface of the 
cheeks, progressed in eating them away, until a number of the 
teeth dropped out; after several weeks time, mortification of the 
parts, commenced, and soon made its appearance through the 
cheek, by a black spot on the external surface, of the size of a 
six cents piece. The attending physician then applied a blister 
to the cheek; and in a few hours the flesh, to the whole size of 
the plaster, appeared black and dead, exhaling an extremely 
offensive smell. The severity of pain was so great, that she 
would tear her face with her nails, and scream from the anguish. 
It became necessary to confine her hands, to prevent injury. 

In this situation, the physician gave her up as incurable-^ and I 
was again sent for. I went, and informed her father that I 
thought there was but one chance in a hundred, of rendering 
her any relief; but after much persuasion I consented to prescribe 
for her case. I directed a large poultice to be made of equal 
parts of White Pond Lily root, Bayberr) bark, Hemlock bark, 
and the bark of Slippery elm, all pulverized, and boiled in wa- 
ter, made strong with Ginger, and thickened with crackers. 
I then washed the whole wound, both inside and out, with strong 
soap suds; after which, I washed it with a very strong tea of sas- 
safras, common Dogwood bark, and No. 6, mixed together, and 
used cold: The poultice above mentioned, was then applied, 
and kept constantly moist with the above named wash; renewing 
the poultice every six hours, and washing the wound with soap 
suds, &c. at each renewal; and frequently bathing the line be- 



224 APPENDIX. 

tween the Jiving and dead flesh, with a strong tincture of Lo- 
belia. During this process, the patient drank frequently of a 
mixture of Composition and No. 6; and kept in her mouth, lint 
or rags, wet wilh the above wash and No. 6. 

Pursuing this course, with constant attention, in about twelve 
hours the disease was checked. In twenty-four hours a division 
was perceptible between the dead and living flesh; and in a few 
days the whole mass of the dead flesh, loosening from the jaw 
bones and living flesh was detached by clipping some integuments 
round the edges; leaving the bone bare (which was black, along 
the violar process, and out of which the teeth had previously 
dropped) from near the middle of the upper lip round just be- 
low the templar process, to the middle of the cheek, or about 
as far back as the back molar tooth, and thence to the lower 
edge of the under jaw bone, and following this along, passing 
the middle of the chin, and taking off about three fourths of 
the under lip. All the flesh inclosed in this line, was removed 
in the above mass; the violar came away by degrees. After 
this mass was removed, I continued the above washes, and dress- 
ed the wound wilh healing salve; and thus the entire cure was 
effected, with less disfiguration than could be expected under 

such circumstarices. 

WILSON THOMPSON. 

case iii- 
John S. C. Schenk, of Franklin, Warren County, Ohio, had 
been confined to his bed, for six or seven weeks, with an inflam- 
mation of the diaphragm, attended with violent fever, cough, and 
pain.— His attending physicians became discouraged; a council 
was called upon his case, and the result of its deliberations was 
unfavorable. In this state of the case he applied to me. I 
found him unable to lay upon either side, or to be raised up in 
bed but with the most excruciating pain. I commenced with 
him, by giving Composition tea, with Nerve powder, and No. 6, 
in common portions, and boneset tea; repeating the doses every 
two or three hours: at the same time, keeping a hot rock, wrap- 
ped in wet cloth? ? at his feet; and giving enough of the Tincture 



APPENDIX 225 

if Lobelia, to"act as an expectorant. This course was rigidly 
persevered in for about forty-eight hours; during which time, 
repeated injections were given, composed of Biyberry and 
Hemlock bark*, Pond Lily root, Cayenne, Umbil, No. 6, and 
the powdered herb of Lobelia Inflata; and the region of the pain 
was frequently bathed with a preparation of No. 6, and the oil 
of Hemlock mixed. At the expiration of the above mentioned 
time, I added more Cayenne to his composition tea, and repeated 
the dose every fifteen minutes, until the inward heat was well 
raised. I then (with the assistance of several men) placed him 
in a large arm chair, and applied the steam to his body, at first 
very moderately, increasing it as he could bear it, until he was 
in a state of thorough perspiration, and the whole system became 
properly relaxed. He was then washed all over with a towel 
wet with a mixture of cold water, and vinegar, made strong 
with spirits and salt; dressed, and put into a clean bed. By 
means of tin pipes, I then introduced steam into the foot of his 
bed, continuing it for three hours, so as to keep him in a gentle 
sweat; giving him, in the mean time, a portion of pulverized 
Lobelia seeds (say two or three tea spoons full) compounded 
with one tea =poon full of Cayenne, half as much Umbil, and a 
table spoon full of No. 6, mixed in half a tea cup full of Com- 
position tea. This operated as an emetic; after which, I re- 
sumed the =;ame course pursued duripg the first forty-eight hours, 
and continued it for the same length of time; and then took him 
through another full course of medicine as above mentioned. 
Thus in about ninety-six hours the cure was effected, and by 
taking tonics, and stimulants, such as Nos. 2, 3, 6, Composition, 
Poplar bark. Golden seal, and Bitter root, he was soon restored 
to good health and strength. 

WILSON THOMPSON. 

r-«>'t»g(9'9<« "T - 

CASE IV. 

Joseph Tapscott, living near Franklin, was, seventeen or 
eighteen years since, reduced very low, by what was railed the 
Cold Plague, and although he partially recovered from that 
complaint, he continued in a weakly state; and was so afflicted 

29 



226 APPENDIX; 

with pain in the side, breast, shoulder, and head, that his liie 
became a burthen. He was often troubled with a hard swelling 
in his stomach, accompanied with great distress; his face was 
bloated, and florid, verging towards a purple color. Several 
physicians had attended him, but to no purpose. They supposed 
his liver to be affected, and his case remediless. 

In this situation he had dragged out his existence for seventeen 
years; making daily use of opiates as palliatives. I commenced 
by forbidding the use of opium; gave him Composition; No. 3 
and 2, with No. 6; and a free use of Umbil; and frequently 
bathing with No. 6. After pursuing this course during three 
days, I placed him over the steam, giving Composition, Capsi- 
cum, No. 6, and Umbil freely. When he had sweat profusely 
for thirty minutes, I washed him from head to foot with a towel 
wet with cold water, spirits, vinegar, and salt; using as much 
friction in this operation as he could well bear. I then placed 
a hot stone, wrapped in cloths wet with the last mentioned wash, 
to his feet, in bed, and gave him an emetic of the pulverized 
seeds of Lobelia, mixed with Nos. 2, 6, Composition, and Umbil. 
This had a good operation. — 1 also gave frequent injections of 
Nos.l. 2, 3, 6, and Umbil. I persevered in this manner, until he 
had passfd through t^i such courses, keeping him, in the intervals, 
well stimulated with Nos. 3, 6, Composition, and Cayenne; still 
using the Umbil, No. 4, Gulden seal, and Bitter root. 

Mr. Tapscott is now entirely recovered. 

WILSON THOMPSON. 



CASE V. 

Mrs. Lytle, of Deerfield, Warren county, aged 64 years.. 
fell from a horse, and was badly bruised in many parts of her 
body and limbs; particularly in her head; a part of which, 
from behind the ear, up over the mold of the head, appeared 
to be mangled to a jelly, although the skin was but little brok- 
en. Dr. Montague examined her on the ground where the 
accident happened, before the injured parts became swelled, 
and said no bone was broken. He continued with her (as I wa? 
informed) through the night. She could neither see, hear, nor 
Speak; and was entirely deprived of the use of her senses. 



APPENDIX. 927 

The next morning I was called to hei ; and found the doctor 
still with her. I inquired what he had done; he replied, he 
could do nothing?; he had tried to bleed her, but could not; he 
had also attempted to give her some epicac; but could not get 
her to swallow any thing; and so he could do nothing;. I found 
that she could not be induced to swallow even cold water, when 
put into her mouth; and that I must entirely depend on injec- 
tions for internal applications. I mixed No. 6,. with about one 
eighth part of Oil of Hemlock, and bathed her head with it, 
and then with strong vinegary using these alternately every 
thirty minutes. For injections, I used one tea spoon full of 
Composition powders, in a tea cup full of hot water; and when 
sweetened and partially cooled, I added a portion of No. 6, one 
of Nerve powder, and one of Lobelia seeds. I administered 
such a preparation every thirty minutes, until it operated as an 
emetic; after which I left the Lobelia out of the injections, 
except when I wished to puke her; but continued the injections 
frequently, in order to stimulate the bowels, and raise the inward 
heat. She soon began to take the warm medicine by the tea 
spoon full at a time; this was repeated every few minutes. I 
prepared the hot medicine, by adding Cayenne to Composition 
powder; or with Hemlock and Bay berry bark, and Pond Lily 
root, all pulverized and steeped in hot water; and giving freely 
of No. 6 in these teas. After pursuing this course for about 
twenty-four hours, placing a hot stone, wrapped in cloths wet 
with vinegar, at her feet; occasionally bathing her head with 
cold water, and continuing the other bathings above mentioned, 
I concluded the vital, or inward, heat, would bear the outward 
application of steam; which was accordingly applied by means 
of tin pipes, conveying it from a tea kettle of boiling water, 
into the foot of her bed, until she perspired freely; .then repla- 
cing the hot stones to her feet as before to keep up the perspira- 
tion. I then left her for the night 

At about i 1 o'clock at night she was taken with fits, and the 
family became so much alarmed, (I being four or five miles off) 
that Dr. Cottle was sent for; he came, and said her case was 
incurable and had been from the first; for, he continued, the 
blood had settled on her brain, and was the cause of the fits* 
He left some oil of amber for bathing her head; and called 



338 appendix; 

again early in the morning, repeating the same opinion, adding 
that when the tits should cease, she would die. I came and 
learned her situation, and found that my directions had been 
observed, and the amber oil still remained in the phial. I wit- 
nessed one of the fits, and ascertained that the convulsions were 
mostly confined to the side which was most seriously injured; 
and although she struggled violently yet her pulse was regular 
all the time, but rather fuller at the end of the spasm; her eye 
was natural, except the discoloration produced by the bruise. 
There were no indications of a pressure on the brain, such as 
stupor, snoring, heaviness, wildnessof the eyes, &c. I inform- 
ed her friends that I believed the fits to be the most favorable 
symptoms which I had seen. That, from the action of medicine 
and steam, nature was roused from its torpid state, and being, 
as ye>, unable to gain the full ascendency, produced the strug- 
gles or convulsions of the system; and all we had to do, was to 
reinforce nature as much as possible, and quiet the nerves, and 
keep the pores open. 

I increased the doses of hot medicine, as well as the injections.- 
adding Umbil and Lobelia seeds, or 3d preparation of No. 1, un- 
til <be puked freely; and was soon confirmed in m\ first opinion; 
for I found the fits became weaker, and the circulation better in 
the worst side, and more equalized through the whole system, 
and her extremities warmer. 

It was near eleven o'clock at night before she vomited — as the 
Lobelia was chiefly given by injections — but after its operation 
the fits ceased, having continued about twenty-four hours, and 
were believed to average one to every fifteen or twenty minutes, 
during that period. The latter part of the night she slept, and 
in the morning was perceivably better. About noon she spoke 
a word or two, which was the first attempt at speaking, or the 
first she was perceived to notice any thing since the time of the 
accident. 

From this period she began gradually to recover both in body 
and mind, and finally became as well as other women of her 
age; but has no recollection of any thing which transpired from 
the time she first received the injury until the lapse of between 
one and two weeks. 

WILSON THOMPSON. 



APPEND I»U. M2& 

CASE VI. 

Bernard Christopher was, during the last harvest, stricken with 
a shock of the numb palsy in one side. Under my treatment 
he soon recovered so as to resume his labor; but still the atfect- 
ed arm was not perfect in its usual strength. In the beginning 
of this winter, after having loaded wood into a waggon, during 
a cold day, and retired to bed at night, he was taken with a most 
excrutiating pain in the wrist. I attended him, and bathing his 
arm with a mixture of No. 6, and Hemlock oil, soon relieved 
the pain; and keeping up the circulation by the use of Cayenne, 
Composition, No. 6, &c. inwardly, prevented its return; but the 
hand soon swelled, and turned a purple color, losing all sense of 
feeling and power of motion, and having every appearance of 
suppuration- —but did not suppurate. I tried a number of poul- 
tices, warm baths, nerve ointment, Oil of Spike, British Oil, &c. 
&c. without any perceivable good effect. At length, I resolved 
to try the cold bath. I concluded, that the energies of nature 
in this arm, were so benumbed, that the inward heat could not 
be raised sufficiently to overbalance the outward heat, so as to 
produce a proper action, unless the outward heat could be re- 
duced. I therefore gave the warm medicine internally to stimu- 
late the system to exert all its energies, and then poured cold 
water on the hand and arm constantly for thirty minutes. After 
which, it was wrapped in flannel for one or two hours, then 
bathed with No. 6, using as much friction as possible, and wrap, 
ped again in flannel as before, still giving the stimulating medi- 
cine freely. By repeating this course, the hand was restored. 

WILSON THOMPSON, 

CASE VII. 

A young lady, named Wadkins, living near Centreville, Mont 
gomery county, was taken very ill with a sOre throat. The physi- 
cian who attended her, could not decide whether she had the 
quincy, or a cankered sore throat ; but gave her an emetic, which 
produced spasms to an alarming degree; he then bled her, and 
drew a large blister on her neck, under the jaws; and in this 
ntuation she lay some days, unable to eat or drink. I was called 



230 APPENDIX. 

to her, and found, upon examination, that her palate was dowc ; 
(as it is generally termed) and was much inflamed, having liber- 
ally imparted its inflammatory humors to the tonsils. I put the 
palate up to its place, with a spoon handle, using the Bavberry 
bark, Cayenne, and salt, wet with No. .6, on the spoon handle. 
In a few minutes from this time, she could swallow; I then gave 
her Composition, No. 6, and Umbil, inwardly ; prepared a gargle 
of Capsicum, No. 3, and 6, for her throat-, sweated her face fre- 
quently with a hot stone and vinegar; used freely of a tea made- 
of Sinkfield ; and she was soon well. 

A number of months after this period, she was afflicted with 
a small tumor on the middle joint of the little finger, which had 
a threatening appearance, but soon got well; and as it was dis- 
appearing (without suppuration, I think) she exposed herself one 
cold evening, with only thin gloves on her hands. Immediately 
on her return home, she was seized with a violent and unremit- 
ting pain in the right hand, [on which the tumor had been,] As 
her mother was bathing it in warm water, the muscles began to 
contract; the thumb drew down firmly into the hollow, or palm, 
of the hand, and all the fingers were drawn down and clenched 
around it, until the nails were out of sight, [as the ends of the fin- 
gers, passing overthe thumb, turned round it and under it into the 
hollow of the hand.] All sense of feeling had left the hand and 
arm half way up to the elbow. The same physician who first 
attended her, when suffering by the sore throat, was again ap- 
plied to. He said her complaint was the dead palsy and cramp; 
he bled her; blistered her arm at the place where sensation be- 
gan; gave her cathartics, &c- and forced open her hand by the 
muscular strength of his own — upon which she minted — but her 
fingers remained stiff, and soon clenched as before. The doctor 
aaid he had never seen such a case; and as the blister on her 
arm appeared like mortifying, and he knew not what more to do,, 
he left her. I was sent for, but being absent in Indiana, Dr. An- 
derson was called in, who pursued our common course of sweat- 
ing, puking with Lobelia, using Nerve ointment, washing with 
alkali, &c. all to no purpose. Shortly after my return, I was 
called to see her; and was informed of what had been done, and 
that her hand had been clenched in this manner, three weeks. 
By close attention, the pulse in the wrist was perceptible j there 



APPENDIX. 23*1 

wasismall circulation in the hand, but no feeling. Whenever I 
attempted to raise one of her fingers, which was destitute of 
sensation, a faintness seized upon her heart, so that I was com- 
pelled to desist. 

I commenced by making a strong tea of Composition and Cap- 
sicum; of this I give about a half tea cup full every fifteen 
■ minutes, adding Umbil and No. 6. I continued this course, 
placing the patient by the fire, with her body shielded from the 
cool air, until she began to sweat; I then placed her arm and 
hand over a tub containing a quantity of cold water, which was 
I dipped up and poured upon it, constantly, for about thirty min- 
i utes. It was then wrapped in flannel, as the skin was extremely 
red. In about an hour I took offthe flannel, and found the veins 
i much filled, and the skin soft and in a perspirable state. I then 
! bathed it with No. 6 and Oil of Hemlock, and kept up a constant 
; friction for thirty or forty minutes, still using the bathing drops? 
and not neglecting the internal application of stimulants. It was 
then wrapped in the flannels again. The next morning the same 
process was repeated, and the hand and arm began to sweat; in 
! the afternoon, as I was rubbing and bathing her hand, the fore 
\ finger opened; soon after the middle finger loosened and opened j 
j in a short time the little finger also opened: and she swooned 
I away, although no force was used to relax their grasp; soon 
i, after she revived, the remaining finger and thumb were loosed, 
| and the whole hand appeared soft, and the muscles as elastic as 
usual. The first sensation was severe pain in the finger joints; 
; it however, lasted but a short time. This relief was effected 
in about twenty-four hours. I then left her, with directions how- 
to proceed ; and suppose her to be entirely well, as six weeks 
have elapsed, and I have heard nothing to the contrary. 

WILSON THOMPSON, 



CASE VIII. 



Miss Martha French, of Pennsylvania, had been laboring um- 
der the dyspepsy for seven years She had, as she informed me. 
been attended by a number of the most celebrated doctors in 
^hat country, but the disorder still increased upon her. The 



$82 APPENDIX. 

physicians finally said, her lungs were affected, and advised 
her to travel; and if that failed in relieving her, she was incura- 
ble. She accordingly started, and came to her uncle, (Mr. Saw- 
yer,) near Springborough, in Warren county. Being no better 
from her journey, and hearing of Dr. Campbell, of Middletown, 
she visited him, and continued some time, without obtaining re- 
lief. I was then sent for; and after examining into her case, 
told her that her lungs were not affected, excepting as they par- 
ticipated in the general debility of her whole system; but that 
an almost complete prostration of the digestive organs was the 
cause of her whole complaint, which had produced, by debility, 
an amenorrhoea; and she could scarcely venture to eat enough, 
even of the lightest food, to support nature. I told her if she 
would come to my house. I would endeavor to effect a cure. 
She accordingly came, and 1 began by giving her Composition, 
Cayenne, and No. 6, every few hours, keeping her in a warm 
room, (as the weather was cold;) after continuing this course 
about thirty-six hours, I added more Cayenne to the Composition, 
together with Umbil, and gave her about half a tea cup full of 
this solution every ten or fifteen minutes, and placed her over 
the steam, until she sweat some — but she would not sweat freely. 
I then placed her in bed, with the blanket about her, and gave 
a portion of Cayenne, Umbil, No. 6, and seeds of Lobelia, all 
mixed in a tea of Composition. This operated but slowly as an 
emetic; after which, she took an injection made of eqmil parts of 
Bayberry bark, Hemlock bark and White Lily root, all pulveri- 
zed and well mixed together; to one tea spoon full of this powder, 
and the same quantity of sugar, I added a tea cup full of hot 
water; and when cooled to a blood beat, I mixed with it No. 6, 
Umbil, and the powdered leaves and pods of the emetic herb, 
stirring them well together — this was all administered at one 
time. After its operation, f put her over the steam again, and 
she sweat more profusely; she was then washed well with vine- 
gar and water, dressed for the night, and placed in a clean bed— ■> 
drank some chicken soup, and took some Composition tea. 
This course was repeated every forty-eight hours until she had 
been through three of them; making free use ofNos. 2, 3, 6, 
and Composition: with Golden seal and Bitter root, and a tea 
of Poplar bark with Nos. 4 and 5. She continued taking the 



APPENDIX". 



223 



above articles, and I put her through a course of steaming occa- 
sionally; applying friction frequently, round the lower points of 
the ribs, from the point of the breast bone to the back. She en- 
tirely recovered, and has since returned to Pennsylvania. I have 
always found this course effectual in this disease. 

WILSON THOMPSON-. 

CASE IX. 

Mrs. Fisher, of Lebanon, was afflicted with a dropsy in the 
ehest, or thoracic cavity, (probably in the pericardium. ) Site 
was predisposed to a consumptive habit; and most of her family 
had fallen victims to that fatal complaint. She had been at- 
tended by several physicians, who said she was going with the 
consumption; but as she grew worse under their treatment, 
she sent for me. I told her that 1 did not believe her lungs 
were materially affected, and that the cough and difficulty at- 
tending respiration, proceeded from a collection of water in 
the thorax; and that I thought her case was very doubtful. — 
I however commenced, by giving her a tea spoon full of Com- 
position powder, in hot water, sweetened, every night on going 
to bed; at ihe same time, placing a hot stone, wrapped in wet 
cloths, to her feet. On the fourth evening I gave her a similar 
portion of Composition, adding the same quantity of Cayenne, 
half as much Umhil, and as much No 6. 1 then had her dis- 
robed of her clothing, and placed in an open bottomed chair, 
shielded from the cold air by blankets, (excepting the face.) 
A skillet of water was placed under the chair, into which I put 
hot stones, forcing the steam up around her body. In a short 
time she sweat profusely; I then had her rubbed from head to 
foot, with a towel wet with cold water, vinegar and spirits — 
then wiped dry, dressed in her night clothes, and put into a 
clean bed, with a hot stone at her feet I then* gave her a por- 
tion of med cine similar to the one above described, adding a 
dose of Lobelia tincture; which had a very happy operation as 
an emetic. After this, I gave sufficient stimulants to promote 
a free perspiration, through the night, and did not suffer it en- 
tir^ly to subside for forty-eight hours. At tbe expiration of 

30 



234 APPENDIX. 

which time, I put her through another similar course, not ne- 
glecting frequent injections. 

About twenty four hours after the second course, she was 
suddenly taken with suffocation, and strangling, as if drowning. 
I was sent for in haste, and when I came, her husband told me 
that she had been, for some time like a drowning person; but 
finally the water had moved downward with such velocity, that 
he could hear it plainly as he stood by her. She said she could 
feel it, as it passed downward, until it was voided in the nat- 
ural way, by immense quantities; this was still proceeding, but 
not to the same degree, and the strangulation was, in some 
measure, moderated. I gave her the hottest medicine 1 had, 
placed Some hot stones about her, and threw her into a profuse 
perspiration, giving freely of Umbil, to quiet the nerves. 

I was compelled to keep up this full perspiration for thirty- 
six hours; for whenever 1 suffered it to abate, the sense of 
strangulation would increase; and I found that an entire relax- 
ation, of'thfi wholes) stem, bv stimulating diaphoretics, would 
favor the expulsion of the water while it kept up the strength 
of the patient. After about thirty-six hour*, I gradually let 
down her system, and in a iew days* put her through another 
course similar to those above described. She is now well and 
bfeart y # - WILSON THOMPSON. 

— ..>►© © «««•— 

CASE X. 
Mrs. Waters was many years afflicted with inflammation of 
the urethra; which had produced a contraction of the muscles, 
to such a degree, that she was compelled to go half bent. I 
gave her the warm medicine, as in other cases, and put her 
through two full courses of medicine and steam, to equalize the 
sytern^ and change its determination; and gave her freely of a 
strong tea of a grass called Colt's tail, Asparagus root, and 
Poplar, separate. I also ordered the use of Mullen oil mixed 
with as much of the tincture of Lobelia seeds, or the spirits of 
third preparation of No. 1, as could be endured, injected into 
the urethra. Pursuing this course a few weeks, she became 
quite well, and strait, and by drinking freely of tar water en- 
voys as good health as other women, 

WILSON THOMPSON. 



APPENDIX. 235 



CASE XI. 



Nancy Shartle was attacked, on the 23] of July last, by 
what tier attending physicians called Cholera Morbus.: but 
w rich, in my opinion, was the Sick Stomach, (sometimes called 
Milk Sickness.) She was under the care of Dis. Smith and 
Clemmens, of Diyton; but appeared to be continually grow- 
ing worse. On the evening of the 25th, I whs cailed to visit 
her; and was told that Dr Clemmens had just left, and the 
patient was believed to be somewhat better, as she lay easier 
than heretofore. I therefore declined prescribing for her at 
the present time. The nurses also informed me, that the phy- 
sicians had changed their treatment from warm applications, 
to those of cold; but that every thing they gave her was imme- 
diately puked up. At this time she complained of a burning 
pain at the stomach, with an almost continual retching or vomit- 
ing; especially when she took medicine or any kind of liquid. 

In the morning I was again called to her, and informed that 
she had passed a very restless night, and was apparently much 
worse. I found her in a very weak state, still complaining 
much of a burning pain in her stomach, together with pain in 
her back. She was almost continually striving to vomit, but 
threw up very little at a time; of a very tough ropy slime.— 
She was also extremely costive. 

In consequence of the treatment pursued by her other physi- 
cians, as well as the critical state of her case, I proceeded 
cautiously in administering my medicines. I commenced by 
giving a tea spoon full of Spice bitters, with the same quantity 
of Umbil, mixed in warm water. This dose continued upon 
her stomach, and she fell asleep, which lasted an hour or more. 
Upon awaking, she puked up one or two mouths full of tough, 
white slime. I then gave her another tea spoon full of Spie 
bitters, same quantity of Umbil, same of No. 6, mixed in warm 
water. She fell asleep again and slept well. I prepared an 
injection composed of two tea spoons full of Umbil, and one of 
Cayenne, steeped in a strong tea of Hemlock bark; this I 
strained, and added one or two tea spoons full of No. 6: upon 
her awakening this was administered by means of a pint sy- 
ringe; which had a good efieet. I then gave her a tea spoon 
full of Dr. Tnomson's Composition powder, about half the game 






236- APPENDIX. 

quantity of Umbil, and a tea spoon full of No. 6, in warm water 
sweeten, d; in fifteen or twenty minutes, I repeated a similar 
dose; in about the same length of time, I gave a spoon full of 
fine Bayherry, a tea spoon full of pulverized herb of Lobelia, 
same quantity of No. 6, in warm water sweetened. I repeated 
this dose at intervals of twenty or thirty minutes, until it oper- 
ated well as an emetic. During the operation, I gave her [as 
1 always do in similar cases] cold water to drink; some times 
adding to it from six to ten drops of oil of Pennyroyal; and 
occasionally giving a little African Cayenne, Bayberry and 
Umbil, to keep the stomach warm, and assist the emetic — 
After the operation of the emetic, an injection, similar to the 
one above mentioned [with the exeeptionLof one tea spoon full 
of Umbil] was administered; then gave [say] half a tea spoon 
fuil of Cayenne, and half do. of Um'oil. 

She rested well the remaining part of the night. Early in 
the morning of the next day, 1 gave her, I think, about half a 
tea spoon full of Cayenne, same quantity of Umbil, and one of 
No.. 6; some time after, gave a teaspoon full of Spice bitters in 
warm water. The other medicines were all given in warm 
water sweetened. During the day I occasionally gave a dose 
of Thomson's Composition powder, adding half a tea spoon 
full of Umbil, and one of No. 6; or, No. 2, Umbil, and Mo. 6. 
In the evening an injection was given as above; the patient 
was then placed over the steam, and Composition, Umbil and 
No. 6, given; when sweated sufficiently, she was washed off 
with cold water, dryed, dressed, and placed in bed. Another 
err.etic was then given, as above; when its operation was over, 
she took a dose of Spice bitters; and rested well the remain- 
ing part of this night. 

The next morning, she seemed quite smart; I gave her a - 
dose of hot medicine; in a short time after, gave her a small 
dose of hot bitters, composed of equal parts of Balmonj', Bitter 
root, and Poplar bark, adding some Cayenne. Upon leaving 
her, 1 directed her to take about half a stem glass full of these 
bitters three times a day; f.lso to take Composition and No. 6, 
the same number of limes daily; at least, morning and nightt 
On the Saturdav following I called to see her, and found hei* 
per.ectly recovered. DANIEL JORDAN* 



APPENDIX. '837 

N. B. None of the medicine I gave her, was thrown up from 
the stomach, except when under the operation of" the emetics. 

— .i>*e@»w— 

CASE XII. 

Samuel Humbard, of Green County, Tenn. was taken with a 
violent Cramp Colic, or spasmodic affection of the bowels. His 
family gave him many supposed remedies, without any good 
effect: and after his suffering two nights and a day, I was sent 
for. and found him in extreme agony. 1 gave him, at fiist, a tea 
spoon full of No. 6; in four or five minutes, I gave a tea spoon 
full of the 3d Preparation of No. 1. This measurably relieved 
his pain, but his hands and feet immediately became cramped, 
accompanied wiih twinging, or prickling, pains. 1 then touk a 
tea spoon full of Composition, same quantity of No. 6, and half 
as much Umbll, and steeped them in half a tea cup full of boil- 
ing water; when sufficiently cool, added a large tea spoon full of 
the pulverized seeds of Lobelia, and gave him. This dose was 
repeated twice at proper intervals; within which time I also 
gave him an injection composed of Composition and No. 6, of 
each a tea spoon full, and half as much Umbil. The emetic op- 
erated copiously, and he was much relieved. I then gave him 
a dose of Composition, placed him over the steam until well 
sweated, gave more Composition, washed him off with cold wa- 
ter, wiped him dry, and placed him in bed, with a hot stone at 
his feet, in the usual manner. During the night, he was kept in 
a moderate perspiration, by taking two or three times, portions of 
Composition and Bitters; and in the morning seemed quite well, 
except a feeling of soreness, caused by the excessive pain of his 
disease. 

JESSE ELLIS. 

CASE XIII. 

A child of Wesley Morrison, aged 4 or 5 years, was attacked 
■with a violent Cholera Morbus. A physician (of the old school) 
was called in: and under his prescription it became worse, until 



■23b AVVESDIX. 

next morning, when I was sent for. I found the patient much 
reduced; afflicted with excessive vomiting and purging; consid- 
erable fever; crying for water — which, as soon as drank, was 
thrown up again. 

I prepared a tea of Composition, and No. 6, a tea spoon full 
of each, half as much Umbil, and all well steeped in a tea cup- 
full of hot water; when sufficiently cool, added nearly two tea 
spoons full of strong Tincture of Lobelia. Of this preparation, 
I administered a part as an injection; and divided the remainder 
into three or four doses, which were given at intervals of eight 
or ten mir.utes. I then added more of the same medicines to the 
dregs in the tea eup, and proceeded as before. This course 
soon checked the vomiting, so that the medicines were retained 
in the stomach. It finally vomited profusely; after which it was* 
stripped of its clothing, placed in its father's lap, and after taking- 
another portion of the above named tea, was steamed; washed 
off with vinegar; and placed in bed, when it immediately fell 
asleep. On waking, it took nourishment, and some bitters, and 
>eemed entirely well. 

JESSE ELLIS. 

CASE XIV. 

Isaiah Stewart, of Green County, Tenn., inflicted a wound 
in his knee by an axe. He had been attended, five or six weeks 
by a patent Doctor, who had given him several botanic courses, 
using poultices, salves, &c. The wound would sometimes so 
nearly close up, as to prevent any discharge; it then would be- 
come extremely painful. Once every day he would prepare a 
piece of fat meat, (a little larger than a pipe stem, and about 
two inches in length) by tapering it to a point, and run it into 
the wound, and by moving the leg several times, it would dis- 
charge from the joint about a gill of water of a yellowish color; 
which, when cold, would coagulate to a jelly. On one side of 
the wound, proud or fungus flesh would accumulate, which 
raised above the sound flesh. This, the doctor attempted to- 
extirpate, by the use of burnt alum; but in this, as well as ir 
other respects, he failed. 



appendix'. £3t) 

At the expiration of five or six weeks trial, he was brought to 
me. I took him through one botanic course of medicine, and 
applied, on the side of the joint opposite to the wound, a poultice 
of wild com (rev, renewing it every twelve hours. Each time 
alter probing it as aforesaid, the wound was dressed with a 
plaster of healing salve, made as follows: 

One pound Beeswax, one pound Salt Butter, a half pound 
Turpentine, and twelve ounces Balsam of Fir, well simmered 
together. 

At the second dressing, the discharge of joint water was re- 
duced to half the usual quantity; at the third dressing it dis- 
charged none; and the pain ceased; but well concocted matter 
continued to be discharged until the wound was entirely healed;, 
which was in about three weeks from the time I commenced. — 
The part covered with fungus flesh, would not, however, heal, 
until it was removed by the application of pulverized blue stone 
(blue vitriol.) 

It is now about a year since the above cure was effected, and 
the patient still remains well, having the complete use of the 
joint, except that it is, at times, rather weaker than it was before 
the injury. 

It may be well to remark, that the patient was formerly sub- 
ject to dyspepsy; but by the above treatment, and the use of 
hitters, made of Quaking Asp and Barberry bark, boiled to- 
gether, and drank freely, he has entirely recovered of it. 

JESSE ELLIS. 

CASE XV. 

Betsy Morgan had a stroke of palsy, which deprived her of the 
use of one half of her body, except the hand and foot, which 
could be moved a little. In the course of eight days she was 
bled, in that arm twice; after which she entirely lost the use of 
both it and the hand, and appeared every way worse. 

At this stage, I was sent for, and commenced by bathing and 
rubbing the whole of the afflicted parts wilh a flannel cloth, 
saturated with No. 6. I then placed a warm rock to her feet*, 
and another to her side, and gave her a dose composed of Bay- 



240 APPENDIX'. 

berry and Hemlock bark, half a tea spoon full of each, on« 
tea spoon full of Cayenne, and half as much Umbil, all pulver- 
ized, and mixed in hot water; given when moderately cool. In 
fifieen minutes the same dose was repeated, with the addition 
of a large tea spoon full of powdered Lobelia seeds. At inter- 
vals of fifteen minutes, the same doses were twice repeated. At 
the expiration of twenty minutes after the exhibition of the last 
dose she began to vomit, and soon complained of a burning., or 
sharp, prickly sensation in the palsied parts, accompanied with 
great restlessness, free perspiration, tossing about her sound 
limes, &x. Shortly after, she was perceived using her palsied 
limbs; in a few moments she was enabled to use them as freely 
as the others. Afler the emetic had operated profusely, she 
was greatly relieved and remained quiet. She now took nour- 
ishment, and a portion of bitters, made of Quaking Asp and 
Bitter root, pulverised, a tea spoon full of each, steeped in warm 
water. .After a considerable time had elapsed, I gave her a tea 
spoon full of African Cayenne, half the quantity of Umbil, in 
half a tea cup full of strong tea, made of equal parts of the 
bark of Bayberry and Hemlock; and placed hot rocks, wrapped 
in wet cloths, &c, one at her feet and two on each side. At 
intervals of ten minutes, 1 twice repeated the same dose, as last 
above mentioned, and she perspired freely through the night; 
during which she took, at three several times, a dose made by 
putting a tea spoon full of Composition and as much No. 6, into 
a half tea cup full of hot water. After sweating freely for some 
time, she was wiped over the whole body with cloths wet in cold 
vinegar. 

In the course of the next day she was much troubled with 
cramps and spasmodic affections in all her limbs and other parts 
of her body, for many minutes at a time; and they would some- 
times continue half an hour. She was kept in a moderate per- 
spiration by using the Composition and bitters, as above men- 
tioned. In the evening gave her another sweat; and thus con- 
tinued for a (ew days until she was well. 

JESSE ELLIS. 



APPENDIX &4\ 

CASE XVI. 

John Caslile of Green County, Tennessee, over 70 years of 
age, a hard working man, of a strong constitution, had been 
generally healthy until the winter of 1829, when, by treading 
mortar with his bare feet, he took very ill, with a violent cough, 
and consumption of the lungs; which made rapid progress. He 
coughed violently, and expectorated much frothy mucus; fre- 
quently, in the course of two months, he would, several times in 
each day, expectorate large quantities of the most loathsome 
and foetid matter. He sent for several physicians (of the old 
school) who declared him incurable, and declined doing any 
thing for him; he finally applied to me. I found him unable to 
walk without assistance — could set up but little of the time — ■ 
and in the situation above described. He strove to induce me 
to believe that he was better than he really was, that I might 
be encouraged to do something for him. During the space of 
two weeks, I took him through five thorough Thomsonian courses 
of medicine, mostly, at first every other day, and in the inter- 
vening days, gave Composition and bitters, several times in each 
day; early in the morning I also gave him a tea spoon full of 
Tincture of Lobelia, which would nauseate, and sometimes 
vomit, enabling him to expectorate freely; and each evening 
gave half a tea spoon full of Thomson's Cough Powders; and 
thus continued, until he entirely recovered his health; which 
required four or five weeks. 

JESSE ELLIS., 

CASE XVII. 

Susannah Dillion, aged about 40 years, was delivered of a 
child about 5 years ago. Not long after this event, (probably in 
consequence of female obstruction) she was taken with pain, and 
hardness in her left side, and frequent head ache. This was 
shortly followed by a cough; her strength gradually declined; 
and her flesh wasted away. In this situation she had passed 
nearly five years, when I was called to her. I found her extreme- 
ly debilitated, afflicted with an excessive cough, and unable to 

31 
if 



$4i 



APPENDIX. 



lie in her bed for fear of suffocation from the redundancy of mat- 
ter which she was almost constantly expectorating. I commen- 
ced (and continued for two months,) by giving her a course of 
medicine every other day; generally steaming first, then giving 
an injection, and afterwards, an emetic. Abo, giving each morn- 
ing a do^e of Tincture of Lobelia, and in the evening, Cough 
powder — and during the day, Composition and bitters. During 
the two succeeding months, I took her through two courses a 
week, giving the same medicines as before. After which, one 
course a wet k, for several weeks, , with the medicines aforesaid. 
By this treatment she was restored to sound health. 

JESSE ELLIS. 



■=*■*»» <jjj> %+*•*■'**' 



CASE XVIII. 

Lewis Redwine, of Cawater Co. Georgia, strained himself by 
working in a saw mill; and taking cold, it settled in one of lis 
testicles. It swelled until it was not less than three inches in 
diameter, and four or five inches in length; the cord by whiih 
it was suspended was as large as a corn cob; the skin was some 
what loose, but the testicle and cord were apparently as hard 
as wood. There was no pain in the former, and only a little 
twinging in the latter. They had been increasing in size for 
two years; and he had applied means prescribed by water doc- 
tors, without any good effect. 

I took him through several full courses of Thomsonian medi- 
cine; frequently bathing the parts affected, with Thomson's 
No 6; and applying to them, a poultice of cracker, ginger, and 
slippery elm bark, one night; and the next night, a poultice 
made wilh vhiegar and clay out of the back of a chimney; and 
soon alternately. At first, its size was increased; but he soon 
discovered that it was turning to a dropsy in the parts. It was 
then lanced, and the water discharged; and the testicle and 
cord were soon reduced to their proper size, and are now sound. 
He made use of Bitters, composed of Umbil, Unicorn root and 
Cayenne, during the time of the poultice applications, &c. 

The physicians (of the old school) declared his disease to be 
fungus flesh, which would increase until it should finally destroy 
him; and therefore declined any assistance. 

JOHN V. LATTNER 



APPENDIXi £48 

CASE XIX. 

L— -— f W , of Habersham County, Georgia, aged about 

18 years, was delivered of a child. Tne second day after its 
birth, in consequence of her taking cold, the usual evacuations 
which succeed child birth, suddenly and entirely ceased. She 
immediately commenced swelling, which continued until she 
was much larger than before the birth of the child. Two phy- 
sicians [of the old school] were in attendance. The commence- 
ment of the swelling was attended with great pain in her back, 
abdomen, &c. An abscess, of a very large size, formed in the 
latter part about two inches below the navel; which was lanced 
about three inches in depth; and she thinks, in a few days, it 
discharged more than four quarts of matter. Previous to this 
time, she had lost the use of herself from the hips downwards, 
but could now walk n little. Another abscess was formed in the 
navel, and several others near the one first mentioned ; and two 
of them were discharging matter when I first called to her — > 
this was six months after the birth of her child. In addition to 
the above history of her case [which was given by herself and 
husband] thev informed me, that a few weeks previous to my 
seeing her, she was suddenly attacked with excruciating pain 
just under the ribs on the right side, and it moved slowly down- 
ward to an opening in one of the abscesses; and the wound being 
€xamined, she discovered the end of a worm; which she drew 
out, and found it about eight inches in length. 

I commenced by giving a large tea spoon full of Composition, 
half as much Cayenne, and the same quantity of Umbil, mixed 
in a tea cup full of hot water sweetened; and at intervals of 
from five to ten minutes, the same dose was repeated, until 
ten were given. During this time, also, an injection, made of 
two tea spoons full of Composition in half a pint of boiling 
water, was given. In about twentv minutes another injection, 
composed of one tea spoon full of Composition, same quantity 
of powdered seeds of Lobelia, half as much Cayenne, and same 
of Umbil, mixpd in one gill of warm water, was given. By this 
time two hours had elapsed; and perspiration was perceivable. 
She was now placed over the steam for about twentv minutes, 
giving her Composition and Cayenne, in warm water, several 



$44 APPENDIX. 

times during the operation. Cold water was also given her t<* 
drink whenever it was desired, and a little sprinkled or thrown 
on her face, when troubled with short breathing or faintness, 
which may be generally known by the fullness of the arterial 
action in the sides of the neck. The following compound, 
steeped one hour in half a pint of warm water, was given, in 
small quantities, [say a mouth full] at a time, viz: — Three tea 
spoons full of powdered seeds of Lobelia; two do. of Cayenne; 
two do. of Umbil; three do of Tincture of Lobelia; and same 
quantity of No. 6. These doses, after being well shaken up, 
were repeated at intervals of five minutes, until she vomited 
freely; at the same time occasionally giving her warm penny* 
royal tea. After the operation of the emetic, I gave her a tea 
spoon full of Cayenne in warm water sweetened, and steamed 
her again for the space of ten minutes. About two quarts of 
cold water was then poured upon her head, s© as to run down 
over the whole body, placing her at the same time over a lively 
steam; she was then wiped dry and put into a clean bed, after 
dressing in her night clothes. 

The nest day I took her through another course of medicine; 
at an interval of two days, another; at the same interval another j 
in two weeks, another. She also took, in doses of a wine glass 
full, three times a day, upon an empty stomach, the following 
preparation of bitters: One table spoon full of Umbil, same quan- 
tity of Unicorn root, and as much Cayenne, all pulverized, and 
steeped in one pint of boiling water, adding one pint of proof 
spirit; to be kept closely stopped in a tight vessel, and shook 
together before using. Thomson's No. 5, was also taken in 
doses of a wine glass full, just before eating. Pills, made of 
equal parts of Cayenne, Ginger, and Bayberry, were likewise 
used, in portions of ten each day for a month. Besides the 
above, the following mixture w r as prepared, viz: Cayenne, seeds 
of Lobelia, Ginger, Unicorn root, Virginia Snake root, and Um- 
bil, of each a table spoon full, tinelv pulverized; fine steel dust, 
half a spoon full; to all which add one pint of honey. A tea 
spoon full of this mixture, was taken, on going to bed at night, 
for one month, to assist in promoting the menstrual evacuations. 
I do not add the steel dust, unless the patient becomes impatient; 
as I believe the other ingredients are usually preferable with* 
out iti 



4PPENBIX* S4& 

The abdomen, when I first commenced with the patient, was 
hard from side to side. This was gradually removed by the 
above process. 

The apertures and sores in the abdomen, were frequently 
bathed with No. 6; and some of the liquid was also injected iuto 
the apertures, by means of a syringe. 

A few courses of medicine were given afterwards. Her 
strength and flesh increased rapidly, and her monthly courses 
returned as usual, bhe now enjoys better health, as she sa)s f 
.than ever before. 

JOHN V. LATTNER, 

CASE XX- 

S W— — , of Anderson district, South Carolina, a single 



woman, aged 22 years, took cold about five years ago, which 
measurably suppressed the menstrual discharge ; which gradually 
decreased, for three years, when it entirely ceased to flow; and 
has so remained for two years. Her health rapidly declined; 
she was afflicted with violent pains in the small of the back and 
lower part of the abdomen, and hips; her right thigh became 
considerably smaller than usual, and the knee much larger. 
During three months she scarcely lay one night in bed. In 
twenty months from the entire cessation of the menses, she could 
not walk without crutches. Hard lumps, and knotty tumors 
appeared on her neck, and other parts; one of them, on the left 
Side of the neck, was as large as her two fist?. 

I took her through two courses of medicine, (similar to those 

mentioned in the above case of L W ) in the two first days. 

On the third day, I gave a fuller course, differing from the above 
by composing the injection as follows: — One tea spoon full of 
Lobelia, one do. of Umbil, in one gill of warm water, and given 
immediately after she was placed in bed, at the close of steaming. 
An emetic, prepared as in the former case, was then adminis- 
tered. 

She had now been under my treatment seventeen days; has 
had two more courses of medicine; in the intervals takes bitters; 
composed of Quaking Asp, Golden seal, and Bitter root, steeped 



240 APPENDIX. 

in warm water, three times a day; Thomson's No. 5, just before 
meals; and pills of Cayenne and Gi.iger, te.i e ten day. Her 
appetite is restored; her pains have entirely ceased; her thigh 
and knee have become nearly of their usual size; the tumors on 
her neck, &c. have nearly disappeared ; sleeps and rests com- 
fortably at night; walks better &c. Whenever she feels an 
occasional pain in her back, &c. it is soon removed by a warm 
injection, and by placing a warm stone at her feet and back. — 
After a few more courses, and taking small quantities of the 
honey preparation, mentioned in the preceding case, she will, 
no doubt, be entirely recovered. 

JOHN V. LATTNER. 
April 20,1331. 

CASE XXI. 

Mrs. L >j a widow, under thirty years of age, has been for 

a number of years, (say from six to ten,) very severely afflicted 
with a complication of disorders, contracted from severe cold, 
taken at a critical period, after having undergone a course of 
sulphur, for the itch. She has been under the hands of five of 
the most skilful doctors, [of the old school,] the country affords; 
who have, each in his turn, failed to afford her any relief; and 
she was pronounced incurable, being, as they said, in the last 
Stages of a confirmed consumption, hectic fever, &e. 

From motives of benevolence, and at the earnest entreaties 
Of herself and friends, T was induced to try the Thomsonian Sys- 
tem, more, from the knowledge that it could do no harm, than 
under any reasonable hope of effecting a radical cure; she hav- 
ing already exhausted the skill of five learned doctors, and taken 
immense quantities of the most deleterious medicines. I com- 
menced however with nflill course of the medicine; after which 
I fjave, three times a day, a tea spoon full of Thomson's Cough 
Powder, mixed in very strong hoarhound syrup; steaming every 
night. 

This remedy operates powerfully on the lungs and glands. I 
make use of as much of the Lobelia, in the Cough powder, as 
the stomach will possibly bear, without puking. I also gave, at 



APPENDIX. *24f 

the same time, a strong tea of the Lady's Fern, as the common 
drink. This treatment was pursued with vigor, for six or eight 
days, when symptoms appeared, indicative of the efforts of nature 
to effect the usual discharge, &c. such as, the most excrutiating 
pains in the loins and belly, and on the insides of the thighs, &c. 
I- then gave another full course of medicine, and administered 
injections into the region of the uterus, every half hour; giving 
her a strong tea of Cayenneto drink. The injections were com* 
posed of one large tea spoon full of powdered seeds of Lobelia, 
and five large tea spoons full of strong tea of Cayenne, mixed 
with twelve ou nces strong Canker tea. This quantity should be 
injected at four operations, of the above intervals. 

It is to be understood that her disorders all have their origin 
from this cause of obstruction; which not one of the five doctors 
could remove. This treatment, however, effected it: and she 
discharged, from the uterus, at one effort, (her mother, who is 
an old midwife) thinks, at least a pint of the most offensive mat- 
ter. The discharge continues the usual time, and has assumed 
a healthy appearance. The injections in the vagina, as above 
mentioned, were given by means of a common syringe, and made 
as forcibly as possible, to reach the interior uterus. 

The account of the above case, was furnished us by John H. 
Harrison, Esq. of South Carolina. 

CASE XXII. 

A female about sixteen years of age, took cold, by standing in 
water, at the time of her monthly evacuation; which caused an 
obstruction of the menses for two years. She was troubled with 
much pain and stiffness in her hips, and ancles; the latter of 
which were much swelled. 

She was taken 'hrough forty or fifty courses of medicine; at 
first, one every other dav, and at longer intervals; then one a 
week, and at length, one in two weeks; g+vrng bitters of Poplar 
bark and Cavenne, in water, with a snrdl portion of spirits. 

Once in each day, during the whole time, the following prepa- 
ration was injected in*o the vagina, viz: — a tea of Raspberry 
leaves, with a little of the Tincture o f Lobelia. Her general 
health soon impioved, and the pains and stiffness gradually left 



24& APPENDIX. 

her; but the menstrual obstruction still remained; until, whelk 
pains, &c. seemed to indicate that nature was struggling to re- 
move it, small quantities (say a tea spoon full at a dose) of the pul- 
verized tops and roots of the female Fern were given, which, 
removed the obstruction, and restored her to sound health. 
[Communicated by John M'Pherson.] 

CASE XXIII. 

A man had his jaw dislocated; which remained in that situ* 
ation for eighteen hours, when I attended him. I immediately 
gave the patient a preparation composed of a tea spoon full of 
Umbil, half as much African Cayenne, in half a tea cup full of 
warm water. At an interval often or fifteen minutes, the same 
dose was repeated; the patient being wrapped in a blanket and 
placed by the fire, to promote perspiration. Several thicknesses 
of cloths were then saturated in warm water, and placed around 
the jaws, and fastened on the top of the head. Water, as warm 
as could be well borne, was then poured upon the cloths, for 
about twenty minutes in order to relax the muscles; a person, 
standing behind the patient, then locked his hands around the 
patient's face and head, drawing the latter against his breast, 
whilst I put both my thumbs in the mouth, on the jaw, and the 
fingers under it, and gently pressed it down, until sufficiently low, 
when it was pressed back, and went into its proper place, quite 
easy, with little or no pain. 

[Communicated by Dr. Sterling, of Spartanburgh District, 
South Carolina. 

CASE XXIV. 

A man, working in the rain, bare headed, took cold, and lost 
his speech and hearing, and remained in that situation twenty* 
three hours; when I was called to him, I found his pulse did not 
exceed twenty beats in a minute. I despaired of effecting a 
cure, but gave him two heavy doses of Cayenne, and placed him 
in bed ; shortly after his falling asleep, his pulse rose and became 
fuller; in about two hours, F awoke him and gave him two tea 
spoons full of No. 6. He afterwards slept deeply until morning; 



APPENDIX. 249 

when he awoke in tolerable health; but had no recollection of 
"having seen me, or of taking medicine. He has since remained 
healthy. 

[Communicated by Dr. Hugh Quin, of North Carolina.] 



case xxr. 

I, Thomas Ellis, of Fayette county, Ky. do certify, that I was 
.subject to an affection of the breast and head, for eight years; 
accompanied frequently with palpitation of the heart. I was 
also troubled with a violent throbbing and palpitation at the pit 
of the stomach, attended by a dead, heavy pain in the part; and 
from the region of which, frequent flashes of heat extended all 
over the body. 

During the first six years, there were frequent jumping pain? s 
darting through my head, particularly the crown of it, accorru 
panied by the most disagreeable feelings, of every conceivable 
kind. I was under the care of Dr. Cos well, five years; and then 
under Dr. Alberta, nearly three years — (both physicians of the 
old school.) During this time, twice a day for eighteen days, 
he gave me portions of Calomel; and afterwards fifty or sixty 
grains at once. My head, in some degree became relieved ; but 
the palpitations of the heart, and violent throbbings, frequently 
returned, and I was reduced to a mere skeleton, and looked as 
yellow as a hickory leaf, when faded. My sides, at times, 
would be very hot and sweat, whilst every other part would be 
eold and dry. At other times my f ret and legs would be very 
•old, and yet they would sweat, whilst every other part was hor, 
and dry. The doctors said my liver was affected; and all 
agreed I could not be cured. 

Thus after sufiP-ring under their treatment nearly eight years, 
I employed Dr. Divis, [called a Steam Doctor;] who to^k me 
through four courses of medicine in two weeks; then at intervals 
of a week, took me through two more courses; then half a 
course, omitting the emetic. In the intermediate days,, between 
the courses of medicine, I took Spice bitters, Composition, and 
No. 6, of each a tea spoon full, three times a dav. These dif- 
ferent articles, were taken in succession,, : at -intervals cf fifteen- 
Minutes. 



250 APPENDIX. 

In five or six weeks I was restored to general good health 
which I have enjoyed mostly since, it being now about three 
years. 

THOMAS ELLIS. 

CASE XXVI, 

On the 1st day of January, 1831, a mad dog came upon the 
premises of Josiah Clark, of Columbia, Hamilton county, Ohio, 
about seven miles from Cincinnati, after passing through the 
neighborhood; and was known to bite nine animals, viz: — Five 
dogs, a cat, one cow, and two horses; all of which went mad; 
some within about thirty days, and the 1 ist, a year old colt, be- 
longing to Josiah Clark, about the middle of June. Josiah 
Clark received a wound on the hand, on the first day of Febru- 
ary, by the tooth of a mad horse, which belonged to himself 
while endeavoring to drench it with medicine. The creature 
died the next day. He suspected no danger from the wound, as 
it was soon healed up. 

But some time in May he had some strange feelings, when on 
the water, being a fisherman by occupation. By the advice of 
some of is friends, he called on Dr. S Tibbets of Cincinnati, 
who gave him some of the third-preparation of Thomson, which 
relieved him for that time. But several times in the month of 
June, he was seized suddenly with fits of trembling and a strange 
sensation of fear, when the wind blew so as to cause the boat to 
rock on the waves; and he sometimes queried with himself, 
whether it was possible he could be afraid of the water; and 
that, at times, when no thought of hydrophobia occurred to his 
mind. He felt also, as if the rays of light, reflected from the 
waves; when the sun was shining, sent through him sensations of 
peculiar horror, and he was sometimes obliged to go on shore 
anr' rpmain a while to gain composure. 

These symptoms rather increased on the whole, till the tenth 
day of July, when he felt much worse than at any time before, 
and found he was rapidly growing worse. Being at Cincinnati 
that day, he went up home in a skiff, and undertook to row; but 
soon found himself unable to endure the exertion or the sight of 
th.e water. He then lay down, was covered up, and rowed home j 



APPENDIX. 

by his company. He retired to bed, but spent a dreadful nighty 
a pai ful twitching of the muscles of the limb/-, and lain inating 
pains darting from the hand which had been wounded, up to the 
breast, and throat; the glands, of which had now become very 
sore, and swollen. 

He sometimes fell asleep, but was sttcFtfeTrly nwnked by such 
frightful dreams, as seemed to fill his soul with inexpressible hor- 
ror. And all these symptoms were growing worse con>tant!y. 
In the morning his family were tenitied at his condition; and all 
his friends concluded he had now got the hydrophobia; and all 
thought it best that he should go immediately to Cincinnati, to 
obtain medical aid. Accordingly he started on horse back, but 
very soon found that he could not endure the motion of the horse. 
He was then laid down in a skiff, and covered up and taken 
down by his friends, within about two miles of town, when on 
passing a steamboat, which was ascending the river, it produced 
such commotion of the water, he could no longer endure the mo- 
tion of the boat. He was then landed and went up the bank, 
and was about going into a blacksmith's shop, occupied by his 
brother-in-law; but when he came before the door, and caught 
the rays of light from the fire, he suddenly started back in great 
distress; and it was not in his power to enter while the fire was 
in blast. He then came on foot, attended by his friends, to the 
house of Mr. Steel, his brother-in-law. in Cincinnati. 

His symptoms had now become so bad that all were nearly 
despairing of help; they supposed the Thomsonian medicine, 
which he had taken some weeks before, had failed. Col. M 4 Gar- 
land went to Professor Morehead, and related the case; who 
gave it as his decided opinion, that it was a clear and confirmed 
case of hydrophobia, and nothing could be done for him; and he 
did not think it worth while to go and see him. as there was no 
known remedy for the disease. 

Isaiah Clark, brother of Josiah, went to Professor Cobb, and 
related the case to him; he expressed the same opinion in every 
respect as Dr. Morehead. 

Dr. Tibbets was then sent for, who came, and commenced giv- 
ing him the third-preparation; which had soon the effect, to allay 
in a good measure the excessive irritation of the nervous system; 
but such was the difficulty he labored under of swallowing, that 



252 APPENDIX. 

administration by injections was chiefly depended on. The 
medicine operated freely, and he emitted from his stomach a 
great quantity of very tough, and viscid mucus, which might be 
raised on a slick two feet, without separating from that which 
remained in the vessel; and much that passed from his bowels 
wa* of a similar consistency. 

After puking, his stomach setfled,and he was steamed. The 
perspiration wa-* copious and free. He was washed oif and felt 
much more composed, lor a short time, and slept about an hour; 
when he began to be disturbed again by frightful dreams, and 
all the nervous and spasmodic affections which he had felt be- 
fore. The same medicine was given again as before, with the 
same effect. Steaming, again, was followed by a short and 
qui^t sleep; but the spasmodic twitching of the muscles of the 
legs, arsd arms, was all the time visible to the spectators, when 
they were uncover* d. 

About twenty-four hours had been consumed in the two courses? 
and before I saw (he patient. Dr. Tibhits came to my bouse the 
first day forme; but 1 was out of town. When I saw him first, 
he seemed composed in mind; but felt all the former symptoms 
returning; he was thirsty, and desired water, but could not take 
as«#a11ow, without violent shuddering? of the whole system, and 
painful sensations; but none of these unequivocal symptoms of 
the disease, were as strong this day as they xver^ the first, before 
he took medicine; but he seemed to grow worse every moment, 
till medicine was given again. And the same course was pur- 
sued for eight days in succession; in which lime he passed through 
sixteen courses. His intervals of repose, were now so much 
longer, that one course in twenty-four hours seemed sufficient; 
and the treatment was pursued, at this rate, for eight da)s more. 
He then passed a day and night taking small doses of medicine, 
which <eemed >o U^ep the disease in cheek, without producing 
vomiling. In a few days more he went home, but continued to 
take medicine whenever he felt symptoms of the disease return- 
ing; taking a full course occasionally, when smaller doses did 
not prove suffi ient. Thus the dreadful malady seemed to wear 
off very slowly. 

About the first of September, he began to grow so impatient 
and discouraged, that he went to a German doctor, who boasted 



APPENDIX* 258 

confidently of superior skill in curing hydrophobia. After tak- 
ing his medicine for a few days, he fancied himself much better; 
but on taking a slight cold, the old symptoms began to return, 
and his new medicine had lost its effect. He sent for his Ger- 
man doctor, hut he could do no more. He was obliged, there, 
fore, to resort again to the third-preparation, which was still 
true to its trust, immediately giving relief. And until I last 
heard from him, which was some time in December, the eviden- 
ces of a radicial cure grew stronger. 

I wdl rem irk, as I learned from Dr. Tibbets, that the pulse 
when he first saw him, was very rapid, small, and irregular, and 
re< ognised wiih difficulty, on account of the strong vibratory 
Station of the tendons. Two hours after, when he was under 
the full operation of medicine, the pulse became full and strong 
and numbered about forty in a minute; and this curiosity was 
dbservable every day; after his intervals of repose, when the 
Biorhid symptoms were increasing the pulse grew rapid, feeble, 
and irregular, until medicine was given sufficient to check the 
progress of the disease; and when under the full operation of 
medicine, and the morbid symptoms were least observable, it 
was full and strong, and numbered from forty to fifty in a minute. 
I will now notice several arguments, wnich have been made 
use of by the enemies of the Botanic System, to destroy the in* 
finance of this extraordinary cure: 

Dr. Drake, who had not expressed his opinion on the case, 
until he had seeu the result of ten days treatment, felt himself 
at liberty to differ from those who had decided without this ad- 
vantage; and assigned, as one reason for his opinion, the idea 
that the herbiverous animals cannot communicate the disease. 
He was then asked if Josiah Morehead, who died of hydropho- 
bia under his own care, about two months before, had the 
hydrophobia. He replied in the affirmative; and added, the 
case of Morehead being under his own eye, he knew it to be a 
clear and unequivocal case; and differed not in symptoms, char- 
acter, progress, and termination, from hydrophobia. He was 
then reminded, that Morehead imbibed the disease by handling 
the hide of a cow, that died mad; or rather by rendering out the 
tallow of the same cow. he burnt his hand, which caused a bad 
sore that remained till he died; and this appeared to be. the seat 



254 APPENDIX. 

of infection; and it was never known, that he had been exposed 
any other way. The Dr. replied it was not known how More- 
head imbibed the disease, but it was a certainty that he had it. 
So we would say in the crise of Clark; if it were demonstrated 
that the herbivorous animals cannot communicate the disease, 
we do not know how he imbibed the disease, unless it were by 
the circumstance that his own dog while ravins: under the influ- 
ence of the disease, jumped and snapped at him, at the same 
time blowing a full blast of breath with saliva, in his face,, 
through a crack of his pen, which caused him to feel a strong; 
sense of nausea at the stomach, and produced some blister- 
like eruptions on his face* But we cannot allow Dr. Drake 
any credit for arguments in this case, which he counted of no 
weight in the others where they were equally applicable. An- 
other argument assigned by the doctor was, that this case did 
not progress and terminate like hydrophobia; and there was no- 
case recorded in any history, in which the progress of the dis- 
ease, had been stayed like this. But we cannot give him any 
great credit for this argument, unless he will produce a record 
of some case to his purpose, under this mode of treatment. We 
think it rather hard and unreasonable, that we cannot be per- 
mitted to prove that we can cure hydrophobia; except we first 
prove the disease to be genuine, by the fact of its terminating 
in death. There is a very wide difference between our system, 
and that of the mineral doctors, in this respect; our chance of 
success would be materially diminished, after death; while theirs 
would remain just the same after death, as before. But if 
death is to be the only criterion of the disease, we will venture 
to say, that a genuine case of hydrophobia shall never occur, 
where our system is applied before the utter prostration of the 
vital powers, and is followed up with proper attention and per» 
severence. 

Dr. Cobb was expressing his opinion of the case, with great 
confidence, in the hearing of a gentleman, who knew that Mr. 
Clark was under the Thomsonian treatment; but the doctor did 
not know it. The gentleman informed him of the fact; and 
asked him what he would think, if the patient should be cured 
by that treatment? The doctor replied, that he should be con- 
vinced, that all who thought it to be hydrophobia were deceived. 



APPENDIX. 355 

Thus we see, the ground they take would render it impossible, 
«ven for Omnipotent Power, to prove a cure. 

WM. RIPLEY. 

P. S. That it may be clearly understood what, and how 
'much, is comprehended in this account bv a course of medicine, 
I will here state it more explicitly. Whenever the returning 
symptoms of the disease became evident, a small dose of third- 
preparation was given, which always gave some partial relief; 
but of short continuance; then a larger dose was given, and soon 
repeated; next more was given by injection, arid so on, when 
the operation was over, then steaming and washing finished the 
course. 

The medicine was not given with a very sparing hand; the 
composition tea and valerian were used freely; and 1 judge from 
four to six ounces of undiluted third-preparation, were used in 
every twenty-four hours during the first eight days. 

CASE XXVII. 

This may eertifv to all whom it may concern, that on the lOtfe 
•f February lust, I was taken very sick with the bilious fever as I 
supposed; which was attended with such excruciating pains in 
my back and head, that I was at times delirious; and after suf- 
fering for three days in this situation I applied to Dr. Wilson* (a 
botanic physician) who carried me through a regular course of 
his medicine, which relieved me very much from the pains I en- 
dured; and on the following day the surface of my body was 
completely covered with the small pox. But by the use of hot 
bitters and other stimulating medicines which were adminis- 
tered, I was, in the course of four or five days, able to be about 
my business, and have enjoyed good health ever since. 

JAMES CUNNING. 

Cincinnati, June 17th, 1831. 



* rhe reader will find Dr. Wilson's general mode of treating small po"S 
particularly detailed at page 181. 



£5$ APPENDIX. 

CASE XXVIII. 

[Communicated by Dr. William H. Anderson^] 

My daughter, about 13 years old, was taken with a fever and 
used the Botanic System, in the usual way for two weeks; the 
fever appeared at times to be overcome, but returned about 
this time. She had the Diabetes, would drink frequently a pint 
of water and soon discharge it or more, by the urinary passages; 
continued the usual course of steaming and emetics for two 
weeks longer, every day; but she grew weaker. By this time 
she was so weak that with the usual quantity of hot medicinej, 
she could not bear steaming sufficiently to make her sweat. 

I then put her to bed and gave a gill of the tea of Bayberry 
and Hemlock bark, a tea spoon full of African pepper, about 
four heaping tea spoons full of pulverized seeds of Lobelia, 
half tea spoon full of Lady's Slipper, and two of No. 6; and 
gave her to drink at one draft; in an hour it operated by vomit, 
and towards the last of its operation gave a tea of Cajenne 
pepper. It ceased to operate in two hours from the time it 
was taken; after she had rested a while, give her a tea spoon 
full of Spice bitters, with the sediment of the Cayenne, and 
she drank it all. 

She sweat profusely under the operation of the emetic, and 
after taking the bitters, &c. as aforesaid, put her again over 
the steam, kept her as long as she could bear it; she, however, 
did not sweat at all but appeared stronger — then washed her 
off with cold water — wiped and washed her again with French 
brandy, keeping her over the steam whilst wiping her off; put 
her to bed, and then gave such a heavy emetic, &c. as above 
described. It was probably three hours before it operated, 
(having at all tfcnes given her water when she wished it.) It 
operated thoroughly, and she sweat profusely; during which 
period gave a tea of Cayenne as before, and after its operation 
ceased, mixed with the sediment two tea spoons full of Spice 
bitters, and gave her to drink. After resting probably an hour, 
put her over the steam, and she then sweat profusely, whilst 
steaming, and she was continued over it as long as she could 
bear it* 



APPENDIX. 257 

From this time forward she had an appetite and could eat 
freely, which had not been the case before since she was taken 
ill. After this gave her three times each day and once at mid- 
night a gill of Bay berry bark and Hemlock bark tea, with a tea 
spoon full of African pepper, as much No. 6, and half as much 
Lady's Slipper, for a week, and she appeared perfectly recovi- 
ered, and has continued very healthy ever since. 

CASE XXIX. 

The following statement relative to John Pegg, who is a resi- 
dent of Randolph county, Indiana, was given to me by himself; 
and to the best of my recollection is as follows: 

About fifteen years ago, he discovered a small hard tumor 
about the size of half a pea, in the right arm-pit, which, on ex- 
amination, appeared to be tirmly attached to the mam tendon 
of the arm. In a short time alter he first discovered it^ it be- 
came somewhat painful: its growth was regular, though not 
rapid, and as the tumor increased in size the pain also increased 
in the same ratio. 

In about seven years after its first appearance, it was grown 
so large as to completely fill the arm-pit: it forced the shoulder 
as much above a natural position as it would bear; it also ex« 
tended back and attached itself to the shoulder-blade, and pro- 
truded forward on the breast-bone considerably. During this 
interval he made many applications to it, but none of them 
appeared to check its growth. 

He then came to the determination to suffer an amputation 
®f the affected part ; and accordingly put himself into the hands 
of one of the most skillful surgeons in his knowledge, who per- 
formed the operation on him; in doing which, he took off a part 
of the shoulder blade. 

The part amputated weighed one and one fourth lbs, and on 
examination it appeared that the center of the tumor, about 
the size of a hen's egg, was hard and brittle, and when the 
knife was forced into it, it bursted or cracked before the edge 
of the instrument. 

In r.bout three months after the amputation was performed, 
it began to grow again, and its progress was rapid in compari 1 - 

33 



£5$ APPENDIX. 

son to its growth before the amputation was performed. He 
went back to the surgeon, and he directed that there should be 
a plaster of cantharides applied, large enough to cover the 
affected part; and when it had become completely blistered^ 
to remove the blister and dress it with an ointment made by 
putting cantharides into oil, until it was nearly strong enough 
to blister; and as soon as it healed he was to apply the plaster 
again, and then dress with the same ointment. During the 
application of those external remedies, he was to take Fowler's 
Solution of Arsenic, in as large portions as would be considered 
safe. 

lie pursued this course till he had blistered it seven or eight 
times, and then sent an account of his situation to the surgeon ? 
who returned him information that his case was a hopeless one 
and that he would not probably survive a year. He then ap- 
plied to other physicians and had their judgments relative to- 
his case; and also attended a Medical Board- and was undes 
examination the greater part of one da) : it was their united 
opinion that his ease was a hopeless one and could not be cured. 
He then consulted about fifty of the most celebrated physicians 
of the old school that were in the circle of his acquaintance, 
and it was their unanimous opinion thai his case was an incur- 
able one. They generally agreed in pronouncing it a cancer 
or cancerous tumor, though a few of them rather favored the 
idea that it was a scrofulous or scorbutic affection. 

During tills period he was making use of such external appli- 
cations as were from time to time recommended to him by the 
physicians, but none of them appeared to arrest the progress 
of the disease. After he quit following these prescriptions, he 
was strongly urged to make a full trial of Swaim's Panacea, 
which he accordingly commenced and took twelve bottles; but 
it proved of no advantage to him. 

He then, (as is common i>i such desperate cases) as his last 
resort, concluded to try the effect of Botanic Medicine, and ac- 
cordingly put himself under my care, in the fifth month, 1827- 
The tumor by this time had again completely filled the arm- 
pit, extended considerably on the shoulder-blade, and also pro- 
truded forward ©n the breast- bone. The part of the tumor thak 
extended forward on the breast, I think was nearly as large as a 



APPEND!*. 259 

span's two fists, and appeared to be as hard as a block of wood. 
The part in the arm pit, had projected out so far that the skin 
had become dead, and wns removed, presenting a bare surface 
as large as a French crown, from which exuded a small portion 
of excoriating matter. There was a great diminution of vital- 
ity in the arm and hand, which were invariably covered with 
a cold clammy sweat, so as frequently to stick to the fingers on 
being touched. The whole nervous system appeared to be 
much disordered, and when he was asleep, the whole body was 
in one universal tremor. 

I commenced with giving him a tea of Dr. Thomson's Com- 
position powders, and half a tea spoon full of the Nerve powder, 
three times a day, for two days: also, I made an external appli- 
cation to the tumor of the Slippery Elm bark poultice, covering 
the poultice with good ginger, finely pulverized, and before I 
placed the poultice on the part, I put a small portion of best 
Cayenne over the surface of the tumor. 

This poultice I renewed morning and evening, and whenever 
I removed it, the parts were well washed with strong soap-suds 
made of shaving soap. I also bathed the parts of the tumor, 
that were not covered with the poultice with No. 6, adding 
one-fourth part of Spirits of Turpentine, night and morning. 

On the third day after I commenced, I took him through a 
regular course of medicine; which I began by giving him a 
dose of Composition and Nerve powder. I then placed him 
over the steam, and kept him there abouf fifteen minutes; still 
raising the internal heat as the warmth of the steam increased, 
by giving Composition, Cayenne pepper, and Pennyroyal. I 
then put him to bed, placed a hot stone to his feet, and gave 
him a tea spoon full of the Emetic powder in Composition, 
which was repeated every fifteen minutes, increasing each dose 
half a tea spoon full, till it operated. I also gave Pennyroyal 
tea during the operation; and after I had given the third por- 
tion of the emetic, gave him some milk-porridge. After the 
emetic had operated, I let him remain in bed until recovered 
from the fatigue of vomiting, still keeping the hot stone to the 
feet, and giving the Composition or Cayenne pepper. 

After awaking from a nap of sleep, gave him a half a tea 
spoonful of Spice bitters; then something to eat, ana in about 



260 APPENDIX. 

ten or fifteen minutes took him up, placed him over the steam, 
and steamed him pretty highly for about fifteen or twenty min- 
utes. Towards the latter part of the time, while he was over 
the steam, threw some vinegar on the stone, and then washed 
him off with cold water with about half a pint of good vinegar 
added thereto. This part of the operation was varied in after 
courses, as in probably more than half of them he was showered. 
This was performed after I thought he had been long enough 
over the steam, by first washing his face well with cold water; 
then taking about one gallon and a half of cold water, and half 
a pint of vinegar and pouring it on the back of the neck and 
shoulders so as to run ail over the body; — he was then wiped 
dr) and dressed, and commonly sat up the most of the day after 
he had been taken through an operation. I repeated the oper- 
ation or course of medicine, above described, every other day 
for one week, still making the same externa! applications as 
above described. I then took him through a course of medic h;e 
every third day, steaming and showering him occasionally be- 
tween the courses, which were continued for two weeks. 

After the first operation, on dressing the tumor, I discovered 
that the operation had cau?ed it to run considerably ; and steam- 
ing without a regular course produced the same effect, more or 
less. About the end of the second week there appeared a dis- 
position in the ulcer to heal, and I applied pearlash to it, after 
washing it, and then added the poultice above described. In 
three weeks the tumor was perceptibly less; at which time he 
went home. I furnished him with medicine and directions; he 
also ol tailing a right to use them himself. 

He still made the same external application for three months, 
when he came again to my residence. He informed me that he 
had been frequently applied to by the sick for relief, and he had 
attended on them with. good success; consequently his own ease 
became much neglected, and he had been two weeks at a time 
without a course of medicine. By this time I think the tumor 
was reduced one- fourth in size and the ulcer disposed to heal 
under the application of the pearlash. I then advised the can- 
cer plaster made of clover heads, which was continued for five 
or six weeks after his return home, at which time I visited him 
and found that it was inclined to hea^ under the application of 



APPENDIX, 26J 

the plaster. I put Butternut bark to it, which blistered it; after 
which it was dressed with the Elm, Ginger, and Cayenne. The, 
Butternut bark was applied several times in the course of six or 
eight months whenever it was disposed to heal. During this 
time he had frequent calls lo attend on Other patients, and his 
«ase much neglected, not taking a course of medicine oftener 
than once in six or eight weeks. 

The tumor however became reduced to half its former size, 
and more and more neglected, when I recommended the appli- 
cation of the Sorrel salve, which reduced the tumor faster than 
any thing which had preceded it. It was late in the fall, when 
he eould procure but little of the Sorrel, and his stock of salve 
became exhausted. For some time he had not gone through a 
course of medicine oftener than once in three or four months. 
His practice still increasing, his attention to himself decreasing 
in the same proportion. 

During the course of this winter he attended to the practice, 
paying some little attention to himself. By spring when I saw 
him again, the tumor was about three-fourths gone; that season 
he procured more of the Sorrel salve, and completed his cure; 
being two years and a half from his first commencement with 
me. 

When the tumor first began to decrease, it gradually receded 
from the extremities towards the center or seat in the arm-pit r 
and it continued to decrease in this way, and by keeping a dis- 
charge of matter from the seat in the arm-pit, the solid or hard 
part was carried off by suppuration. 

I visited him about twelve months after his cure was effected, 
and he told me that he believed the cause was entirely removed; 
and he further observed, that he at all times felt an uneasy sen- 
sation attending the parts that had been affected ; but it was his 
decided opinion, that those uneasy sensations had their origin 
entirely from the amputation of a part of the shoulder-blade &c. 
as aforesaid, and not from any effects of the tumor. 

My own opinion relative to the case is, that if he had been car- 
ried through a regular course of medicine, as often as would 
have been advantageous to him, and applied the Sorrel salve at 
the commencement, that his cure might probably have been ef- 
fected in less than one vear. DANIEL KINDLEY. 



26£ APPENDIX. 

CASE XXX. 

The following statement relative to the case of Jacob Bowser, 
who is a resident of Warren county, Ohio, was given to me by 
himself, and to the best of my recollection is as follows: 

About twelve years ago, (1823) he was taken with the cramp 
in the breast, so severely that his life was despaired of. The 
physician who attended him administered medicine, with which 
he was not acquainted, but which he has since had an opportun- 
ity of learning the effects of; for it did not remove the cause, 
and much impaired his vital powers. He continued to apply to 
and take medicine from, a number of different physicians, for 
the space of seven years; during which time his physician's bi,lls 
for medicine and attendance amounted to $400, and the cause 
of his complaint stiil not removed. He applied to rne for assist- 
ance in the winter of 1827, and in stating his condition observed, 
that he still had frequent returns of the cramp. It would begin 
in his feet, generally in the night, and proceed up his legs into 
his body if he did not get up and stir himself about, (and that 
frequently would fail to prevent its rising to the body,) and when- 
ever it got into the body it always appeared like taking life, the 
pains were so excrutiating. The sinews of his legs were drawn 
into knots, and he had but little feeling in his legs or feet. One 
of his great toes had been entirely without feeling, and appeared 
to have been dead for three years; having turned toward the 
little toe, crossing the one next to it and laying on the top of the 
second one, entirely stiff. He also complained of a continual 
singing in his head, so that sometimes he could scarcely hear, and 
was at all times much affected by the singing; aud the head 6 
ache was his almost constant companion. 

I gave him Composition powders for the first day, and on the 
second I carried him through a regular course of medicine, (such 
as I have already described in John Pegg's treatment, excepting 
that 1 always showered him with about one and a half gallons of 
water, and half a pint of vinegar.) I repeated the course of 
medicine every other day, till I had carried him through three 
operations, giving him Composition powders every night, and 
half a tea spoon full of Spice bitters three times a day, before 
meals. 



APPENDIX. 263 

In going through the second operation, whilst over the steam, 
he observed that he felt a severe pain in his toe, which he sup- 
posed had been dead. This pain continued probably for half an 
hour, and the next day he could move it a little. He observed 
on getting up that morning, that he had lost his almanac, for he 
had slept well, and thought it had been cloudy through the night.. 
On going out, he observed that it was clear and a very heavy 
frost on the ground. He said that he had not experienced so 
good a night's rest in several years, when it had been frosty— 
that he always suffered most in frosty weather, and that it was 
very seldom when it frosted at night that he could remain in bed 
later than one or two o'clock, but was obliged to be up the resi- 
due of the night, in great distress from the cramp and singing 
in the head. 

After I had given him the third course, his toe came to its 
natural feeling, returned to its former position, and he had the 
use of it nearly as well as the other. The head-ache and sing- 
ing in the head were also removed, and he felt entirely relieved 
from every symptom of his complaint. 

I furnished him with some medicine to take home, and accom- 
panied him to one of the neighbors houses. As we travelled 
along, he frequently expressed his astonishment at the difference 
there was in his feelings in the course of one week, (that being 
the time he was under my care.) To use his own phrase, he said 
he felt like a dancing-master— he was so active that he felt like 
(jumping over all the old logs in the woods. On parting with 
•him, I told him I was fearful that he would, when he got home, 
expose himself and bring the complaint on him again. He said 
if he ever felt it returning, he would come immediately for as- 
sistance. He has not returned, neither have I seen him since, 
though 1 have heard from him at different times. He still re- 
gained well whenever 1 heard from him; following his trade of 
wicklayer and stone mason. 

DANIEL KINDLEY. 

— »»e @ ©*<•— 

CASE XXXI. 

J~ — "W 1 aged upwards of 70 years, had been subject 

rqin infancy to frequent returns of a debilitating diarrhoea or 



2Q4 APPENDIX. 

looseness of the bowels, which resisted every means that were 
employed for its cure, and had many times reduced him to the 
Verge of the grave. He was obliged to be very careful ar.d cir- 
cumspect about his diet, being under the necessity of denying 
himself the use of many articles of food that others indulge in 
with impunity. The most skillful physicians of the old school 
had been employed in his case, and much money expended, but 
all to no purpose; the looseness, in spite of all his care, would 
often return, and as he advanced in age it became more frequent 
and obstinate. 

Finally he had an attack of intermittent fever, when he ap- 
plied to a Botanic physician who administered one course of 
medicine, which completely removed the fever; and his appetite 
and strength were restored by the use of bitters. But the most 
extraordinary circumstance was, that his predisposition to diar- 
rhoea seemed to be removed, and he found himself in a situation 
to indulge in any kind of food that his appetite craved, which he 
had not" been able to do for years. About two years, however, 
after the above course of medicine', it being Christmas, he in- 
dulged himself in eating to excess, of cakes fryed in lard, which 
produced a return of his old complaint; which he immediately 
checked by drinking a decoction of the pods of red pepper. 

It is only necessary to add, that no other medicines were used, 
in the above case, than the diaphoretic or sweating powders, 
Cayenne pepper, Hemlock bark, and the Lobelia as an emetic, 
with the common bitters. 

—.»►«©»*•"— 
CASE XXXII. 

N D , a girl, aged about ten years, fell backward 

from the great beam of a barn, upon the bare floor, by which 
she was much bruised. A Botanic physician was called, who 
took her through a regular course of medicine. After this she 
took of the diaphoretic powders and Cayenne for a few days, 
when she was perfectly restored to health and strength. 

CASE XXXIII. 

At the raising of a log house in Marion county, a person was 
very seriously injured by the accidental falling of a log; but nc 



APPENDIX. S6& 

bones were broken. A Botanic physician who had formerly 
been in the habit of letting blood was immediately sent for, and 
on his arrival was requested by the individual to bleed him, as 
was customary in all such cases. To this however, he objected, 
observing that he could relieve him in a much better waj, with- 
out inducing the debility which always followed blood-letting. 

The wounded man assenting to this proposition, a dose of the 
diaphoretic powders was immediately administered, and as soon 
as possible, water and stones were heated, and he was placed 
over a lively steam, when more of the powders or Cayenne pep- 
per was administered. And although when the steam bath was 
first applied, he was suffering the most excrutiating pain, with 
great restlessness and anxiety, it was but a short time until he 
Ibecame easy and tranquil. After a thorough steaming he was 
placed in bed, continued taking the medicine, and in three or 
four days was able to attend to his business. 

[Communicated by Isaac Bunker.'] 

CASE XXXIV. 

Mrs. Reinhardt, of Lincolnton, North Carolina, was afflicted 
with liver complaint; having a fixed pain in the region of the 
stomach, from which she had not experienced one moment's re- 
lief for many years; often times suffering the most excrutiating 
torture for several hours; to relieve which she frequently took 
from one to two hundred drops of laudanum. 

The taking of such quantities of this powerful sedative, pro- 
duced the most serious difficulty, causing a constipation of the 
bowels, which required the most powerful cathartics to remove. 
She was obliged to take physic every day, by which means large 
quantities of mucus, of a yellowish and singular appearance were 
discharged. Calomel, or Croton oil, were chiefly used to move 
her bowels; whilst she took no more food than would be suffi- 
cient for a sucking child, apparently for the want of room to 
receive it into the stomach. She was also much bloated, and 
when standing on her feet, her arms hung dangling and power- 
less at her sides. 

•34 



266 APPENDIX. 

In this dreadful situation, I was called on to attend her, and 
however hopeless the prospect appeared, I undertook the case. 

In the first place I gave her stimulating medicines freely for 
several days, and then applied the vapor bath; but after steam- 
ing for more than an hour, was obliged to desist with producing 
but a very little moisture of the skin. Still continuing the stimu- 
lating medicines, I allowed her to pass over one day, and then 
applied the vapor bath again, as I was determined to excite an 
action in the skin before giving an emetic; being fully satisfied 
that some dangerous local affection existed in the stomach. The 
second attempt at steaming proved effectual; she became warm, 
and sweated freely. I then gave her an emetic, which produ- 
ced violent commotions in the stomach for a while, but at length 
something appeared to give way, and the threw up about a quart, 
of matter resembling pus from an abscess, together with a hard 
white su )stance resembling the core of a boil, nearly as large 
as a hen's egg. 

After the emetic had ceased to operate, I gave her a dose of 
Composition, and to my astonishment found it produced an effect 
apparently as severe as melted lead. This satisfied me that an 
abscess had actually been formed and was broken, which ren= 
dered it impossible for her to take Cayenne or any other warm- 
ing medicine; and to recover without it I knew she could not. 

I had just commenced practice in that section of country, and 
felt myself in a critical situation, as I strongly suspected the 
woman would die. I, however, commenced giving stimulating 
medicines as well as food by injection, and her husband and my- 
self remained at her bedside day and night; and within five 
days, upwards of forty injections were administered. During 
the same time I gave her regularly a tea of Golden seal and Gin- 
seng, in small quantities at a time. 

At length she began to mend, having had no return of the 
pains in her stomach, and is now able to attend to her household 
concerns, laboring every day; and has passed through more than 
one hundred courses of medicine with manifest advantage, and 
improvement of her health, to the astonishment of all her ac- 
quaintance. Her husband has purchased a right to use the 



APPENDIX 267 

medicine himself, and says.he would not be deprived of it for 
any sum of money. 

ALEXANDER REED. 

Attest^ Jacob Reinhardt, > 

Husband of the above named woman. \ 



CASE XXXV. 

Mrs. Beeson, an aged widowed lady, was afflicted with the 
most violent hysteric fits I ever met with. She called upon me 
whilst I was attending upon a boy who had the epilepsy, and 
took a fit in my presence. Her extremities became cold, and 
trembling of the whole system ensued. Breathing was alternate- 
ly suspended, and then laborious. I immediately administered 
a large table spoon full of the third-preparation, of Ur Thom- 
son. I soon inquired of her what effect the medicine produced, 
and she said that it caused a warm sensation in her breast. I 
then gave her another spoonful; in ten minutes she appeared 
well, and has not had a fit since. 

This cure was performed at the house of Zachariah Hobbie, 
in Spartanburg district, South Carolina, in the presence of many 
witnesses. 

ALEXANDER REED. 

CASE XXXVI. 

Dr. Reed also reports a case of fever of a violent and stubborn 
character, in which he gave five courses of medicine; three of 
them in immediate succession which consumed fifteen hours; and 
the other two within sixty hours from the commencement. The 
third course removed the fever, and the two last effected a com- 
plete and permanent cure. He says he mentions this circum- 
stance to encourage others to promptness and perseverance in 
all bad cases of fever. 

Dr. Reed aho says he has encountered fevers of every form, 
in patients of every age, and in different climates, having prac- 
tised in the Western and very extensively in the Southern States, 
and never lost a patient whose only disease was fever. We 



268 APPENDIX,. 

know that his practice has heen very extensive as well as emi- 
nently successful; and therefore take leave, though apparently 
out of place, to introduce a few of his remarks on fever, wiiich 
we think entitled to the highest respect. 

He observes, that in violent attacks of fevers, in the South, no 
time ought to be lost. In cases of this kind he gives a strong tea 
of the diaphoretic powders and ginseng; places a hot bi irk or 
stone at the feet, and administers a stimulating injection. If the 
parent appears bilious, always administer an emetic before using 
the vapor bath, or the bile will be scattered through the S3 stem,. 
wiiich he thinks injurious. Vomiting, he says, ought not to be 
discontinued when five or six motions have been produced; ten 
or fifteen are not too many, and sometimes it may be advantage- 
ously carried to twice that number. In one case of bilious fever, 
says he, I continued the vomiting for eleven hours. In thirty- 
six hours the patient sat at the table and ate; and in forty eight 
went on his journey. 

I once, continues Dr. Reed, vomited a Mr. Piatt, (brother to 
thf late John H. Piatt, of Cincinnati,) all night, which complete- 
ly broke up his fever, and effected a permanent cure. After a 
fever is checked, Dr. Reed thinks that pills made of Cayenne- 
and Rhubard are very good to prevent a relapse. He directs 
two to be taken every hour until they move the bowels. Spong- 
ing the body with pepper tea, in bad cases of fever, he also 
highly recommends during the operation of vomiting: a pint of 
the tea to a gallon of cold water. 

—•»•»»©*«««— 

CASE XXXVII. 

A female who had long been in a weak situation, and had suf- 
fered much by pains in her stomach and other parts, by hysteri- 
cal affections, and a complication of other disorders, having 
employed several doctors of the regular Medical Faculty, as well 
as Root doctors, who had exhausted their skill, to little or no 
useful purpose to the afflicted person, applied for the use of the 
Botanic Medicines. 

She was taken through a course of medicine as follows: — A 
large tea spoon full of diaphoretic or sweating powders were ad- 



APPENDIX. 



269 



ministered in warm water sweetened. An injection of African 
pepper, Compound Tincture of Myrrh, Diaphoretic or sweating 
powders, and Lady's Slipper, each half a tea spoon full was ad- 
ministered in an infusion of equal parts of the bark of Hemlock 
and Bayberry root. Six stones of suitable size, (say rive 01 six 
inches in diameter) were well healed, and she was thoroughly 
steamed, giving the Tincture of Myrrh and Cayenne pepper. 
She was then placed in bed, with a warm stone in a wet cloth 
covered with a dry one, to her feet, and being very costive an- 
other such injection was administered, and then a heaping tea 
spoon full of pulverized seed of Lobelia, very fine, was given in 
warm water with Cayenne; in fifteen minutes the same quantity 
of Lobelia; in seven minutes as much of the pepper and the 
same of Lidy's blipper, and these were given alternately; the 
same of Lobelia, and next the Pepper and Lad)'s Slipper, until 
eight doses of the Pepper and Lady's Slipper, and as many of 
the Lobelia had been given, and then at the same intervals of 
time six more such doses of the pulverized seed of the Lobelia. 
Fourteen doses had been taken in tea of the barks of Hemlock 
and Bayberry. Pennyroyal, al.-o milk porridge and soup, were 
at different times given, to cause the easier operation of the 
emetic; and after the fourteenth dose she threw off from the 
stomach two quarts of a substance which in color and appear- 
ance looked like sponge cut in smrill pieces. 

She had previously been taken through three light courses, 
one every other day, without much relief, and no appetite for 
food; — but after this thorough fourth course she was hungry, 
her food set well on her stomach, and was the next day so well, 
that she could pay some attention to her family affairs; and by 
taking Spice bitters a few days, she regained her strength, and 
has ever since been very healthy, and become the mother of 
several children. 

Dr. Butler says he cured a cancer on a person's finger, by two 
plasters of the Sorrel salve; and that a bad cancer on a wo- 
man's breast was also cured by two plasters only of this salve. 

His brother-in-law, he also states, was relieved of a very bad 
bloody flux in four hours, by taking seven doses of red pepper, 
each three tea spoons full, in a tea made strong with the leave* 



270 APPENDIX. 

of Red Raspberry. It soon eased the pains, and cured him m 
twenty-four hours. 

The preceding cases under this number were communicated 
by Dr. Daniel Butler, of Marion. county. 

CASE XXXVIII. 

Alexander Gillespie, Esq. a highly respectable citizen of Ma. 
rion county, Ohio, was cured of a severe sickness, by Dr. Daniel- 
Butler, which a number of their neighbors as well as themselves, 
who had repeatedly witnessed the like in others, all concurred 
in calling a bad case of what is known in some parts of Ken-' 
tucky and Ohio by the name of Milk Sickness, Trembling dis- 
ease, or Sick Stomach. 

He was in the 53d year of his age, and was taken with a dead 5 - 
heavy pain and weakness in the stomach, loss of appetite, indi- 
gestion, weakness of the nervous system, and costiveness. In 
the course of three or four weeks he was taken with a violent 
heat at his stomach, and tremor over the whole system; — vio- 
lent and almost continual vomiting; and being now confined to 
his bed, he sent for Dr. Daniel Butler, who administered — first, 
a tea spoon full of tincture of Lobelia, which was repeated twice; 
when he vomited and his stomach seemed a little settled. He. 
next gave him an injection composed of Cayenne, Tincture of 
Myrrh, Sweating powder, and half a tea spoon full of Lady's- 
Slipper in warm water sweetened; but his bowels were so cold 
and dead, that he did not feel it, and did not discharge it. He- 
then steamed him well as is stated in the female case in the pre- 
ceding number; then put him to bed with a hot stone, to his feeU 
and gave him a heaping tea spoon full of the seed of Lobelia ? 
made very fine, which caused some pain in the stomach. In fif- 
teen minutes gave two heaping tea spoons full of Lobelia and 
one of African pepper; this caused considerable pain, and in 
fifteen minutes slight vomiting. After this, in fifteen minutes, 
another heaping tea spoon full of Lobelia, drinking at all times 
Hemlock bark tea. Considerable vomiting ensued, which af- 
forded temporary relief. He then gave an injection composed*of 
half a pint of strong tea of the astringent tonic, containing a tea 



AFPENDIX* 271 

ipoon full of the Sweating powders, the same of Tincture of 
Myrrh and Cayenne pepper, and half do. of Nervine. 

This injection produced action in the bowels, and a small 
discharge of hard dry foetid substance from the intestines. He 
then vomited moderately again, drinking Hemlock tea, and then 
it ceased. He now lay in a tolerably easy, but dull sleepy 
state for a while, taking every 15 or 20 minutes the Diaphoretic 
or sweating powders, and Tincture of Myrrh, alternately through 
the day; but was in the forenoon taken with violent hiccup, so 
that he could be heard for one hundred yards, which continued 
until afternoon, and was then stopped by putting his fore fingers 
in his ears and pressing them hard for some time, lying still in 
bed. He was then taken through another full thorough course, 
giving in every case fully double the quantity of medicines, 
usually necessary. Both injections and the emetic operated 
powerfully; he sweat abundantly, and the whole system was 
relieved except that towards the < onelusion or close of the oper- 
ation of the emetic, he was again taken with violent hiccup, 
which continued about two hours. Stopping the ears with the 
fingers was tried without any good effect. Then gave a tea 
spoon one-third full of clear oil of Pennjrojal, and two or three 
tea spoons full of Tincture of Lobelia, at intervals of a few min- 
utes, and several other things were all tried in vain, because, as 
is supposed, they were taken cold. Then put a tea spoon full of 
the sweating powders in half a tea cup of boiling water and it 
was drank as hot as he could bear it. This immediately stopped 
the hiccup. This course was commenced in the evening about 
seven o'clock, and the hiccup was stopped about two o'clock in 
the morning, and by giving every thing warm for twelve hours, 
it returned no more, (the vials of tincture were put in hot water to 
keep it warm.) The vomiting continued at intervals moderately 
till say twelve o'clock, when by a very hard straining a dark, 
thick, brownish, yellow, sticky, jelly-looking substance, was 
discharged, and immediately the vomiting ceased; he felt hun- 
gry, and ate dry beef, corn bread, and coffee, and felt much re- 
lieved every way; his strength improved fast, took sweating 
powder and Tincture of Myrrh, at intervals of an hour, more or 
less; drank the Hemlock tea, took bitters of Golden seal, Poplar 



272 APPENDTX. 

bark, Bitter root, and pepper, ail pulverized, and pursuing this 
course was well in a few days. 

He has from that time to the present, (nearly ayear.)enjoved 
good health, aud been able to attend to more business than he 
had for many years. 

In testimony to the truth of the above, I cheerfully subscribe 
my hand. 

ALEXANDER GILLESPIE. 

June 16, 1832. 

[Communicated by Dr. Daniel Butler.] 

— »»9 @ *&«««-" 
CASE XXXIX. 

The proprietor and author of this Medical work on a jour- 
ney to Cincinnati, was taken with a chill succeeded by a fever 5 
which affected his head so much that his mental faculties were 
entirely deranged. His wife and two Botanic physicians being 
along, and business of importance urging the company forward, 
they, in two hours, took him through a course of steaming, in- 
jections, emetic, and washing off in cold water, &c. — which 
entirely relieved him from the fever and mental derangement: 
and after taking refreshment, they placed a bed in the carriage 
and travelled that day, in all, forty miles. The next day he felt 
comfortable, and travelled thirty miles; the day after lay by, and 
had a chill and heavy fever; on the next day travelled thirty 
miles comfortably; but the day after, had a violent fever and 
took a thorough course of medicine which threw off the disorder 
entirely; and he came home well. 

In a few days after, when riding out, he was overtaken by 
rain, got wet, and being out in the evening took a relapse, which 
was followed by a severe fever, that required six full Botanic 
courses to remove. Two weeks after this, through much expo- 
sure and great fatigue in the heat of summer, a second relapse 
occurred, and was succeeded by a fever of greater violence and 
more dangerous character than the former one. It then took 
nine thorough Botanic courses, each of which would produce 
relief from all the disagreeable symptoms — using Spice bitters 
in the intervals; and so long as he continued in a profuse perspi* 



APPENDIX, 



273 



iration he felt comfortable, but so soon as his skin became dry 
he was afflicted with pains in his limbs and other parts of his 
body, with feverif'i symptoms, and could find no relief, until by 
taking diaphoretic powders, or African or red pepper, and the 
application of hot stones to his sides, feet and other parts, free 
perspiration was again restored. 

He continued in this situation several days, becoming weaker, 
and could find no permanent relief, until by the use of these 
warm stimulants and hot stones as aforesaid, a profuse perspira- 
tion was produced, and the pains mostly, or entirely removed; 
then he was taken from the bed, and had a bucket of cold 
water poured instantly on his head, so as to run over his whole 
body, and wiping off quickly, was again laid in bed, greatly re- 
freshed and strengthened: after which he enjoyed a longer ex- 
emption from pain than usual. Thus he was encouraged to 
repeat this course whenever the pains and aches returned, by 
which means he was soon restored to perfect health and strength. 

— •»»© @ <n i'»- ■ 

CASE XL. 

Whilst the author was in Greenville district, South Carolina, 
he was sent for by a person of the name of Payden, who by a fall 
through his saw-mill, dislocated his middle finger, where it joins 
the hand. The finger was turned with the fore part behind, 
and so swollen and sore that any attempt to move it, produced 
excrutiating pain. The Diaphoretic or Sweating powders were 
immediately given in warm water; then several folds of cloth 
were slightly wrapped around the hand, and water as hot as he 
could bear was poured on it, for fifteen or twenty minutes, by 
which time he perspired freely. We then took the covering 
from the finger, turned it gradually, in less than half a minute, 
to its proper place. In doing which, little or no pain was pro- 
duced; cold water was then poured on it, and frequently re- 
peated; and little distress or inconvenience followed. 

The next day he paid us a visit, and said his finger was well: 
it soon became as strong as it was before* 

CASE XLI. 

The author, on a passage in the stage from Cincinnati to 
Columbus, was taken on the road with a violent and distressing 

35 



274 APPENDIX. 

cholera morbus, and soon was so reduced as to be under ths 
necessity of taking up at a tavern, and ordered a large tea ?poo» 
full of the Diaphoretic powders in warm water, which was dranky 
and repeated several times at intervals of seven, or eight min- 
utes. By this was so much relieved that in half an hour from 
the time he stopped, he was assisted to the carriage, where a 
bed had been placed, in which he was kindly supported by the 
passengers, where he lay without disturbance until he rode ten 
miles to Columbus; and then by one course of medicine he was 
irestored to healths 

CASE XLH. 

The proprietor and author of this work was, in early life, of a 
healthy, vigorous constitution; but through great exposure to 
wet and cold, contracted a grievous dysentery or kind of bloody 
flux, which continued for eight years; during which time he 
never enjoyed one day of what might be called good health. 

His bowels, the whole time, were in a relaxed state, and al- 
most continually discharged blood or slime, or a jelly-like mucus, 
and generally at the same time. The excrements Or stools, often 
assumed a dark appearance, were very fetid, like approaching 
mortification; and he would be so much reduced that he was 
unable to keep out of bed. 

He applied to and exhausted the skill of all the physicians of 
his acquaintance, and then applied himself to reading Medical 
Books, with a view of following the profession as a business, if 
he should be restored to health; but all proved unavailing; ex- 
cept that he could by those means procure temporary relief. 

Thedisease was so deeply seated, that it would, in a few days,, 
return with redoubled force, and in a short time reduce him very 
low. And he believes, that the most rigid temperance, and a 
diligent and determined disposition to take bodily exercise is 
full proportion to his strength, were the principal means of pre- 
serving his life so many years in this debilitated state. Towards 
the close of this period, he conceived the idea that red pepper 
would be useful, and he commenced taking one pod, seeds and 
all, every day, and finally increased the quantity, until he took 



AFPEWsiau 275 

three large pods with the seeds three times a day; which seem- 
ed to strengthen and reanimate; but failed to overcome the 
disease. 

His native country. North Carolina, where he then resided, 
produced sweet potatoes in abundance, of which he was very 
fond; but they producing flatulency, and his bowels being al- 
ways relaxed, he supposed he must refrain from them, as their 
windiness seemed insuperable. But observing the condition of 
small children, many of whom in that country during fall and 
winter, live almost entirely on them; and noticing that their 
bowels were always in good order, he conceived the idea that 
to live almost or altogether on sweet potatoes, wouid be benefi- 
cial to himself; and as he then had no hope from any other earth- 
ly source, determined, let the event he what it might, to give 
them a thorough trial; he accordingly substituted them for 
bread, taking other food as usual. The first three days, the- 
windiness which they produced, together with the relaxed state 
of his bowels, kept him getting up and down, so often, that 
his strength became much exhausted, and he could only with 
difficulty raise himself in bed. He however perceived that the 
liquid or thin state of the discharges, very slowly but gradually, 
assumed a better consistence, and less disagreeable scent. He 
found too, that after the third day, the flatulence seemed to be 
less troublesome, whilst he had little or no pain, and he perse- 
vered in substituting the potatoes for bread. 

In less than a month the lax ceased to be at all troublesome, 
and his stools were in every respect natural, except that the dis- 
charges of blood, &c. continued unabated. About this time he 
took one meal of bread instead of potatoes, and the lax immedi- 
ately returned; but was stopped again by the use of potatoes. 
He however, soon found, from repeated trials, that he could with 
impunity take one meal of bread each day; and pretty soon two 
meals each day, with one of potatoes, and enjoy good health, 
except the discharge of blood, &c. which was reduced in quan- 
tity. After a while he could omit the potatoes a whole day, 
but he must resume their use once, or more, on the day follow- 
ing, or the lax would return. 

His strength now became considerably restored, and the flow 
of blood entirely ceased; but there was still a discharge of sli- 



276 APPENDIX.. 

my mucus. In a little time more, perhaps in twelve or fourteen 
weeks from the commencement of the use of the sweet potatoes, 
every unnatural discharge ceased; having taken no medicine 
of any kind from the first commencement with the sweet pota- 
toes. He could now continue the use of bread without the pota- 
toes, for three days — but no longer, as the lax would return— 
and the use of the potatoes must be partially resumed. 

The winter was now far spent, and the crop of potatoes be- 
came exhaused; but by the use of a few Irish potatoes, the cure 
was perfected, his health established, and he has never since 
been much afflicted with a relaxed state of the bowels for many 
days at a time. 

He will close this narrative of personal experience on himself, 
by relating another extraordinary circumstance of relief from 
a distressed state of the bowels, directly the reverse of that of 
which he has just been speaking; believing that he owes them 
both as a legacy to the world, and records them for the benefit 
of posterity. He also hopes that they may be the means of 
hastening that happy period, which he believes is approaching,, 
and which it is his anxious wish to accelerate, when health 
will be preserved by temperance and proper diet, and the neces- 
sity of resorting to medicine or physicians be in a great measure 
removed. 

T h e reader will have observed from the foregoing statement,, 
that his bowel? were for eight years, in an extremely irritable 
an 1 debilitated state; from which although they recovered, yet 
were undoubtedly left in a disposition to be readily affected by 
slight causes. It may also be proper to observe, that on the sea 
coast of his native State, the inhabitants lived much on bread 
made of Indian corn, which is far better calculated to keep the 
bowels open and regular, than any other kind of bread in use. 

In 1799 he removed to the Western country, where the princi- 
pal part of the bread used was made of finely bolted wheat flour. 
Without reflecting then, or for many years afterwards, on the 
consequences which might, and he has no doubt did result from 
using this kind of bread, he took no measures to prevent that 
state of the bowels which has since caused him so much pain. It 
was no) long before costiveness ensued, which soon became habi- 
tual, producing head-ache of the severest form, from which no 



APPENDIX. 27? 

relief could be procured, except what was merely temporary, 
until the contents of the stomach and bowels were evacuated by 
puking and purging. 

It now seems strange, that for sixteen years, he should not 
once have reflected on the circumstance of his never having 
more than one fit of the sick head-ache, until he removed from 
his native State, and adopted the use of wheat bread as afore- 
said. This case occurred on a journey home from a visit, dur- 
ing which he had eaten no other bread for several weeks, than 
that made exclusively from wheat flour, which produced an ob- 
stinate state of costiveness. 

After removing to the Western country, he, without due re- 
flection, persisted in the use of this kind of bread, and about 
once a month would have a most distressing fit of sick head-ache, 
when emetics, tartar, calomel, jalap, rhubarb, &c. were resorted 
to for relief, and to guard against those fits; the frequent, and 
at last the daily use of rhubarb or Lee's pills, or some mild lax- 
ative, was resorted to; and his digestive powers, and the tone of 
his whole intestinal canal became increasingly impaired. Con- 
sequently, larger doses were required; and the paroxysms of 
sickness and excrutiating pain in the head became more fre- 
quent; and in the course of twelve or thirteen years, he was so 
reduced that, in addition to large doses every day, of rhubarb or 
some of the more active but mild kind of laxative medicines, it 
became as he supposed absolutely necessary to use calomel, 
and jalap, as well as to let blood, to get relief. In the course of 
from three to four years more, in addition to tolerably active 
laxatives every day, it required, about once in three weeks, 
twenty to thirty grains of calomel, from thirty to fifty grains of 
jalap, and three to four large table spoons full of Castor oil, at 
one dose, and then take a full pint of blood, to obtain so much 
relief as to be able to live two or three weeks more, by taking 
the milder laxatives as before. This was in 1816, sixteen years 
from the commencement and regular progress of the disease. 

Every kind of diet and medicine which was supposed would 
produce permanent relief, had long since proved ineffectual; his 
flesh was much wasted, and his strength nearly exhausted; his 
feet and legs swelled up to his knees; and in all human proba- 
bility a few weeks appeared likely to terminate his existence. 



273 APPENDK3. 

In this sitaation he was again attacked, with another excruii^ 
ting and almost insupportable paroxysm of head ache. He 
strove to he as composed as possible, and felt undetermined whe- 
ther it was best to resort to the use of those drastic purges and 
copious bleedings again for relief; or as patieutly as possible, 
confide in Divine Providence, and take no more medicine to en- 
dtavor to arrest the progrec-s of the disease. 

In this solemn and painful condition, with a mind calm and re- 
signed to his situation, it occurred to him that, the day before, 
he had seen one of his family, who had been to the gristmill, 
take a bag of wheat bran into a back building, for the purpose- 
of feeding cows. With this recollection his mind was forcibly 
impressed with the belief, that if he would eat enough of it, it- 
would relieve him. He had never heard nor thought of any. 
such thing, and was, at that time, incapable of reasoning much 
about it; but the impression continuing on his mind, he took of 
it three times in, say ten or fifteen minutes, to the amount of two 
or three hands full, and it soon entirely relieved him, without 
bleeding or medicine. He soon found that one large hand full 
morning, noon, and night, would preserve him in health, which, 
with some reduction in quantity, he has continued in the use of 
to the present time. It neutralizes acidity in the stomach, and. 
acts mechanically on the whole intestinal canal, keeping it clean,, 
and enabling it to perform its proper functions. It mixes with- 
the fcod and prevents bread made of superfine flour, or any other 
kind of food, from constipating the bowels, preserving the body- 
in health and vigor. 

It is now seventeen years since the discovery 7 of the efficacy 
of bran, was made. For nearly eleven years it required of clean- 
well ground and closely bolted wheat bran, two ounces in the 
morning, as much at noon, and the same quantity at night. This- 
would enable him to partake of bread made of fine flour or any< 
usual food, except acid fruits or preserves. If he indulged in- 
these, an ex'ra hand full of bran became necessary. On jour- 
neys, and sometimes for want of proper care, he neglected it, 
but al vays suffered for it. 

in 1826 he refrained from it so long that he had a severe at- 
tack of bilious fever, followed by two relapses; and was cured by 
lhe Steam or Botanic Practice as above stated. His constituticr- 



APPENDIX. '279 

kas been ever since so much renovated that he is generally 
able to enjov good health, with the use of only one hand full, or 
two ounces as aforesaid, in the morning, on an empty stomach. 
This quantity, and sometimes a little more, is, and probably 
will continue to be necessary during life. He sometimes for 
a change takes it in coffee or tea, rendered palatable by milk 
^ind sugar; but believes it best to take it in one hand, and a 
glass of tvater in the other, and practice soon may teach how 
to eat it with but little difficulty. Few who have tried it have 
required so much as he has, to preserve his health; but one 
jof his friends has required more. He has seldom found since 
the first time he ever used it, that it has relieved him so sud- 
denly, after becoming unwell by the neglect of taking it — but 
the patient use of it overcomes the difficulty;, 



(jftr There has been several appalling cases of the dead or 
numb palsy, and other paralytic affections; one of diabetes; 
and also two notable cases, which by several eminent physicians 
of the regular Medical Faculty, were declared to be confirmed 
Consumption, and considered as utterly hopeless; all of which 
Tiave come within our knowledge; but inadvertently, through 
the hurry of business, timely care has not been taken to procure 
them, and they must therefore be dispensed with. And as it 
has not been our intention to publish more than a few of the 
worst cases, to inspire families and new practitioners with confi- 
dence in our remedies generally, we shall now close our list of 
them. A great many more, of every diversified form, might 
have been adduced, but believing that enough are already given 
to answer the desired purpose, we omit them, and proceed to the 
Materia Medica. 



FART III. 



KSW 1TSGETABLE MATERIA TEEDIOA. 



The original plan for the arrangement of the articles consti- 
tuting this department, was to place them in classes, as proposed 
in the first volume; but we soon found this would require much 
time, reflection, and attentive discrimination; more indeed than 
we could possibly bestow. We discovered, moreover, that so much 
difficulty would attend the classification of many valuable arti- 
cles which we intend introducing, that the advantages would not 
at this time, repay the labor. Yet we will not conceal our firm 
convictions, that important advantages would result from the 
classification of medicines according to their most obvious effects 
upon the system. Its tendency would be to simplify the healing 
art, and thus render it more intelligible to the whole community, 
which ought to be t!)3 grand object and aim of every person 
who attempts to write upon this subject. 

We have abundantly shown, as we trust, that the indications 
to be answered in the treatment of disease, are few and easily 
comprehended; and now if all the various articles calculated to 
answer each one of those indications could be thrown together 
under one head, how much mare easy would it be for an indivi- 
dual having but a slight knowledge of medicines, to understand 
and apply them. There would be something so systematic, so 
beautiful, and yet so simple, in this, that it could not fail to cap- 
tivate the mind and convince the judgment of every person who 
would view it with an unprejudiced eye. And we have reason 
to believe that the advancement of knowledge will yet lead to 
this important result. 

In this as well as in the preceding part of the present volume, 
we have drawn our descriptions, and all other important informn- 

'36 



282 MATERIA MEDICA. 

tion, from every accessible source, and hope we shall be pardoned 
throughout, for crediting but few quotations or authorities which 
we thought proper to use. The works principally consulted are, 
Thomson, Rafinesqjje, Rogers, Thacher, Bigelow, Barton, 
Cullen, and Smith. 

The reader will observe, that the fir-it name, in capitals, is the 
systematic, botanic, or technical terms by which the article is 
distinguished; after that follow the common names, of which 
most plants can boast more than one, and often times several 
different vegetables bear the same name. From this source ori- 
ginates a great deal of confusion, which the invention of botanical 
Dames, and a more exact method of describing plants, was in- 
tended to correct. 

It may be proper to observe, however, that some very valua- 
ble plants which will be introduced into this work, were derived 
from persons whose opportunities did not enable them to give 
correct botanic names; nor have these articles so far as we 
know, been introduced into any botanical work, hitherto pub- 
lished We have, therefore, been under the necessity of giving 
them such names as were furnished us, and content ourselves 
with recording their virtues. Some of them were also derived 
from the Indians, and for some of these no names are known 
amongst the whites. 



ACIDUM ACETOSUM, 

ACETOUS ACID—VINEGAR 

Vinegar was known many ages before the discovery of any 
other acid, excepting those which exist ready formed in the dif- 
ferent kinds of vegetables, and particularly in sour fruit. 

This agreeable pungent acid is produced by the fermentation 
of saccharine matter or sweet vegetable juices, such as-cider, 
wine, beer, sap, &c. The process by wbich vinegar is formed 
is termed the acetous fermentation, which is nothing more than 
the absorption of oxygen gas from the atmosphere. 

From the mucilaginous impurities which all vinegars contain, 
they are apt, on exposure to the air, to become turbid and ropy, 
and finally, entirely spoiled. This inconvenience may be reme- 
died by boiling the vinegar for one hour, in open bottles placed 
In a kettle of water over the fire; after which they are to be kept 
corked. 

Vinegar possesses strong antiseptic powers, and is hence em- 
ployed to correct the putrid tendency of the fluids in putrid and 
pestilential fevers, and in scurvy. Mixed with water, it makes 
not only an agreeable but a useful drink in all febrile diseases. 
It is also useful to settle the stomach in cases of nausea or vom- 
iting; and administered by injection is said to be useful in eos- 
tiveness. It is also very serviceable in obviating the poisonous 
effects of vegetables, particularly those which are termed the 
narcotic poisons. 

In dysentery, vinegar, in which salt has been dissolved, is 
recommended as a valuable remedy,, It is prepared and used 
as follows: — 

Take any quantity of vinegar, and add to it as much salt as 
it will dissolve; to one table spoon full of this mixture add two 
of hot water, and give to the patient at a dose, to be frequently 
repeated. The same mixture may also be applied to inflamma- 
tions, swellings, sprain?, &c. 

The vapor of vinegar inhaled into the lungs is useful in all \ 
diseases of these organs, as well as of sore throat; and diffused 
through the rooms of the sick, it corrects the putridity of the 



284 MATERIA MEDICA. 

air, and renders it more wholesome and agreeable to patients. 
and attendants. 

AGIUMOMIA EUPATOHIA. 

Common Names — Agrimony, Cocklebur, Stickwort. 

Common agrimony baa a perennial root, with a rounded hairy 
stem, growing from one to two feet high; leaves alternate, rough, 
ragged, hairy, and unequal, lower ones the largest. Blossoms 
yellow, growing on a long terminal spike, which is a continua- 
tion of the main stem; producing a small green bristly bur, 
which often sticks to clothes that come in contact with them. 

Tne root of agrimony is a mild astringent tonic, and may be 
used in tea for bowel complaints, fevers, &c. The leaves have 
also been employed for the same purpose, and are said to be 
useful for jaundice, scurvy, &c. 

ALCOHOL. 

(ARDENT SPIRITS — SPIRIT OF WINE.) 

Alcohol is the pure unadulterated spirit, or stimulating, and 
intoxicating principle of whisky, brandy, and all other kinds 
of inebriating drinks. It is formed during the process of what 
is termed the vinous fermentation, which can only take place 
in fluids impregnated with sugar. Wine, cider, beer, and all 
sweet juices, of vegetables, by passing through the vinous fer- 
mentation, generate alcohol; and in order to procure it in a 
more concentrated form it is distilled, which process produces 
•whisky or brandy. But notwithstanding that pure alcohol is so 
much lighter or more volatile than water, it cannot all be distilled 
off from the fluid which contains it without more or less water 
passing over with it. Hence, in order to obtain the alcohol 
pure, whisky or brandy must be re-distiiled. 

E']ud quantities by weight, of pure alcohol, and water form 
pure spirit, which is extensively used as a menstruum, in medicine 
and tiie arts. Many substances do not yield their valuable pro- 
perties to water, which are nevertheless readily given out to,, or 
are diss-olved in proof spirits, or in alcohol. Medicinal resins can 
only be dissolved by pure alcohol, and gums by water. The vir- 



MATERIA MEDICA. 285 

iues of plants reside sometimes in resin, sometimes in gum, and 
sometimes in both. Hence the menstruum or solvent must be 
varied according to the qualities of the article. But in gene- 
ral, for making tinctures, proof spirits are used; the alcohol 
dissolving the resinous, and the water the gummy parts. Hence 
emplojedin dissolving camphor, myrrh, &c. bpirits are also 
I used for dissolving the vegetable oils, and thus are produced 
the various essences. , 

ALETKIS ALBA. 

Common Names — Unicorn, Star Root, Blazing Star, 

Root perennial, considerably larger than a pipe stem, from 
one to two inches long, of a dirty dark color, very hard, full of 
little holes, rough and wrinkled, having numerous small dark- 
ish colored fibrous roots, which when deprived ot their out- 
side bark, somewhat resemble hog'^ bristles; end of tne caudex 
or main root often dead or rotten. Leaves radical, pale, smooth, 
evergreen, lanceolate, and in the winter lying tlat on the ground, 
in rays resembling a star, whence some of its names. Stem 
from eight to eighteen inches high; upright, naked, terminat- 
ing in a spike or tassel of white flowers. Found in thin soils. 
The root is the part principally used, and is highly celebra- 
ted as a tonic and general strengthener of the system. Dr. 
Rogers, says it relieves chohc, strangury, rheumatism, and 
jaundice. It also has a powerful tendency to prevent abor- 
tion, and those who are liable to accidents of this kind, ought 
to make frequent use of it. Haifa tea spoon full of the pow- 
dered root may be taken three times a day, in a gill of warm 
water; or, for ordinary use, a portion of it may be added to the 
common bitters. By some it is highly valued in suppressed 
: menstruation. 

The Unicorn is also an excellent remedy for coughs, con- 

! sumptions, and all complaints of the lungs; promoting expecto- 

i ration and insensible perspiration. The constant use of it, 

however, sometimes makes the mouth sore, when it must be 

laid by, and some other expectorant used, until the mouth gets 

well, and then it may be resumed again. 



286' MATERIA MEDICA. 

ALISMA PLANTAGO. 

Common Name — Water Plantain. 

Root perennial, having one or more tap roots issuing from 
the caudex, or headland immediately on the under side of the 
caudex is a singular cup or depression. Leaves radical, on 
long foot stalks, of a light green color, very much resembling 
the common plantain. Stem from one to two feet bigh, terming 
ating in a spike or tassel, in all respects similar to the common 
plantain — found in the wettest soils, or stagnant waters. 

The root of water plantain is considered very valuable as an 
astringent in dysentery, for which purpose it may be given in 
strong decoction, after the bowels have been cleansed with a 
mild cathartic. 

In a late tour amongst the Indians, we were assured by the 
Wyandots, that it was a very useful external application for 
old sores, wounds, and bruises, whether inflamed or inclined to 
mortify. For this purpose, take the roots, wash them clean, 
and boil till soft. Mash into a poultice, and apply to the sore, 
first washing it with the water in which the roots were boiled, 
and repeat two or three times a day, if the case be bad. It 
removes inflammation, reduces swelling, and cleanses and soon, 
heals the most foul and inveterate ulcers. 

ALKALI. 

Under this head we shall include all the alkaline articles, 
most commonly used in medicine — such as chalk, soda, and 
lime. Their use is to neutralize acidity, Avhich renders them 
peculiarly proper in dyspepsy, as well as in all diseases attend- 
ed by or arising from sourness of the stomach. Administered 
by injection, alkalies are said to allay tenesmus like a charm*. 



~w 



CARBONAS SOD/E IMPURUS, OR SODA. 

Soda possesses, in general, the same properties as pearlasb- 
A solution of it is an excellent gargle for cleansing the mouthy 
gums, and throat, both in the diseased and in the sound state ^ 
at the same time whitening the teeth, and dissolving those in- 



MATERIA MEDICA. '£87 

crustations called tartar, which often form upon them, without 
injuring the enamel. A small quantity of this solution, occa- 
sionally swallowed, after washing the mouth, effectually re~ 
moves a bad breath. 



CARBOxNAS POTASS.E IMPURUS, OR PEARLASH. 

A solution of pearlash is very serviceable in acidities of the 
stomach, and in all complaints arising therefrom, such as cho- 
lera morbus, diarrhoea, dysentery, head-ache, &c. A diluted 
solution drank warm, in bed, is good to promote perspiration; 
and if it does not act in this way, it generally goes offby urine. 
A wash of pearlash is an excellent external application in 
fevers, neutralizing the septic acid, and softening the skin, 
which gives a tendency to the flow of perspiration. 

Pearlash is often employed in a neutralized state, that is dis- 
solved in vinegar, to allay irritation, to check vomiting, and to 
promote perspiration. 



CARBONAS CALCIS, OR CHALK. 

This article is very highly extolled by some as a remedy in 
cholera morbus, and is also very useful in diarrhoea, as well as all 
cases of acidity of the stomach. It may be taken in doses of 
one tea spoon full or more. Chalk is sometimes applied exter- 
nally, to scalds and burns, by sprinkling the powder on the 
affected part. 

CALX, OR LIME, 

Lime, as it exists in common lime-stone, chalk, and marine 
shells, is combined with carbonic acid which neutralizes its 
alkaline qualities, and prevents it from slacking. The carbo- 
nic acid is driven off in the form of gas, during the process of 
burning, when it is converted into what is called quick-lime* 

Lime, dissolved in water, is esteemed a very valuable reme- 
dy in dyspepsy, and in all cases of acidity and debility of the 
stomach. 

By some it is esteemed much superior to pearlash. To pre- 
pare lime water, take of lime one pound; boiling water, two 



288 MATERIA MEDICA. 

gallons; pour the water on the lime in an earthen crock ot 
pan, stir them together, and cover the ves-el. Pour it off as it 
is wanted for use, in doses of ahout hah a tea cup full, mixed 
with sweet milk, two or three times a day. Possibly this might 
be useful in worm complaints, to dissolve the mucous in which 
those vermin are said to reside. 

— »v»e ©««<■— 

ALNUS SERRULATA. 

Common Names — Tag-Alder, Black Alder. 

Tag-alder is a perennial shrub or bush, rising to the height of 
from five to eight (eet. many shrubs growing from the same root, 
bearing a large, roundish, or rather obtuse, dark green leaf, 
with tags or cones somewhat similar to witch-hazle. Found in 
wettish lands, or along streams. 

The tag-alder is a very good tonic. The tags, bark, boughs. 
or leaves may be taken freely, in strong tea, and is very valuable 
■in all diseases of the skin, particularly for boils, which, by a 
timely use of the alder, may often be prevented from suppura- 
ting or coming to a head. It is made much use of by herbalists 
for all eruptions and humors of the skin, with great success. 

Externally, in poultice, it is used by the Indians, for swellings 
and strains, and the leaves bruised and applied to women's breasts 
repels milk. The cones and twigs made into a salve by boiling 
in water and then adding lard or butter, makes an excellent oint- 
ment for burns and scalds, and probably for other sores. Cloths 
kept constantly wet in the strong tea, and applied to hot swellings, 
affords much relief. 

— »»e@ *«>•-— 

A3IARANTHUS SANGUINEOUS. 

Common Names — Amaranth, Princess Feather, Lovely Bleeding. 

The amaranth is an annual plant, much cultivated in gardens 
for its beautiful red appearance, rising to the height of from Ihree 
to five feet. The whole plant is more or less red. but the blossom 
most so, being, of deep bright red, whilst the leaves are dark. 



MATERIA MEDICA. 289 

Wince's Feather is the name by which it is most commonly dis- 
tinguished; but amaranth is a better and more elegant name, 
which ought to be adopted. This article is too well known to 
need a more minute description. 

The amaranth is an astringent, and as such the leaves are 
used in decoction, for bowel complaints. But it is most cele- 
brated as a remedy for profuse menstruation, and has often 
icured when other remedies have failed. 

AMOMUM ZINGIBER. 

■Common Names — Ginger, aho distinguished by Race, and Black and? 
White Ginger. 

Ginger is a perennial shrub, growing about three feet high, a 
native of the East Indies, but now cultivated in the West Indies, 
in large quantities. Race, is a term applied to ginger in the 
root to distinguish it from that which is ground. The black gin- 
ger, is the root prepared with less care than the white; the white 
being washed and scraped previous to drying. 

Ginger is a warm and moderately stimulating aromatic, of 
much value in medicine, mostly used in combination with other 
articles, and is an important ingredient in the diaphoretic or 
sweating powders. For medicine, it is better to purchase the 
sound roots, as that which is ground is often prepared from such 
roots as are worm eaten and unsalable. Dose, from half to a 
whole tea spoon full, in warm water sweetened. Externally, 
very valuable in poultices. 

—>•►►©©«««<«- 

AMYGBAI-US PEIISICA* 
Common Name — Peach Tree. 

This valuable tree affords not only a most delightful fruit, but 
also furnishes very valuable medicine. The bark, leaves, blos- 
soms, ke reals, and gum, are all highly useful. 

The bark, leaves, or flowers, in tea or syrup, are an excellent 
purgative, and may be given to young or old ; useful in cholics, 
bowel complaints, worms, and fevers. A strong decoction may 

37 



29$ MATERIA &EDICA. 

be given to children, in tea spoon full, or larger doses, every 
hour or oftener, until it operates: to grown persons, in larger 
quantities. It also acts as a diaphoretic and tonic. A tea of 
the peach tree leaves or bark is one of the best remedies for 
bloody urine, and very probably may be found beneficial in other 
complaints of the urinary organs, and of bleeding from other 
internal parts. If dependence is placed upon the peach tree 
physic in fevers, it ought to be given daily for several days so as 
to produce moderate purging; at the same time administering 
the Cayenne pepper, sweating powders, or bitters, and applying 
hot rocks, to aid in promoting perspiration. 

RAFfNESQUE informs us, that the blossoms are much used in 
Europe for worms, colic, and gravel, in the form of tea. 

The kernals taken from the stone of the peach, is a most val- 
uable tonic, and is particularly serviceable in bowel complaints, 
and in all cases of extreme debility. They are best, however, 
combined with other articles, and asually exhibited in a cordial 
or syrup. 

High wines, or the pure alcohol, made from peach brandy, is 
a valuable menstruum for making the tincture of myrrh, being 
much more pleasant than that made from whisky. 

The gum which exudes from the peach tree, answers all the 
purposes of the Gum Arabic, and is said to be superior to it. 

AXtiTTUVM. FCENICULITM. 

" Common Names — Fennel, Sweet Fennel. 

Fennel is a perennial plant, native of Italy, where it grow? 
wild, but in the United States is cultivated in gardens; though 
sometimes growing spontaneous. The seeds are a good aroma- 
tic; as such are useful in bitters, and a variety of other com- 
pounds. They also yield an excellent oil, which is good to 
expel wind, and promotes urine. 

ANGUSTURA BARK. 

The Angustura bark is imported from the Spanish West Indies, 
and may be regarded as a valuable tonic. The best menstruum 



MATERIA MED1CA. 291 

for extracting its medicinal qualities is proof spirit, in which it 
ought to be tinctured, or it may be taken in substance. 

It increases the appetite, removes flatulence and acidity arising 
from dyspepsy, and is a very effectual remedy in diarrhoea 
arising from weakness of the bowels, and in dysentery; acting 
without oppressing the stomach. Dose, half a tea spoon full. 

ATVTHEMIS COTTJLA. 

Common Names — May Weed, Dog Fennel, Wild Chamomile, Delly, 
Dill Weed, Field Weed, Stinking Chamomile. 

Root annual, crooked, fibrous. Stem erect, from eight to eigh- 
teen inches high, much branched from the bottom. Leaves 
alternate, double pinnated, giving the plant a ragged appear- 
ance. Flowers many, white and yellow, forming a terminal 
corymb, on a naked peduncle. Grows almost every where, and 
in great abundance, near houses, along the roads, walks, wastes, 
&,c. It is a species of chamomile, for which it may be substi- 
tuted. 

The May- weed has been long and extensively used in domes- 
tic medicine, with advantage. It is reputed an active tonic, 
sudorific, anodyne, and emetic. Useful in colds, fevers, rheu- 
matism, hysterics, epilepsy, dropsy, and asthma, either internally 
or externally applied. Internally is used in tea, and externally 
in fomentations — for rheumatism, hysteric fits, piles, pains, and 
bruises. It may be given in tea when taking an emetic, and is 
better than warm water to promote vomiting. In small doses, 
taken warm, it always acts as a sudorific, promoting copious 
perspiration* 

— e©e — 

ANTIIE31IS NOBILIS. 

Common Name — Chamomile. 

This common herb is a native of the south of England, but is 
now cultivated in gardens for the purpose of medicine. The 
flowers have a strong, but not unpleasant aromatic smell, and a 
very bitter, nauseous taste. They are used in spasmodic dis- 
eases, hysterics, colics, vomiting, &c. 



392 . MATERIA MEDICA. 

The whole plant is valuable as mi external application, pos- 
sessing a relaxing power, and enters into the composition of Dr. 
Thomson's nerve or relaxing ointment, which is applied to hard 
swellings, corns, callouses, shrunk sinews, &c. Brubed and 
moistened with vinegar, it is usetul to apply to sprains and 
bruises. 

APIU3S PETROSELINU32. 
Common Name — Parsley. 

This common garden vegetable is mostly cultivated for culin- 
ary or cooking purposes, but it is also highly valuable as a medi- 
cine. 

Parsley is a preity active diuretic, and may be used in dropsy, 
and all ordinary suppressions of the urine, and inflammations of 
the kidneys and bladder. 

Professor Chapman, states that he cured one case of dropsy of 
the abdomen, with it, after the patient had been twice tapped* 



—•»»?©»«<•— 



APOCTNUM ANDROSiESJIFOLIUM^ 

Common Names — Bitter Bogs-Bane, Wandering Milk-Weed, Bitter* 
Root, Honey-Bloom, Flytrap. 

The root of this plant is perennial, near the size of the little 
finger, running horizontally under the surface in various direc- 
tions to a considerable length, of a dark red, or black color, 
when broken exuding a milk, and having a woody pith. Stem 
smooth, covered with a tough fibrous bark like hemp, milky, 
growing from three to five feet high, branching towards- the top, 
and red on the side exposed to the sun. Several stalks arise 
from one root, or rather branches of the root, and bearing a 
white blossom, has the appearance of buckwheat. Leaves ap- 
posite, ovate, acute, and entire. 

The seed is contained in pods of a dark red color, which grow 
in pairs, from two to three inches long, the size of a pipe stem, 
very pointed, always hanging down, and containing a kind of 
cotton. 






I 



MATERIA MEDIC A". £93 



The dogs-bane or bitter-root, acts as an emetic,, cathartic, and 
powerful tonic; being intensely bitter. Its cathartic power is, 
however, not strong, and may rather be regarded as a laxative, 
than cathartic. If given in large doses, however, it produces a 
purgative effect unon the bowels, and used in this manner, at the 
commencement of a fever will often throw it off. 

It is a most important article in the laxative bitters, being use- 
ful not only for its laxative, but also for its tonic qualities. It is 
said that the Southern Indians employ it in the venereal disease, 
and consider it a specific. A wash made by steeping the root, 
is good for ulcers, scald head, and very probably may be found 
useful as an external application in many diseases cf the skin., 
We think it might also prove highly serviceable in worm com- 
plaints. 

Its virtues are impaired by age, and, therefore, should be 
gathered fresh every year, and kept from the air. Grows in 
wettish lands, plains, mowing grounds, by the sides of fences,, 
woods, &c. 

AQUA. 

Common Name — Water. 

Water is a liquid, transparent, colorless substance, diffused in 
the atmosphere, and over the whole surface of the globe. At 
thirty-two degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer, water becomes 
solid, forming ice; and at two hundred and twelve degrees, it 
boils, becoming transformed into vapor, and passes off into the 
air. Water was formerly considered a simple substance, until 
towards the close of the eighteenth century, the great improve- 
ments in chemical science demonstrated that it was a compound, 
consisting of eighty-five parts of oxygen, and fifteen of hydrogen 
gas. 

All the natural waters, that is waters obtained from wells, 
springs, rivers, &c. are more or less impure; and it is only by 
distillation that water perfectly clear of all impurities can be 
obtained* Pure water has neither smell nor taste, and is per- 
fectly transparent. If water, on agitation, throws up air bub- 
bles on its surface, or has a mild sourish taste, it contains carbonic 



&)4. MATERIA MEBICA. 

m 

acid gas or fixed air; if it be of a green color, it indicates iron^ 
and if blue, copper. 

Lime, and various other substances, also abound in water? 
and either render it unwholesome for drinking and cookery, or 
unfit for many "manufacturing purposes, or both. 

Water containing those foreign substances of which we have 
been speaking, is denominated hard. The cause of this hard- 
ness is an acid or sourness, which, though commonly impercepti- 
ble to the taste, is sufficient to dissolve those materials which 
are held in solution in the water. It is this acid that dissolves 
or decomposes the soap, and prevents hard water from washing; 
the acid neutralizing the alkali of the soap, and setting the oil or 
grease at liberty. And hence too, the addition of a little ley to 
hard water softens it, by neutralizing the acid, and thus renders 
it fit for washing with soap» 

In the preparation of medicine, soft water ought always to 
be preferred, as it is a much better solvent than that which is 
hard. Rain water is the purest, next river water, and then 
epring water; the water of wells being generally hardest of all. 

Water is one of the best external applications to painful or- 
inflamed ulcers, to fresh wounds, and rheumatism. Applied in 
this way, it is a favorite remedy with the Indians; who say that 
if persevered in, it will cure. For rheumatism they bathe the 
affected parts often and continue it long. 

— ..»►« ©©«« — 

ARALIA RACEMOSA. 

Common Names — Spignet, Spikenard, Wild Liquorice, fyc. 

There are two other species of tins plant found in the United 
States, which with this, may be used indiscriminately. Roots 
perennial, brown or brownish yellow, several growing from one 
common head, about the size of a finger. Stems sometimes one, 
sometimes more, growing from the same root, from two to three 
feet high, reddish brown, and somewhat branched. Leaves 
biternate, consisting of nine folioles or smaller leaves. Flowers 
growing in umbels, of a yellowish white. Berries resembling 
small elder berries. 

The roots and berries are the parts used, and are popular 
remedies throughout the United States, for coughs, female weak- 



MATERIA MEMCA. 295 

* M 

ness, and as general tonics. Used in tea or syrup. The roots 
bruised and u-ed in poultice, are applied by the Indians, to all 
kinds of wounds and ulcers, and also to ring-worms. Rafin- 
esque says, they are more efficient than the sarsaparilla, in sy" 
philis and all other complaints in which that article is used. 

ARALIA SPINOSA. 

Common Names — Prickly Ash, Prickly Elder, Slut Bush, fyv. 

A perennial shrub, growing in rich and commonly wettish 
~soils, sometimes to the height of fifteen feet, but usually about 
eight or ten. The bark is of an ash color, leaves somewhat simi- 
lar to those of the elder. The branches are covered with strong 
sharp prickles, from which it derives its most popular name. 
The berries, as they are called, are black and hard, covered 
with a capsule or husk, full of little holes or dots; warm and 
pungent. 

Both the bark and berries are useful as medicine, and are 
very valuable; berries the best. They are very good in rheu- 
matism, cold hands and feet, and added to the common bitters, 
are a very useful remedy in almost all complaints, particularly 
intermittent fevers. 

— ..>*©© 5««. — 

ARCTIUM LAPPA. 
Common Names — Burdock, Cfathur. 

The root of this plant is often used in decoction, for cutaneous 
complaints, and in some instances with good success, it is also 
employed as a diuretic; and is said powerfully to promote per- 
spiration; the seeds still stronger and more valuable. They are 
also used with good success in rheumatism, scurvy, gout, inflam, 
mation of the kidneys, and venereal disease, in which it is said 
they are preferable to sarsaparilla. Combined with lobelia? 
they form a powerful diaphoretic medicine: and might be advan- 
tageously compounded with many other articles less nauseous 
than the lobelia. The seeds are bitter, and are also said to be 
purgative; 



296 MATERIA MEDICA. 

ARISTOLOCHIA SERPENTARIA. 

Gammon Names — Virginia Snakeroot, Snakeweed, Snagrel, WhiU 

Snakeroot. 

The root of this herb consists of numerous small fibers issuing 
from one common head or caudex, and are of a dark yellow 
color when fresh, but become black on drying. Stem round, 
slender, weak, crooked, and jointed, from six to ten inches high, 
bearing from three to seven leaves, and one to three flowers near 
the ground. The leaves are somewhat singular, long, and heart 
shaped at the base or broad part. 

Snakeroot delights in shady situations, and abounds in all 
parts of the United States; said to most abundant in the Alle- 
gany and Cumberland mountains. 

The root has an agreeable, pungent, a rcma tic smell, very simi. 
lar to the fibrous roots of the spice bush; and a warm bitter 
pungent taste. Dr. Thacher says that by decoction, its medi- 
cal properties are entirely destroyed; but in this he is most 
certainly mistaken. It may be used alone in tea or tincture, or 
compounded with other articles for bitters, or added to the dia- 
phoretic powders, in which it will be found highly useful. 

Snakeroot is greatly esteemed in typhus fevers, being con- 
sidered diaphoretic, tonic, antiseptic, and stimulant. It it used 
in pleurisy, rheumatism, remittent fevers, and all other com- 
plaints. 

— ..»» ©&)«..— 

ARUM TRIPHYLLUM. 

Common Names — Wild Turnip, Indian Turnip, Dragon Turnip, Dra- 
gon Root, Pepper Turnip, Wake Robin, 

This a hardy perennial plant, growing in almost every situa- 
tion, shady or open, soil wet or dry, rich or poor. The root i? 
round, flattened, with many white fibers putting out around it? 
upper part near the stem; externally it is dark and wrinkled: 
internally, white. -Leaves, three in number, growing at the top 
of the stalk ; and a single blossom of the same color of the leaves, 
producing a roundish.cluster of red berries. 

In its green state, the Indian turnip is powerfully acid, stimu- 
lant, expectorant, carminative, and diaphoretic. By drying. 



•MATERIA MEDICA. 297 

'however, it loses the greater part of its intolerable pungency, 
together with much of its virtue; but even then it is a valuable 
medicine. It may be kept in its green state, by burying it in 
sand in a cellar. 

This article must he used in substance, and generally enters 
into compounds for cough, when in a dry state: or the fresh roots 
may be gratod, and mixed with three times their weight of 
sugar, thus forming a conserve, which must be taken in teaspoon 
full doses, three times a day. 

ASCLEPIAS SYRIACA. 

Common Names — Milk-Weed, Silk- Weed. 

This is the common silk-weed, which so plentifully abounds in 
almost all parts of the country, bearing a large pod containing 
a silky substance, which has been sometimes mixed with cotton 
and spun into yarn, for gloves, candle wick, &c. and has also 
been made into paper, hats, and even put into beds, ft produces 
a most beautiful blossom, of a delightful lilac color, at the termi- 
nation of the branches, at the top of the plant. 

The root of this herb appears to possess nearly the same pro- 
perties as the butterfly root, but its powers are not so strong. 
It may be used for the same purposes and in the same manner. 
The Southwestern Indians are said to use it as an emetic. 

ASCLEPIAS TUBOEOSA. 

Common Names — Pleurisy Root, Butterfly, JVhite Root, Canada Root, 
Silk Weed, Wind Root, Flux Root, SzvalloK-wort. 

This beautiful plant flourishes best in a sandy or gravelly soil, 
by the way side, along fences, and in old or uncultivated fields. 
It abounds throughout the United States, but is most plentiful at 
the South. 

The butterfly has a large, white, crooked, branching, peren- 
nial root, sending up several erect, though often decumbent, 
hairy or woolly stems, branching at the top, round, green or red. 
Leaves scattered, very hairy, pale on the under side, of an ob- 
long shape, and thick or fleshy. Flowers in terminal corymbose 



MATERIA MEDICA. 

umbels, of a most beautiful brilliant orange color, distinguishable 
from all the flowers of the field. 

The butterfly root is highly extolled for the cure of pleurisy, 
all cases of difficulty of breathing or shortness of breath, and in 
short, all diseases of the lungs. In all affections of this kind, it 
may be regarded as one of the most valuable of the milder arti 
cles of the materia medica. 

In practice, it may be u s ed alone in strong decoction, or in 
substance, giving it in tea spoon full, or larger doses, repeated 
as often as the exigencies of the case may require. Or it may 
be very profitably combined with the diaphoretic powders, or 
the bitters, as it cannot be used amiss in any complaint. 

It also acts as a very mild purge, which makes it peculiarly 
applicable to the bowel complaints of children. It relieves pains 
in the breast, stomach and bowels; promotes perspiration, and 
assists digestion. 

A species of the asclepias, commonly called Indian hemp, 
growing very abundantly in many places, is thought by some to 
be a specific for dropsy; and there is no doubt some important 
cures have been performed by it. The root is used in decoction. 

— »e © »«<.— 
BAPTISIA TINCTORIA. 

Common Names — Indingofera, Wild Indigo, Indigo Weed, Horsefly 
Weed, Indigo Broom, fyc. 

Root pprennial, irregular, large and woody, blackish outside, 
yellowish within, and sending off many slender branches or fibers. 
Stems two to three feet high, round and smooth, of a yellowish- 
green color with black spots, very much branched at the top. 
Leaves alternate, small, somewhat heart-shaped, and broadest 
towards the outer end. The blossoms are of a golden color, and 
are succeeded by a swelled oblong pod, of a bluish or black^h 
hue, as indeed is the whole plant, and becoming quite black on 
drying. The taste of the root is unpleasant, subacrid and nau- 
seous. Grows in poor soils, mostly on hills. 

Both the root and plant may be used for medicinal purposes; 
either externally or internally. If given in too large doses, 
however, it proves both emetic and cathartic. But it is not 



MATERIA MEDIC A. 299 

considered by any means valuable for those purposes, being re- 
garded as too severe. Internally, in a weak decoction, it is 
considered highly valuable as an antiseptic in mortification, and 
all putrid complaints. For internal use, an ounce of" the green 
root may be steeped in a pint of water, of which about half a tea 
cup full may be taken once in five or six hours. Ii it should 
prove too cathartic or loosening to the bowels, about half the 
quantity, more or less, of the dewberry, or of bayberry root, 
must be added to it. 

Externally, the indigofera may be applied in poultice, wash, 
fomentation, or ointment, to ulcers of every description, but par- 
ticularly to those which are in a mortifying, or mortified state, 
being considered by some as the most powerful antiseptic or 
preventative of mortification known. It is also applied by some 
herbalists, in poultice, to swelled female breasts; and in putrid 
or ulcerous sore throat, it is highly recommended. 

— ..i*e ©9«<— - 

BERBERIS CANADENSIS. 

Common Name — Barberry. 

The barberry is a shrub growing four to eight feet high, with 
long bending branches, covered with many small dots, and some 
occasional ihorns, often three together. Leaves crowded, un- 
equal, smooth, and glossy. Flowers nodding or pendulous, 
rather small and yellow. Found in mountains, hills, and amongst 
rocks, in barren soils. Most common in New England; rare in 
the Western country. 

The bark of the barberry is a good bitter tonic, slightly astrin- 
gent, and at the same time laxative, It may be used in putrid 
fevers, dysentery, and generally in all cases of disease, either 
alone or combined with other tonics. 

BETULA LENTA. 

Common Names— Black Birch, Sweet Birch, Spice Birch, fyc 

The black birch tree is too common to need any description. 
The bark smells and tastes much like the winter green. It is 
deemed a good tonic, and as such, may be either used alone in 



300 MATERIA MEDICA. 

strong tea. or it may be combined with other tonics, and used 
in decoction, or made into a syrup, and taken to restore the 
strength, and tone of the bowels after dysentery. It is also said 
to be useful in gravel, and to remove female obstructions. 

BOTROPHIS SERPENTARIA. 

Common Names — Ratfe Weed, Sqnazs Root, Rich Weed, Black Co- 
hosh, Black Snake Root, fyc. 

Root perennial, black, with a large caudex or head, and many 
long libers. Stem from three to six feet high, sometimes slightly 
crooked, jointed, and terminating in a dpifce of white blossoms. 
The leaves are of that kind termed biternately compounded. 
ari.-is'g from the root and forming a considerable cluster about 
eighteen inches or two feet high. Found ail over the United 
States, growing in rich open woods, particularly on rich hill sides 
•and near fields. 

The rattle root is considered astringent, diuretic, sudorific, 
anodyne, emenagogue, and tonic. !t is an Indian remedy, and 
much used in rheumatism, and also to facilitate child-birth,, 
whence its name sonaw root. It is used as a popular remedy 
in the treatment ot rheumatism, fever and ague, and is also a 
powerful medicine in cases of female obstructions. It is like- 
wise said to be a valuable remedy in small pox, an account of 
which' Iras already been given under that head. It is used by 
the Indians as an antidote for the bite of snakes; for which pur- 
pos ' it is bruised and applied to the wound. It is also said to 
cure the irc'hu 

Rattle root has, however, acquired the greatest celebrity as a 
cure for coughs and consumptions. In diseases of this character, 
we have many testimonials of its value, which are entitled to the 
fullest confidence, even in cases of confirmed consumption. A 
number of cases of pulmonary complaints are detailed in a late 
inaugural essay, hy G. VV. Mears, M. D. that came under our 
notice within Ihe last few days, in which it appears the rattle 
root produced the most decidedly beneficial effects. He also 
tried it in one case of intermittent fever which had resisted the 
ordinary treatment lor six weeks, and cured it in four days, by 



METERIA MEDICA. 301 

administering the saturated tincture, beginning with twenty 
drops, afterwards increased to a tea spoon full, and after the 
chills ceased to return, using a strong decoction. Dr. Mears 
also records several cases of diarrhoea, in which the rattle root 
effected speedy cures. He likewise records one very had case 
of pain and inflammation of the shoulder, in which the squaw 
root was used with the most decisive advantages. 

Dr. Mears appears to use this article indiscriminately either 
in tincture, decoction, or powder. Of the tincture, he adminis- 
tered from twenty drops to one tea spoon full at a dose; the 
decoction, he appears to have used in doses of one great spoon 
full, every two hours for children of three or four years old; and 
the pulverized root, in doses of from five to ten grains, (about 
half a tea spoon full) three times a day. The decoction is made 
by steeping from the fourth to half an ounce of the powdered 
root in a oint of water. 

The tincture has been known sometimes to produce an alarm- 
ing effect, and is thought by some to be dangerous, which we, 
however, think doubtful. The decoction may be taken in much 
larger quantity without producing any unpleasant effect: and on 
that account is preferable to the tincture. 

CAPSICUM ANNUUM. 
Common Names — Cayenne Pepper, Red Pepper, Cockspur Pepper. 

Cayenne pepper is cultivated in both tropical and temperate 
climates, and needs no description. The imported article so 
extensively used in medicine, under the name of cayenne, is 
most generally an indiscriminate mixture of the pods of several 
varieties of the capsicum. The common red pepper, of which 
so many varieties abound in our gardens, is a species of the cap- 
sicum, but possesses far inferior powers to that which grows in 
the tropical climates, and especially in Africa, which is the best 
of all. 

Cayenne pepper is one of the most pure and powerful stimu- 
lants ever introduced into the practice of medicine. It was 
perhaps first used by an English or Scotch physician, of the name 



302 MATERIA MEDICA.- 

of Makatrickj and has since become one of the most important 
articles in the physiological botanical practice of medicine; for 
which the world is much indebted to Dr. Thomson. It enters, 
in some proportion or other, into almost all our compounds, and 
is extensively and advantageously used as an external applica- 
tion in all cases of disease requiring external remedies. 

Rafinesque says, that "even the use of it, (cayenne,) often 
produces fevers and inflammatory disorders, obstructions, bloody 
piles, sores, &c." This is a gross mistake, founded on popular 
error, and rests upon nothing else. Dr. Thacher also favors the 
same idea, saying that the use of capsicum is not without dan- 
ger "from the inflammation it is liable to induce." The popular 
opinion from which this error originated is, however, fast wear- 
in»- away, and more rational views of medicine and medical phi- 
losophy taking its place. 

There can be no doubt that the cayenne pepper is a pure and 
unfailing stimulant, acting upon the living machine in a most 
forcible and healthy manner, in unison and harmony with the 
laws of nature or animal life. Instead of its being dangerous, 
or producing fevers, inflammatory disorders, obstructions, &c. 
there is nothing used, as a general stimulant, so valuable as cap- 
sicum. It removes obstructions, fevers, inflammations, piles, 
liver complaints, and all diseases to which the human frame is 
liable, in conjunction with other means, being universally appli- 
cable in all cases. We have confirmed these assertions, by much 
experience and very extensive observation, and can therefore 
recommend it to the sick, with all the confidence which a knowl- 
edge of these facts inspires. 

It sometimes, however, especially when taken into an empty 
or cold stomach produces pain, occasionally very severe, so as to 
be alarming to those unaccustomed to it. This is attended with 
no danger, as it will, in common, soon pass over. All hazard of 
producing pain in this way may be avoided by giving smaller 
quantities, and thus increase the action of the stomach in a grad- 
ual manner. 

Cayenne is often employed with the highest advantage, sprink- 
led on r oul or bad ulcers, and may be used, tinctured in brandy 
or steepod in vinegar, to bathe the bowels in dysentery and col- 
ic, or for rheumatism, inflammation?, pains or soreness; and the 



MATERIA MEDICA. 303 

tea or fine powder may even be put into the eyes to cure them 
when sore. A small quantity of cayenne is highly useful in 
what are termed passive inflammations, and indolent tumors 
externally applied. Dose, from one fourth to a whole tea spoon 
full, in hot water sweetened. 

— .»►$ © e«-— 

C'AIiBO LiGNI. 

Common Name — Charcoal of Wood. 

Charcoal possesses a number of singular properties, which 
render it important in medicine and the art?. It is incapable of 
putrefying or rotting, like wood; and it is said there yet exists 
charcoal made of grain, probably since the days of Julius Cea- 
sar, which is so perfect that the wheat may be distinguished 
from the rye. 

Charcoal possesses the peculiar property of correcting the 
empyreumatic, or burnt taste, of distilled spirits; of depriving 
rancid oil of its unpleasant flavor; and of checking the putrefac- 
tion of fresh meat, and restoring it to its natural taste. 

In medicine, charcoal is of great utility in arresting mortifica- 
tion, applied in the form of poultice, or taken internally in large 
doses if mortification of the bowels is apprehended, It is also 
very serviceable in costive habits, moving the bowels without 
producing much debility; and likewise in bleeding at the stom- 
ach, in intermittent fever, and in dysentery* It ought, for all 
purposes, to be fresh prepared, or kept in close stopped vessels. 

A very eligible mode of preparing charcoal for use, free from 
impurities and disagreeable taste, is to put pieces of wood in an 
iron cylinder or tube, leaving it open at one end, when it must 
be placed in the fire and there kept until no more smoke issues 
from it, and then the tube must be taken from the fire, when the 
open end is to be closed with clay until it becomes cool. Or, 
instead of wood, pulverize some well burnt charcoal and put it 
in the tube, or place it in a covered crucible or other vessel, and 
keep it in a red heat until it ceases io give out any flame or va- 
por ; when it should be cooled, and closely bottled for use. Old 
gun or pistol barrels, answer the purpose of preparing charcoal 



304 MATERIA MEDICA. 

very well. The reason why it should be kefp't in close stopped 
vessels is, it absorbs fixed air when exposed to the atmosphere-, 
which renders it unfit for use, or at least very much impairs its 
virtues. 

For correcting the empyreumatio taste of spirits, the charcoal 
may be added to, and agitated with it, when it may be allowed 
to subside, and then be poured off for use; and lor restoring pu- 
trid meat, it may be sprinkled on the meat, or boik'J with it a 
short time, and then the water changed. For this latter pur- 
pose, or indeed for any of them, red hot coals taken from the 
hearth will answer, but is not so good as that prepared in the 
manner just described. 

Charcoal is also useful as a tooth powder, to cleanse the teeth 
and sweeten the breath; and also to cleanse foul and fetid ul- 
cers. When used as a tooth powder, it may be applied dry, or 
mixed with vinegar and water and used as a wash. 

For internal use, charcoal may be given in doses of from one 
to three table spoons full, in molasses, or, in obstinate cases of 
costiveness, in as large quantities, and as ofton repeated, as the 
stomach will bear; but in all ordinary cases of every kind, a ta- 
ble spoon full three times a day will generally be sufficient. 

CASSIA MARILANDICA. 
Common Names — American Senna, Wild Senna, Locust Plant. 

Root perennial, crooked, woody, black, and fibrous. Stems, 
many, round, upright, nearly smooth, growing from three to six 
feet high. Leaves few, alternate, large, compounded of many- 
small leaflets growing in eight or ten pairs. Flowers of a bright 
golden yellow, forming a scattered cluster at the top of the stem. 
The fruit consists of long pods, a little swelled at the seeds, cov- 
ered with a few slight hairs. Found in all the States, in rich 
moist soils, principally near streams. 

The American senna, like the imported article of the same 
name, is a mild purgative, but said by Bigelow to be weaker by 
one third. It answers all the purposes of the Alexandrian senna, 
and is far cheaper; "operates," says Rafinesque, "with mildoessj 



MATERIA MtfDtCA* 305 

and certainty, at the dose of an ounce in decoction." The 
leaves and pods are both employed, and may be advantageously 
used, either by themselves or compounded with other cathartic 
medicines. Thacher says, about half an ounce of the leaves 
infused in half a pint of hot water, is a proper dose for an adult. 

— -»9®e«<— 

CAULOPHYLLUM THALICTROIBES* 

Common Names — Blue Cohosh, Blue Cohush, Blueberry, Pappoose 
Root, Squaw Root, fyc. 

Root perennial, hard, irregular, knobby, with many fibers. — 
Stem upright, straight, smooth, divided at the top into two or 
three branches, each branch supporting three leaves, in the 
center of which, come out the flowers. Flowers small, yellow- 
ish green, succeeded by dark blue berries enclosing a hard 
drupe or stone. 

The blue cohosh root is much used by the Indians, and by 
many herbalists amongst the whites. It is considered by Smith, 
the most powerful antispasmodic in the compass of medicine; 
and at the same time is perfectly safe. 

Amongst the diseases in which it is useful, he names hiccup, 
colic, cholera morbus, epilepsy, hysterics, and he supposes every 
other species of fits, and even the ague. He also says that he 
speedily cured one case of inflammation of the uterus by a de- 
coction of this article. 

It is said that the facility of child-birth among the squaws, is 
owing to their drinking a tea of cohosh root for two or three 
weeks before their expected time; and experience, says Smith, 
has proved amongst white women that it is of special service. 
He directs a hand full of the roots to make half a pint of tea; 
administer one half the quantity, and then fill up the vessel 
again with hot w r ater. It may also be used in tincture, syrup, 
or cordial. 

CELASTRUS SCANDEWS. 
Common Names — Bitter -sweet, Fever-twig, Staff-vine. 

By most herbalists the bitter-sweet is treated of under true 
name of amara dulcis, orofsolanam dulcamara, but these aames 

39 



306 MATERIA MEDICA. 

belong to a plant very different from the one now under consi- 
deration. 

The bitter-sweet is a woody vine, climbing trees, sometimes 
to the height of thirty feet, but commonly not higher than ten 
or fifteen; and at other times, when nothing comes within its 
reach to climb upon, it grows upon the ground. When it hap- 
pens to come in contact with a bush or sapling of suitable size, 
it frequently climbs in a beautiful spiral form around it, and is 
often taken off and converted into a walking staff, whence one of 
its names. "The leaves are long and pointed; of a light green 
hue; the berries hang in bunches, which are red in the fall." — 
The roots are of an orange red color, pretty large and long. 

The bark of the root is esteemed by some as a tonic, taken 
internally in tea; said to remove obstructions of the liver and 
spleen, and to promote the secretion of urine. Externally it is 
applied in poultice or ointment, to hard tumors and indurated 
swellings of every description, and to swelled cow's bags, for 
which purposes it is very useful. 

— -Q&Q— 
CENTAUREA BENEDICTA. 

Common Names — Blessed Thistle, Beloved Thistle, Holy Thistk. 

This is an annual exotic plant, cultivated in gardens; and use' 
ful as a stomachic and tonic ; said also to be sudorific and diure- 
tic, purgative and emetic. Leaves, flowers, and seeds are used: 
very bitter and somewhat nauseous to the taste. 

— o©e — 

CEREVISI^E FERMENTUM. 

Common Names — Yeast, Barm, Brewer's Foam. 

Yeast for medical uses may be procured from the brewers s 

or it may be made in either of the three following ways: — 

1. — Thicken two quarts of water with about three or four 

oons full of rye or wheat flour, boil for half an hour, sweeten 

ith half a pound of brown sugar; when nearly cold, put into it 

four spoons full of fresh yeast, shake it well together in a jug, 

and let it stand one day near the fire to ferment, leaving the jug 



MATERIA MEDICA, 30? 

unstopped. Then pour off the thin liquor on the top, and cork 
tap the remainder for use. 

2. — Boil one pound of clean washed potatoes to a mash ; when 
half cold add a cup full of yeast, mix them, and it will be ready for 
use in two or three hours. 

3. — Take one pint of yeast, and add half a pint of molasses, 
and one quart of lukewarm water. Stir these well together and* 
let the mixture stand in a moderately warm place till active fer- 
mentation is produced ; it may then be set in a cool place and kept 
for use. In warm weather it should be made fresh every day. 

Yeast, says Dr. Thacher, has acquired considerable celebrity 
for its virtues in the cure of putrid fever and malignant ulcerous 
sore throat. Dose, one or two spoons full every two or three 
hours; should it purge or gripe, the dose must be diminished. 

Externally, yeast may be combined with slippery elm and 
cracker, or with charcoal, and applied to dangerous ulcers, or 
parts threatened with mortification. 

— Q©s©— 

CHELONA GLABRA. 

Common Names — Snake-head, Balmony, Turtle-head, Turtle bloom, 
Shell-Jlower, Bitter-herb, Sfc. 

Root perennial; stem erect, though sometimes decumbent, 
from two to four feet high, angular or four square; flowers ter- 
minal, of different colors in different varieties; white, spotted 
with red, and purplish ; and of a most singular shape, resemMing 
the head of a snake with its mouth open. Leaves opposite, bear- 
ing a distant resemblance to mint leaves, of a dark green color 
when fresh, almost black when dry, and intensely bitter. 

The snake-head is a most powerful bitter tonic, and one of the 
best articles to promote the appetite we ever used, and may be 
administered by itself or combined with other articles. Rafin- 
esque says that it is an active cathartic, as well as tonic; -but of 
this we have had no experience. The leaves are the best, and 
may be given in fevers, jaundice, and all other diseases, either ia* 
powder, tincture, or decoction. Wine is said to be the best men- 
struum to tincture them in. 



30S MATERIA MED1CA. 

It is said that the Indians make use of a strong decoction e€ 
the whole plant in eruptive diseases, biles, soies, and piles. It 
is the best bitter known. Grows in wettish land, and by the 
side of brooks, both in open grounds and in the shade. 

— - ©Q© — 
CHENOPODIUH ANTHELMINTICUIff. 

Common Names — Worm Seed, Jerusalem Oak, Stinking Weed, Worm- 
Wood. 

Root annual, branched. Stem upright, branched, branches 
ax lar) t> the leaves, and terminating with panicles of flower?,. 
Which are yellowish-green, growing from two to four feet high. 
Leaves ahernate or scattered, oval, doited on the under side, 
margin or edges indented with large unequal obtuse teeth. The 
whole plant is distinguished by a peculiar smell, different from 
all others; and which to some is highly oiiensive. Found in all 
the Stales. 

The worm seed is a powerful vermifuge medicine, used for 
worms both in America and Europe. Either the pulverized 
seeds or oil may be administered; the seeds lbrmed into an elec- 
tuary by mixing them with honey or molasses, in the propoitioa 
of about one part oi the seeds to three parts of molasses, giv- 
ing lor a dose, to a child of three years old, a table spoon full, 
two or three times a day; the oil may be given in the manner 
prescribed on the labels accompanying the vials in which the 
oil is put up. Care ought to be taken to disguise the taste of 
the worm seed in any form that it may be administered; for 
this purpose the oil oi anise, orange peel, sugar, or honey, may 
be employed. 



— ©Q© — 
COLLINSONIA CANADENSIS. 

Common Names — Rich- Weed, Rich- Leaf, Oxbalm, Heal- All, Knot- 
Root, Stone-Root, fyc. 

* Root perennial, knotty, rough and hard, throwing out many 
slender fibers. Stem erect, round, straight, from eighteen to 
thirty inches high, terminating in several branches at the top 






MATERIA MEDICA, 309 

which produce the flowers and seeds. Leaves few, opposite^ 
broad, large and thin, not more than two or three pairs on* a 
stem. Found in all the States; rare towards the South, and 
West, but is replaced in this section of country by other similar 
species. 

The rich-weed is said to be tonic, carminative, diuretic, and 
stimulant; being highly prized as an external application to 
sores, painful parts, swellings, poison, head ache, &c. Taken in 
tea, for head-ache, colic, cramp, dropsy, indigestion, &c. inter- 
nally; applied in poultice or the whole leaves, externally; used 
both fresh and dry. 

— Q©©~- 

COjtfPTONIA ASPLENIFOLIA. 

Common Names — Sweet Fern, Sweet Bush, Fern Busk, Ferngale, Swetf 
Ferry, Spleenxaort Bush, <^c. 

The sweet fern is a small shrubby bush, very much branched, 
growing from two to four feet high; having long horizontal roots. 
Leaves many, alternate, from three to five inches long, and half 
an inch broad, each side or edge jagged, bearing some resem- 
blance to the common ferns. Flowers appear before the leaves, 
succeeded by a kind of round bur containing the seeds. The 
whole plant possesses a strong, peculiar, resinous and spicy scent 
which is particularly observable on rubbing the leaves between 
the fingers. Found throughout the United States, particularly 
in mountains and sandy plains. 

Sweet fern is an astringent tonic ; much used in diarrhoea and 
all cases of looseness of the bowels, in children or adults. It 
makes a very grateful, pleasant tea, with the addition of cream 
and sugar, which children rarely if ever refuse. It is also used 
in asthma, fevers, inflammations, rheumatism, &c; and often as 
a fomentation. 

We are also informed by Ira Finch, Esq. that a strong tea 
freely drank, and the leaves put in a cushion to sit on, and be» 
tween the sheets to lie on, has cured the St, Vitus' dance. 



3Tj} MATERIA MEDICA* 

CONVOLVULUS PANDURATUS. 

Common Names — Bind-weed, Man-root, Wild Potatoe, Man-in-tht- 
ground, Kussander, fyc. 

Root perennial, very large, often three inches or more in dia- 
meter, and two or three feet long, branched at the bottom, 
milky, of a yellow color, rough or full of longitudenal depressions 
or fissures. Stem a climbing vine, of a purplish color, from 
three to twelve feet long. Leaves cordate or heart-shaped at 
the base, alternate, somewhat fiddle-shaped, deep green on the 
upper, and pale on the under side. Flowers resembling the 
morning glory, white or purplish. Found in all parts of the 
United States, in open situations, and sandy, poor, or loose soils. 

The man-root is cathartic, diuretic, and pectoral. It is used 
in dropsy, gravel, coughs, consumption, asthma, &c. The ex- 
tract is by some considered a very valuable cathartic, equal to 
jalap, rhubarb, or scamony. It may also be used in substance 
or decoction. For coughs, consumptions, and asthmas, it may 
be made into a syrup with skunk cabbage. 

— Q@® — 
COPTIS TRIFOLIA. 

Common Names — Goldthread, Mouthroot. 

Roots perennial, creeping, with many fibers, color bright yel- 
low. Leaves ever-green, on long slender petioles or foot-stalks^, 
growing three together. Flowers, white and yellow; growing 
on a separate stem or scape, rising to the same height with the 
leaves. Found in northern latitudes, in mossy swamps and bogs 
of ever-green woods, and on the rocks of the White mountains,, 
in Labrador, Newfoundland, &c. 

Goldthread is a pure intense bitter tonic, promoting digestion 
and strengthening the system: useful in all cases of debility. 
It has also been used as a pcpular remedy in sore mouth, can* 
ker, &c. 

CORNUS FLORIDA* 

Common Names — Dog-isood, Box-tree, Box-wood, 4*c 

The common dog-wood is a shrub or small tree, growing from- 
ten to thirty feet high, with few crooked, spreading branches? 



MATERIA MEDICl. 311 

"having a rough blackish colored bark outside, reddish within, 
bark of the extreme branches smooth and reddish on the .outside, 
having rings where the old leaves grew. Leaves opposite, pale 
on the under side. Flowers terminal, large, white, of a pecu- 
liar shape, appearing very early, succeeded by oblong berries, 
ripening in the fall when they become red. Found all over the 
United States, on dry hills and in swampy, moist lands. 

The dog-wood bark is tonic, astringent, antiseptic, and stimu- 
lant. By some it is considered equal to the cinchona bark; and 
may be used in all cases of fever, particularly intermittent, re- 
mittent, and typhus. It may be used by itself in powder, in 
doses of a tea spoon full, often repeated, or it may be steeped 
and drink the tea. The berries may also be tinctured in spirits, 
and make a very good bitter. The fresh bark ought not to be 
ased, as it is apt to affect the bowels. 

The flowers appear to have the same properties as the bark 
and berries, and are used by the Indians as well as whites, for 
fevers and colics. 

A decoction of the bark is esteemed a good medicine for the 
yellow water of horses; and joined with sassafras is employed 
to clean foul ulcers: would probably be good, applied to them, 
-in poultice. 

CROCUS SATIVUS. 

Common Name — Saffron. 

Saffron is a bulbous rooted perennial plant, very generally 
cultivated in gardens in Europe. Its smell is pleasant and aro- 
matic; the taste, a fine aromatic bitter, giving when chewed, a 
deep yellow color to the saliva. 

Saffron is very fragrant, and is highly esteemed, as it exhiliar- 
ates the spirits when taken in small portions; but if used in too 
large doses, it produces immoderate mirth, with many of the 
consequences resulting from the inordinate use of ardent spirits. 
This article was formerly much used, and considered a good 
remedy in hysterical affections, and in female obstructions; but 
at the present time it has fallen very much into disuse, excepting 
for the complaints of infants, particularly the jaundice, redgum. 



'312 MATERIA MEDIC A. 

&c. for which it is an excellent remedy. We think this article 
has been unjustly neglected, as there is no doubt it possesses 
valuable medicinal powers. Joined with nervines and tonics, it 
is no doubt useful in hysterics and hypochondriasis. 

— &&&— 

CUNILA MARIANA. 

Common Names — Dittany, Mountain Dittany, Stone Mint, Mountain 
Mint, Sweet Basil, &?c. 

Hoot perennial, fibrous, yellow. Stem about a foot high, 
smooth, yellowish or purplish, slender, hard, brittle, branched, 
branches opposite or nearly so. Leaves opposite, remote, small, 
smooth and of a deep green on the upper surface, and bluish- 
green on the under surface. Flowers numerous, small and hand- 
some, bluish-purple, pink or white, forming terminal clusters or 
corymbs. Found in all parts of the United States, growing 
amongst rocks and on dry knobs and hills, unknown in the plain? 
and alluvion soils. 

The whole plant has a warm fragrant aromatic pungent taste 
and smell, residing in an essential oil, easily extracted by distil- 
lation. 

Dittany is deemed stimulant, tonic, nervine, and sudorific. 
The whole plant is used, commonly in warm infusion; and is a 
popular remedy in many parts of the country, for colds, head 
aches, hysterical affections, fevers, and all cases in which it i? 
an object to excite perspiration. 

It is also said to be good for the bites of snake?, externally ap- 
plied; killing rattle snakes by holding it to the nose with a stick. 
The Indians, it is likewise said, use it for wounds, and to expel 
dead children. 

— e©© — 

CYPRIPEDIUM LUTEUM. 

Common Names-— Yellow Lady's Slipper, Mocasin Flower, American 
Valerian, Umbil, <§-c. 

Root perennial, with many long, round, crooked fibers, grow- 
ing in a mat$ of a pale or dark yellowish cast, running horizon 



MATERIA MEEIICA. 313 

tally from the caudex. Stems one to five, growing from the 
game root, rising one or two feet, bearing from three to seven 
leave?, and from one to three yellow flowers. Leaves alternate, 
sheathing the stem, with many parallel nerves, giving them an 
uneven appearance. Found all over the United States; very 
rare in some places, inhabiting all kinds of soil, but most com- 
mon in wet lands or swamps. 

There are several species as well as varieties of the umbil, 
some smooth and some hairy; and exhibiting a diversity of color 
in the blossom. But all very nearly correspond in the shape 
of the flower, which is of a singular, hollow, bag-like shape, 
open at the top, compared by some to a mocasin; and hence, by 
the Indians, termed mocasin flower. 

The Lady's clipper is one of the most valuable articles of 
vegitable medirine. Its operation upon the s\ stem appears to be 
in harmony with the laws of animal life, giving tone to the ner- 
vous system; and hence is useful in all cases of nervous irrita- 
tion, hysterical affections, spasms, fits, and all derangements of 
the functions of the brain; such as madness, delirium, &c. and 
in all cases of inability to sleep, particularly in fevers, consump- 
tions, &c. 

The roots are the only part used, and ought to be gathered 
in the spring before the tops begin to grow much, or in the fall 
after they begin to die. After digging they must be carefully 
separated, washed clean, and dried in the sun or in a dry airy 
room. When fully dry, they should be packed awav in barrrels 
or pulverized and bottled for use. Dose, one tea spoon full, in 
ifeot water sweetened, repeated as often as necessary. 

-—»•♦© ©&»«— 
DELFIimiTM. 

Common Name — Larkspwr. 

The larkspur is cultivated in gardens, and is too common to 
need a description. This article is introduced on account of its 
being highly recommended as a cure for cholera morbus. The 
flowers are the only part used. Take as many of these as can 
be held between the thumb and two fingers, steep in a pint of 

40 



314 MATERIA MEDICA. 

water until half evaporated; then sweeten, and take a tea cap 
full as a dose, at short intervals, until relief is obtained. Said 
to be a certain and speedy cure. 

DOLICIIOS PRrRIENS. 

Common Names — Cowhage, Cowitch. 

The cowhage is an exotic plant, growing in hot climates, es- 
pecially in the West Indies. It bears a pod about four inches 
long, round, and about the thickness of one's finger. These 
pods are thickly beset with stiff hairs, which, when applied to 
the skin, occasion an intolerable itching. The ripe pods may 
be dipped into molasses which, with the hairs, are then scraped 
off with a knife. This process is repeated with fresh pods until 
the molasses becomes about as thick as honey with the hairs, 
when it is fit for use. Or the hairs may be first scraped from 
the pods, and then mixed with the molasses, to the proper con- 
sistence. 

This medicine is a valuable vermifuge, acting mechanically; 
the sharp hairs penetrating and destroying the worms, without 
occasioning any inconvenience to the patient; the stomach and 
intestines being defended from injury by the mucus which lines 
the alimentary tube. — From a tea spoon full to a table spoon full 
of the molasses may be taken as a dose, once or twice a day, for 
a day or two, and the worms carried off by a mild purge; the 
stools, in some instances, consisting almost entirely of these ver- 
min. 

A decoction of the roots of cowhage, is said to be a powerful 
diuretic; and an infusion of the pods, twelve to a quart, is ac- 
counted a certain remedy for the dropsy. 

ERIGERON PHILADELPHIA tf. 

Common Names — Cocash, Frost-weed, Scabious, Skevlsh, Scabish. 
Squaw-weed, Field-weed. 

Roots perennial, yellowish, formed by many branching fibers. 
The whole plant is pubescent or hairy, growing to the height of 



MATERIA MEDICA. 315 

two or three feet; stems from one to five, straight, branching 
near the top, terminating in numerous downy iiowtrs, oi a yel- 
lowish and white, or purplish and blue appearance. Leaves ob- 
long, lower ones the largest, very small at the top. It continues 
in bloom until the autumnal trosts, which has given lise to one 
of its names, frostweed. Found all over the United States, 
growing in fields, which it often overruns; seldom seen in woods 
or mountains. 

There are also two other species of this plant, Erigeron Can- 
adense and Erigeron Heteropfrvlium, which are valuable arti- 
cles of medicine, and may be used indiscriminately with the eri- 
geron Philadelphicum. They are tor.ic, diuretic, sudorific, and 
astringent in a powerful degree. Their oil, says Rafinesqtje, is 
so powerful that two or three drops dissolved in alcohol, have 
arrested suddenly uterine hemorrhagy, in the hands of Dr. 
Hales, who employs the oil of the E. canadense. 

The diseases already relieved or cured by these plants, con- 
tinues Rafinesque, are chronic diarrhoea, dropsy, suppression of 
urine, inflammation of the kidneys, gravel, gout, suppressed men- 
struation, cough, cutaneous eruption^, hemorrhagies, dimness of 
sight, rash, cold hands and feet, &c. Enough, one might well 
think, to be cured by three simple plants, all possessing the same 
virtues. They certainly contain active properties, as all who 
have used them can testify, and we sometimes fear that they are 
too powerful to be used without the utmost discretion. They 
certainly deserve a careful investigation, and if found too pow- 
erful for using without hazard, should be expunged from prac- 
tice, but if not, they ought to be retained. 

The whole plants are used fresh or dry, in infusion, decoction, 
or tincture. The extract is rather fetid, but more astringent 
than the infusion or tincture, and less so than the oil, which is 
one of the most efficient styptics. 

The extract and syrup have been given with success in drv 
cough, bleeding at the lungs, and other internal hemorrhages. 
The dose of the extract is from five to ten grains, (about a quar- 
ter to half a tea spoon full,) often repeated. 

As a diuretic, the infusion, decoction, or tincture, are prefera- 
ble as being more active; some of these preparations have in- 
creased the daily evacuations of urine from twenty-four tosixfv- 



316 MATERIA MEDICA. 

seven ounces. A pint or two of the infusion or decoction may 
be administered daily, and agrees well with the stomach. From 
two to four drachms of the tincture may be taken daring the 
day; and is made by digesting one ounce of the leaves or flowers 
in a pint of proof spirits. A fluid drachm measures about one 
lar^f tea spoon full. 

Some preparation or other of those plants are said to afford 
speedy relief in ail diseases of the bladder and kidneys attended 
with pain and irritation. They are also useful, applied external- 
ly, to wounds, and a poultice is said to dissolve hard tumors. 
The essence, made by saturating alcohol with iheoil.and a little 
taken in wat^r, at the same time applying, if practicable, some 
of it externally, will instantaneously stop the most dangerous; 
hemorrhage. 

We are unwilling to leave this subject without advising those 
who may make use of these articles to do it cautiously, as our 
own experience would not justify recommending an indiscrimin- 
ate application of them without some care and attention. It 
might, perhaps, be best to combine them with less active astrin- 
gents. 

EliYNGIUM YUCEFOLIUM- 

Common Names — Corn Snake Root, Button Snake Root, Rattle- 
snake^ Master 

Root perennial, somewhat bulbous, about one inch long, the 
lower end decayed or rotten, giving off many fibers. Stem 
round, about two feet high, bearing on its top a large ball cover- 
ed with a whi e bloom. Leaves scattered, long, resembling 
young corn leaves, having spines or prickles along their edges, 
and one at the extreme point. The root is extremely pungent 
to the taste, possessing valuable properties. Found, so far as we 
know, only in the prairies of the western States. 

The corn snake root, is a powerful diuretic, stimulant, expec- 
torant, and antidote to the poison of snakes, and any other 
poisonous bites or stings. The roots, says bMiTH, need only be 
chewed (or biuised) and laid on the wound, and a little of it 
swallowed; which, if done when the bite is first inflicted, pre- 



METERIA MEDICA. 817 

vents the place bitten from swelling. It is generally, continues 
Smith. A rst or last applied, a speedy cure. 

When this root is employed for dropsy or gravel, it should be 
given in a weak tea and continued but a short time, and then 
followed by tonics, such as agrimony tea, Colombo root, or bitters* 

ERYNGIUM AQUATICUM. 

Common Names — Colic Root Button Snake Root, Backache Root, 

Root perennial, about the size of the finger or larger, and from 
one to too inches long, rough and knobby, sending off a great 
many very small fibrous roots, almost like hair. Stf m round, about 
three feet high, sometimes branched, supporting on its top a 
spike or tassel of scaly, purple colored blossoms, in shape bear- 
ing a distant resemblance to an oak acorn. Found in the prai- 
ries of the western States. 

1 he colic root is a warming stimulant, diuretic, sudorific, car- 
minative, and anodyne. Used in colic, backache, dropsy, &c. 
It may be given in tea alone, or advantageously combined with 
other articles, particularly the diaphoretic powders. 

EUGENIA CAEYOPHYLLATA. 

Common Name — Clove Tree. 

This is a beautiful tall tree, a native of the Molucca Islands* 
Cloves are the unexpanded flowers, picked from the tree and, 
dried. They have a strong aromatic flavor, and pungent taste. 

Cloves are stimulant and sudorific; but in general only used 
in combination with other articles, such as the diaphoretic pow- 
ders and bitters. The oil of cloves is used as a cure for tooth- 
ache; a little of which may be put on some lint and introduced 
into the hollow of the tooth, 



318 MATERIA MBDICA. 

• EUPATORIUiU PEHFOLIATU3I. 

Common NamC3 — Boneset, Thorough-wort, Joepye, Fever-wort, Tho- 
roughstem, Cross-wort, Sweating Plant, Indian Sage, fyc. 

Root perennial, horizontal, crooked, with few fibers, sending 
up many stems, which are upright, branched toward the top; 
from two to live feet high, hairy, pale or greyish-green color. 
Leaves opposite, and so formed as to give the stem the appear- 
ance of penetrating them through the center, where they are 
the broadest, and gradually tapering to a point, rough and wool- 
ly. Flowers dense terminal corymbs; of a dull or dirty white 
color. Found in swamps, marshes, and wet meadows, through- 
out the United States. 

Boaeset is sudorofic, tonic, antiseptic, cathartic, emetic, diu- 
retic, stimulant, «Slc It is an intense bitter tonic, possessing 
very active powers. In large doses, the warm decoction proves 
emetic, and a cold infusion acts as a powerful tonic. - It is also 
said to act powerfully upon the skin, removing obstinate cutane- 
ous diseases. Large doses of the cold infusion often act as a 
cathartic. 

It is likewise said to be an antidote to the bite of snakes ; and an 
excellent remedy for bilious colic attended with obstinate con- 
stipation of the bowels. For this purpose, a tea cup full of the 
cold infusion must be given every half hour until it produces a 
catharic effect. 

The warm infusion acts as a sudorific, producing copious per- 
spiration. It is also an excellent article for coughs; and is like- 
wise used in hysterical complaints. In dropsical complaints it 
is employed as a diuretic. The leaves are the part of the plant 
which is used for medu inal purposes, of which the extract and 
syrup containall the medicinal properties, and are least disagree- 
able to the taste. 



EUPAT03IU.3I PILQSXJM. 

Common Name— JVild Hoarhound 

This is an annual plant, growing from one to two feet high 
native of the south, where it grows in great abundance, and h?s 



MATERIA MEDICA. 31& 

obtained a high reputation as a domestic remedy in the prevail- 
ing fevers of that climate. 

The wild hoarhound was first noticed in Thac^er's materia 
medica, to which and to verbal information and personal obser- 
vation, we are indebted for its introduction into this work. It is 
a valuable tonic; much used by the planters along the seaboard 
of the southern States, and considered preferable to the Peruvi- 
an baik for the cure of fevers. It is al-^o said by Dr. Jones, to 
be diaphoretic, diuretic, and mildly cathartic. Usually admin- 
istered in the form of infusion; one ounce of the dried leaves 
infused in a quart of water may be taken daily in doses of half 
a tea cup lull, more or less, every hour or two. 

There is no doubt that it might be advantageously combined 
with other tonics. 

— >»e©a««'— 
I.' EUPATORIL'M PURPURIUIH. 
Common Names — Queen of the Meadow, Boneset, Gravel Root. 

Root perennial, long, fibrous, white or brownish colored. Stems 
many, three to six feet high, round, smooth, of a purple color 
around each joint, bearing many corymbose, terminal, purple or 
pale reddish blossoms. Leaves in whorls, from three to five at 
a joint, large and jagged? Grows commonly in wettish ground, 
or near streams, though sometimes on high dry land. 

The gravel root is a powerful diuretic, usefuiin all diseases of 
the urinary organs, dropsy, rheumatism, gout, and iemale weak- 
ness and obstructions. It is thought by some to be a solvent of 
the stone, and esteemed an unfailing remedy in gravelly com- 
plaints. Whether this be true or not, there is no doubt it is a 
very valuable article of medicine for diseases of this character, 
as well as for the peculiar weakness of females. Used in 
strong decoction, freely. 



FERULA ASSAFETIDA. 

Common Name — Assafetida Plant. 

The drug known by the name of assafetida is the resinous 
gum of a perennial plant, growing in the mountains of Persia. 



320 MATERIA MEDICAi 

The gum is obtained from the roots of plants which are at least 
four years old. The roots are cut off and the juice suffered to 
exude which»is afterwards dried in the sun. 

This article has a strong fetid smell, and a hitter acrid, biting 
taste. It loses some of its smell and strength by age, a circum- 
stance which ought to be particularly regarded in its adminis- 
tration. That which is accounted best is of a clear or pale red- 
dish color, and variegated with a great number of elegant white 
tears. 

Assafetida is a highly valuable remedy; acting as a stimulant, 
antispasmodic, expectorant, emmenagogue, and anthelmintic. 
Its action upon the system is quick and penetrating, affording 
great and speedy relief in spasmodic, flatulent, hysteric, and hy- 
pochondriacal complaints, especially when they arise from ob- 
struction of the bowels. When spasms and constipations have 
weakened the power of life, and the functions are performed in 
a languid manner, the assafetida generally affords effectual re- 
lief; as it promotes digestion, enlivens the spirits, and increases 
the peristaltic motion, which makes it a valuable remedy for per- 
sons in advanced age. 

The assafetida has been used as an antispasmodic and expec- 
torant in asthma and hooping cough. As an anthelmintic it has 
often expelled worms; and may be administered for this, as well 
as for other purposes, either by the mouth or by injection. It 
may be given in the form of pills, tincture, or dissolved in simple 
water. One pill of a size convenient to swallow may be taken 
as a dose, in ordinary cases, and repeated as circumstances may 
appear to require; or from ten to fifty drops may be taken of 
the tincture, made by dissolving one ounce of assafetida in ten 
ounces (one and one-fourth pint) of alcohol, digest seven day* 
and filter. 

—»**►<» © $*»'-— 

FRASERA VERTICILLATA. 

Common Names — Colombo Root, Indian Lettuce, Meadozo Pride. 
Pyramid, Yellow Gentian, fyc. 

The root of this plant is triennial, that is lasting three years, 
yellow, rough, horizontal, spindle shaped, growing sometimes to 



MATERIA MEDICA. 321 

the length of two feet, with but few fibers. Stem from five to 
ten feet high, erect, smooth, with but few branches, excepting at 
the top, where they form a handsome pyramid giving rise to nu- 
merous yellowish-white flowers. Leaves partly radical, forming 
a star, spreading on the ground; the residue of them in whorls 
around the stem, four to eight in a whorl, smaller than the radi- 
cal or lower leaves. Found in the Southern, Western, and 
Southwestern States, rare in many places, and in others extreme- 
ly abundant. 

The Colombo root is both emetic and cathartic when fresh. 
When dry, an excellent bitter tonic and antiseptic. Used in fe- 
vers, colics, nausea, indigestion, debility, diarrhoea, &c. Cures 
gangrene or mortification, by external and internal application. 
As a laxative it is substituted to rhubarb particularly for chil- 
dren, and to remove the costive habits of pregnancy. A tea 
spoon full of the powder in hot water will remove the oppres- 
sion of an over loaded stomach, so common with dispeptic and 
other weak patients. Taken with cold water it is said adds to 
its efficiency, and prevents nausea and vomiting. It may be 
used alone, or combined with other tonics, and used in all cases 
requiring this class of medicines. The root should be collected 
in the fall of the second year or spring of the third year of its 
growth. 

GALIUM VERUM. 

Common Names — Clivers, Cleavers. 

This plant grows to the height of two or three feet; stem 
square, slender, weak, having many joints, branched; rough or 
sharp with teeth or prickles; from each joint grow six small 
pointed leaves; flowers small and white. Grows in moist pla- 
ces. 

This plant made into a strong tea, and drank freely, is good for 
gravelly complaints, and all obstructions of the urine. 

41 



322 MATERIA MEDICA, 

GAMBOGIA. 

Common Name — Gamboge. 

This article is a concrete vegetable juice, of a gummy, resin- 
ous nature, the production of an East Indian plant. The best 
sort is of a deep yellow color, without smell, and having but 
very little taste. 

Gamboge is one of the most active cathartics, and also oper- 
ates as an emetic. Its great activity and drastic nature render 
it an improper purgative administered alone, but it may be ad- 
vantageously combined with other more mild substances, to give 
them activity. For this purpose it enters into Bunnell's pills, 
and many other cathartic compounds. 

— e&© — 

GENTIAN A PERFO! IATUM. 

Common Names — Gentian, Ginson, Yellow Gentian. 

Roots perennial, round, long and tapering, darkish-brown, or 
light color; taste, a pungent bitter, leaving, after being chewed, 
a biting and somewhat warm impression on the tongue and 
mouth. Stems many, erect, eighteen to thirty inches high, hairy 
and round. Leaves opposite, lower ones connate at the base, 
that is growing together so that the two leaves seem to form but 
one, with the stem passing through the center, like the thorough- 
wort. Flowers two to six, reddish, growing at the base of the 
leaves, giving rise to large yellow berries crowned with four or 
five small leaves which are the calyx of the flower. Found in 
dry oak, hickory, and other lands. 

The gentian root is a very good bitter tonic, mildly stimula- 
ting, and in large doses actively cathartic. Useful in intermit- 
tent fevers, and generally in all cases where tonics are needed. 
The ripe berries are often tinctured in spirits for fever and ague. 
The root may also be used in laxative bitters. 

— 9©© — 
GEOI VIRGINIANUM. 

Common Names — Evan Root, Chocolate Root, Throat Root, Cure Jill. 

The evan root is perennial, small, brown, horizontal, and 
crooked. Stem round, hairy, erect, growing about two feet 



MATERIA MEDICA. 323 

high, surmounted by a few terminal, white flowers. Found in- 
most of the Eastern, Middle, and Western States. 

The root of this plant is an astringent tonic; very useful in 
dispepsia, and in bleeding at the lungs, consumption, diarrhoea, 
dysentery, colic, sore throat, &c. Said by Dr. Jones, to restore 
to health the most feeble and shattered constitutions. The root 
is used boiled in milk, or in water, sweetened, and makes a pal- 
atable drink, or in powder. The dose is a pint of the decoc- 
tion, or two or three tea spoons full of the powder mixed with 
honey or molasses. There are several species of this plant, all 
of which are available as medicines. 

— eo© — 

GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA. 

Common Names — Liquorice, Sweet Liquorice. 

This is a perennial plant, native of both Europe and America. 
The root is the part used as medicine, and is of a sweet, agree- 
able taste. The sweetness is extracted by water, which, by 
evaporation, forms a dark colored extract called liquorice bal], 
possessing the virtues of the root. 

Liquorice root, or its extract, is a useful article in coughs, 
hoarseness, and asthma, affording relief by lubricating the throat 
and loosening tough phlegm. It may also be combined with 
other articles, either to increase their usefulness, or modify 
their taste. 



HAM AMELIS VIRGINIANA. 

Common Names — Witch Hazel, Spotted Alder, Winter Bloom, 
Snapping hazel nut, fyc. 

Witch hazel is a shrub, growing from ten to twenty feet high, 
branches irregular, crooked, and knotty: bark smooth, grey, with 
brown spots. Leaves rather large, smooth, alternate, oval or 
roundish. Flowers appear in the fall or winter,generally after 
the leaves have fallen off, the fruit ripening the next autumn. 
Found in most of the States; growing on hills, mountains, stony 
banks and near streams. 



324 MATERIA MEDICA." 

The bark and leaves are slightly bitter, and very astringent. 
The leaves are a most valuable article of medicine, as an as 
tringent tonic and styptic. They may be employed in tea for 
bowel complaints, bleeding at the stomach, lungs, and all other 
internal hemorrhages; and in snuff for bleeding at the nose; 
and no doubt might be advantageously applied to wounds to 
stop the effusion of blood. As a styptic to check internal bleed- 
ing, the witch hazel perhaps is amongst the best articles known. 

The Indians, it is said, consider the witch hazel a valuable 
article of medicine, applying the bark in poultice or wash to 
painful tumors, and external inflammations. A poultice of the 
bark is said to be efficacious in removing painful inflammation* 
of the eyes. 

— e©e — 

HEDEOMA PULEGIOIDES. 

Common Names — Pennyroyal, Squaw Mint, Tickweed, $-c. 

This plant is too common to need any description, abounding 
in all parts of the country. It is a warming stimulant, and dia-r 
phoretic, much used to promote perspiration, and to facilitate- 
vomiting. The juice with sugar is said to be useful in hooping 
cough. A strong decoction of the leaves and stalks of penny- 
royal is in high repute with some as a remedy in female obstruc- 
tions. It may be used either in decoction, tincture, or. essence- 

HERACLEUM LANATUM. 

Common Names — Masterwort, Cow Parsnip. 

Roots perennial, numerous, large, and long. Stem round, 
smooth and hollow, growing from three to five feet high, branch- 
ed at the top, giving rise to several large bunches of umbellifer- 
ous flowers. Leaves large, few, jagged, and hairy. 

The seeds and roots of the masterwort are very useful for 
colic, wind in the stomach, and all flatulent complaints; being at 
the same time a grateful aromatic, stimulant, and stomachic 
medicine. It is also one of the articles entering into Dr. 



MATERIA MEDICA. .325 

Finch's remedy or treatment of gravel; and no doubt is useful 
as a warming stimulant. 

Dr. Orne reported several cases of epilepsy or falling sickness, 
cured by the daily use of about three tea spoons full of the pul- 
verized root, of the masterwort, and a strong decoction of the 
leaves and tops at bed time, persisted in for a length of time. 
There is a no doubt that a portion of the pulverized seeds or 
roots added to bitters for dispeptic patients would be very use- 
ful, as a strong decoction of the plant has been given in this 
complaint by Dr. Mann, with satisfactory success. 

— Q*©0 — 
'Z HUMULIS LUPULIS. 

Common Names — Hops, Hop vine. 

This common plant needs no description. It is a very strong 
bitter, accompanied with some degree of aromatic flavor, and 
astringency. It also possesses some narcotic power, as its ad- 
ministration is often followed by sleep; reducing the pulse some- 
times from ninety-six to sixty. The narcotic effect of hops are 
different, however, from those of opium, not being followed by 
that debility and languor which always succeed the use of that 
article. 

The hop is also an excellent stomachic bitter, very useful in 
dipepsia and other affections of the digestive organs. It has 
also been highly extolled as a remedy in inflammations of the 
kidneys, and gravelly complaints. A strong infusion of hops, it 
is said, proves a certain solvent of the ston^out of the body, and 
hence has been inferred its usefulness in gravel and stone. It 
has been asserted by high authority, that it seldom fails to allevi- 
ate the pain and increase the secretion of urine, when taken 
internally. 

If, as has been stated, an infusion of the hop will dissolve the 
stone out of the body, we think it might be usefully employed 
by injecting it into the bladder. For this purpose, we would 
suggest the following plan: — A catheter may be introduced into 
the bladder and the urine suffered to pass off; then with a sy- 
ringe whose pipe is fitted to the tube of the catheter, inject 



326 - MATERIA MED1CA. 

enough water about blood-warm to wash out the bladder; thi^ 
mast then be suffered to pass off by the catheter, and the hop 
infusion also about blood-warm injected and retained for half an 
hour, or as long as the patient can conveniently endure it, when 
it should be suffered to pass off through the catheter; and if the 
infusion of the hop have produced much irritation, another 
washing with warm water might be advisable, to which, perhaps, 
the addition of a little sweet milk, or of flax-seed or slippery 
elm tea, might be useful- 

We think also this course would be advantageous in using the 
injections recommended in our treatment of the gravel; but as 
it had not at that time occurred to us, we trust the acknowledg- 
ment of it will be a sufficient apologj 7 for not introducing it there. 
We are also aware that many obstacles to the successful treat- 
ment of gravel by injection will present themselves; yet, when 
we consider the hopelessness of effecting a cure by any other 
means than the dreadful operation of cutting out the stone, we 
ought cheerfully to give every thing a serious consideration that 
holds out only a faint prospect of relief by milder means. 

The medicinal properties of the hop appear to be concentra- 
ted in a yellow powder which may be obtained by beating and 
sifting the hops before using them for ether purposes. This 
substance, denominated lupuline, forms an important ingredient 
in Dr. J. T. Wells' ague pills. 

Hops are also a very valuable external application for pains, 
especially of the spasmodic kind. For this purpose they may 
be put into a small bag, thoroughly moistened with hot vinegar, 
and applied to the painful part. A poultice or ointment prepa- 
red from hops has likewise been employed as an anodyne appli- 
cation to cancers and other painful ulcers. 

The hop is one of those medicines, the habitual use of which 
soon renders it inert upon the system; we must therefore begin 
with a small dose, and gradually increase it. One grain of the 
lupuline, four of the extract, a tea spoon full of the tincture, or 
two ounces of the infusion, are considered sufficient to com- 
mence with. An over-dose is said to produce sore-throat, nau- 
sea, purging, tremor, head-ache, &c. 



MATERIA MEDICA. 327 

HYDRASTUS CANADENSIS. 

Common Names — Golden Seal, Yellow Puccoon, Yellow Root, 
Ground Raspberry, Indian Paint, 4'C 

Root perennial, crooked, wrinkled, rough, and knobby, of a 
bright yellow color, with many long fibers. Stem round, simple, 
straight, growing from eight to fourteen inches high, bearing 
commonly two rofagh leaves at the top somewhat resembling the 
leaves of the sugar maple, in the center of one of which ap- 
pears the flower, which gives rise to a fleshy, red, many seeded 
berry. Found mostly in the Western States. 

The golden seal is a powerful bitter tonic; highly useful in 
all cases of debility and loss of appetite. It may be used alone 
or combined with other tonics. Very useful during recovery 
from fevers, in dyspepsia, or any other complaint, to remove the 
heavy, disagreeable sensation often produced by indigestable 
food, by taking a tea spoon full in hot water sweetened. 

A decoction of the golden seal is also a very valuable remedy 
for sore ey«s, as well as all other local inflammations, externally 
applied. It is likewise highly probable that it may be found 
useful as an external application to ulcers, as Rafinesque says, 
the Indians use it for sore legs, and many external complaints, 
as a topical tonic. 

' — Q©3 — 

ICTODES FOKTIDA. 

Common Names — Sb.mk Cabbage, Skunk Weed, fyc. 

This common and well known plant takes its name from its 
smell, which greatly resembles the peculiar odour of the skunk. 
Grows in wettish lands, having a great many fibrous roots, run- 
ning deeply into the earth ; sending up numerous large, bright, 
green leaves, but without any stem or stalk. 

The roots and seeds of the skunk cabbage are expectorant, 
antispasmodic, and ariti hysteric. 

As an expectorant, they are useful in asthma, cough, consump- 
tion, and all affections of the lungs that need medicines of this 
kind: — As an antispasmodic, they are used in hysterics, hooping 
cough, convulsions of lying-in-women, and in ail spasmodic afiec- 



MATERIA MEDICA. 



tions, and are said to be not inferior in eflicacy to the'best reme- 
dies of that class. As an antispasmodic, the pulverized root of 
skunk cabbage may be administered in half or whole tea spoon 
full doses, repeated according to circumstances; and as an ex- 
pectorant, it may be given in similar doses once or twice a day 
or combined with other expectorants. It may also be employed 
in syrup for complaints of the lungs. An over dose produces 
vomiting, head-ache, vertigo, and even tempory blindness. 

— 00© — 

INULA HELENIUM. 

Common Name — Elecampane. 

This is a common plant, cultivated in gardens, and growing 
along roads, near houses and barns. The root has an aromatic 
smell, especially when dry; and an aromatic, bitter, pungent 
taste, somewhat rancid, and glutinous, on being chewed. The 
ancients entertained a high opinion of this root; and it still pre- 
serves a high character as an expectorant in asthma, cough, and 
consumption; it also promotes urine and sweatj gently loosens 
the bowels, and strengthens the stomach. May be taken in tea, 
electuary, or syrup, or the roots may be candied in syrup or 
molasses. 

— QQ© — 
JEFFERSONIA ODORATA. 

Common Name — Twin Leaf. 

Root perennial, small, fibrous, very numerous. Leaves many, 
growing on long petioles or footstalks, divided into two equal 
parts. Scape or flower stem producing one single white flower. 

This root needs further investigation; but so far as known it 
is a good external application to sore eyes, ulcers, &c. It is 
said the Indians use this plant as a diuretic in dropsy; and there 
is no doubt, from the sensible qualities of the article, that it may 
become a valuable internal remedy in various disease^, as a 
tonic. 



tTUGLANS CINERIA. 

Common Names — Butternut, White Walnut. 

This tree is too well known to need any description, being- 
found in rich, moist, or rocky soils, near streams, in almost all 
parts of the country. 

The inner bark of the butternut tree, and especially of the 
root, is a mild and efficacious purge, leaving the bowels in bet- 
ter order perhaps than almost any other in use. In diarrhoea, 
dysentery, and worms, it is the best cathartic which we have 
ever employed. The bruised bark applied to the skin will pro- 
duce a blister. 

It may be prepared in extract, pills, syrup, or cordial. For 
preparing the cordial, take any quantity of the fresh bark, split 
it into slips of half an inch wide, beat with a hammer so as to 
reduce it to a soft stringy state; then put it into an earthen vessel, 
packing it close, and pour on it of boiling water sufficient to cov- 
er the bruised bark; set the vessel on coals near the fire, having 
it closely covered, and allow it to stand and simmer for one or 
-two hours. Then strain off the liquor, and add sugar sufficient 
to make a syrup, when it may be bottled and from one-quai ter 
t6 one half the quantity of proof spirits added to preserve it. 
Dose, for a child, from half to two great spoons full, repeated at 
intervals of half or a whole hour, us. til it operates. For grown 
persons, the dose must be much larger. This preparation is 
mild but highly efficacious for the bowel complaints of children 
or adults, and will cure without giving enough to operate as 
physic; but for dysentery and worms enough should he admin- 
istered to operate freely on the bowels. It may be given in all 
ordinary diseases of children with the happiest effect, being a 
most valuable family medicine. 

JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS. 

Common Name — Juniper shrub or bush. 

This is an ever-green shrub, growing on dry, barren commons, 
and hilly grounds, in many parts of the United States, and in 
Europe. It is somewhat remarkable that no grass or herbage 
will grow beneath this shrub. 

42 



830 MATERIA JHEimjA. 

Wherever the juniper gets a hold in the earth it throws out 
roots from its branches, giving rise to new shrubs, and spreads 
in all directions, forming beds many rods in circumference. Big- 
elow says it seldom rises more than two or three feet from the 
ground. The tips of the branches are smooth and angular; 
leaves growing in threes, slender, and pointed. Berries fleshy, 
roundish, oblong, of a dark purplish color, and are the part prin- 
cipaJly'iised in medicine. 

When these berries are of a good quality they yield, by dis- 
tillation, a large quantity of pungent, volatile oil, of a peculiar 
flavor, being the same that it imparts to gin, and which gives this 
liquor its diuretic qualities. The berries of juniper, or the es^ 
sence made from the oil, is a valuable diuretic, useful in all 
dropsical complaints. The berries in a moderately strong infu- 
sion, with the addition of a little gin, are commonly used m 
dropsy. 

IiAUBUS BENZOIN. 

Common Names — Spictwuud, Hpicebush, Feverlusk, «J>c. 

A description of this spicy, aromatic bush, is deemed quite 
unnecessary. A tea made irom the twigs is deemed a good 
drink in intermittent levers, having a tendency to relax the 
solids, attenuate the fluids, and promote perspiration. It is also 
deemed an efficacious remedy for worms, and is often given to 
children for this purpose, The berries boiled in milk have been 
found a salutary medicine in dysentery ; and no doubt may prove 
valuable in ail complaints of the bowels. The oil from the 
berries, is a fine stimulant, used, says Rafinesque, for bruises^ 
colics, itch, and rheumatism. 

LAURITS CAMPHORA. 

Common Name — Camphire Tree. 

The camphor laurel grows in great abundance, and to a con- 
siderable size in the forests of Japan; and. is not uncommon in 
green-houses in England. 



MATERIA MEDIC A. 331 

Camphor exists in distinct grains in the wood of the root, body 
and branches of the camphor tree, and is extracted by the pro- 
cess of sublimation; which is conducted in tiie same manner as 
distillation, only that in sublimation, heat is applied to dry 
solid substances, whilst in distillation it is applied to fluids. Cam- 
phor, however, is a proximate principle of vegetable matter, and 
exists in many other plants besides the camphor tree, especially 
those of an aromatic quality. 

When the camphor is brought to Europe, it undergoes a sec- 
ond sublimation, with the addition of one twentieth of its weight 
of lime, by which it is rendered more pure. 

The principal use of camphor is to apply externally, in the 
form of liniment, to disperse swellings, tumors, and pains, and to 
relieve bruises, sprains, &c. It is one of the ingredients in 
opodeldoc. 

Camphor dissolved in spirits is an almost universal family 
medicine, used as a stimulant and anodyne, in fainting, head- 
ache, colic, &c. 

LAURUS CINNAMOMUM. 

Common Names — Cinnamon Tree. 

The cinnamon tree is a native of Ceylon, in the East Indies, 
but is now cultivated in Jamaica, and other West India islands. 
Grows from four to ten feet high, very bushy; leaves resemble 
the laurel, and have the hot taste and smell of cloves when 
chewed. Cinnamon of the shops, is the inner bark of the tree. 

This bark is a useful and elegant aromatic, very grateful to 
the taste and to the stomach. It is stimulating, tonic, carmina- 
tive, and stomachic. Useful combined with bitters, diaphoretic 
powders, &c. The oil of cinnamon is a powerful stimulant, a 
little of which may be put on lint and applied to hollow teeth*, 
to cure the tooth-ach. 

LATTRUS SASSAFRAS. 

Common Names — Sassafras, Saxafrax. 

The sassafras tree has been long regarded as a valuable 
medicinal article. The bark has a fragrant smell and very 



332 MATERIA MEDIC.w 

agreeable spicy taste. The flavor of the root is most powerful, 
that of the branches most pleasant. The flavor and odor re- 
side in a volatile oil, which is readily obtained by distillation. 
The bark, leaves, and pith, abound with a large quantity of 
mucilage, which is useful in dysentery. A very small quantity 
of the pith i .fused in a glass of water gives to the whole a ropy 
consistence, like the white of an egg; and is an excellent ap- 
plication to sore eyes. 

Sassafras is also stimulant, tonic, and antiseptic. A small 
quantity of the oil applied to an inflammation on the surface 
will generally cure it. The bark bruised, and formed into a 
poultice with corn meal, is a powerful antiseptic, applied to mor- 
tifying ulcers. It is probable that the oil or its essence may 
have a still more powerful effect, and might also be used inter- 
nally for the same purpose, in all cases of mortification, and 
particularly of the bowels. The mucilage is said to be good 
in gravel and catarrh. 

LEFTUAMNIUM VIRGINIANUM. 

Common Names — Beech Drops, Cancer-root. 

This is altogether a singular plant, chiefly found growing 
upon the roots of the beech tree. The root is bulbous, yellow- 
ish, covered at the bottom or lower end with a mat of short, 
crooked fibers. Stem from eight to fifteen inches high, much 
branched, beset with scattered, short scales instead of leaves, 
of which the plant is quite destitute. Flowers remote, but nu- 
merous, situated just above the scales, all along the branches. — 
The plant is u-ually of a pale sickly color, intermixed with red- 
dish or dark purple, white and yellow stripes. 

Tue beech drops are astringent, bitterish, and nauseous; use- 
ful as a remedy for sore mouth, d\sentery, and no doubt might 
be advantageously employed in othej cases needing astringent 
medicines; and are actually said to have been of great service 
applied to obstinate ulcers. They are also supposed to have 
been used in cancerous affections with a happy effect, and even 
to have performed cures of that dreadful scourge of the human 



MATERIA MEDICA. 



race. For ulcers and cancerous affections, the beech drops may 
be pulverized, both roots and tops, and the powder sprinkled 
on the ulcer, or a tea may be made and used as a wash. The 
internal use, at the same time might also be advantageous. 



LEPTANDMA ALBA. 



Common Names — Black-root, Brmton-root, Bowman-root fyc. 

Root perennial, black or dark colored, many small fibers grow- 
ing from a long woody caudex or head. Stems, several rising 
from the same root, round, somewhat hairy, growing from two to 
four feet high, bearing on their tops a spike or tassel of white 
crowded flowers. Leaves in whorls, of four or five at a joint, 
long, narrow and pointed, edges indented with unequal sharp 
teeth. Growing in wettish lands, near streams, and in open 
glades and plains. 

The black-root is very highly celebrated by those best ac- 
quainted with its virtues and effects, as an efficient purge; oper- 
ating with mildness and certainty, without producing that de- 
pression of the living powers so common to other purgative 
medicines. In typhus and bilious fevers, it removes the black, 
tary, morbid matter, from the intestines which it seems so ne- 
cessary to carry off by some means or other, and does it in a 
most natural manner, without weakening the tone of the bowels, 
or leaving behind it the poisonous sting, so often remaining alter 
the use of calomel, that almost universal cathartic in fevers. 
The black-root is also a diaphoretic, antiseptic, and tonic. It 
may be taken in doses of a heaping tea spoon full, in half a gill 
of boiling water, sweetened if most agreeable, repeated in three 
hours if it do not operate. 

This appears to be the same article mentioned by Peter Smith, 
under the names of Culver's or Brinton's root with which he 
says his father "u?ed to cure the pleurisy with amazing speed." 
This root was also a favorite medicine with the famous Indian 
Doctor Hough. He says it is "the most mild and efficacious 
(purge) in fevers, in disorders of the stomach or bowels, to des- 
troy vicious humors in the blood, to remove costiveness or to 
cool fevers." 



334 M.ATERIA MEDICA. 

The Wyandot Indians likewise speak in high terms of com* 
mendation of this root; saying it is a very good healing purge. 



—mi9)<i«~ 



LIRIODENBRGN TULIPIFERA.. 

Common Names — Yellow Poplar, White-xscood, Tulip Tree, 
Cyprus Tree. 

This is. a native and well known tree in the United States* 
It attains a great size, and may be ranked amongst the noblest 
trees of the forest. 

The bark of this tree has long been emplojed in this country 
as a tonic of high rank. It is a strong bitter, somewhat aro- 
matic and astringent; found useful in dysentery, hysterics, dys-? 
pepsia, worms, and all cases of debility. For worms it is highly 
recommended, and has become a popular remedy in many pla~ 
. ces. 

The pulverized bark of the poplar may be given in half or 
whole tea spoon full doses; or- it may be combined with other 
tonics. It is best given in substance, though it may be adminis- 
tered in infusion, decoction, or tincture. The bark of the root- 
is best for medicine, and ought to be gathered in the latter part 
of winter or spring. 

— •»»© © ©«<•— 

I/OBEJLIA INFEATA. 

Common Names — Loheha, Emetic herb, Emetic weed, Indian Tobac- 
co, Eyebright, Puke -weed, $/■<;. 

Lobelia Inflata is a biennial plant, growing from eight to thir- 
ty inches high; stem erect, milky, branched. Leaves alternate, 
milky, oval, or oblong, acute, edges jagged with unequal teeth. 
Flowers scattered along the branches, small, pale blue, axilliary 
to bracts somewhat similar to the leaves but much smaller, up* 
per ones the smallest. Seed vessel a small oblong, roundish pod, 
crowned with several little bracts which are the calyx of the 
flower. Dr. Thomson fancifully supposes the pod to resemble- 
the human stomach. Seeds many, very minute, brown, resem- 
bling tobacco seeds. 



METERIA MEDICA. 335 

Lobelia is a common plant in most parts of the United States, 
growing by the road side, rarely in wood?, in the greatest abun- 
dance in stubble fields, especially the next season after the crop 
is taken off. When broken, a milky acrid, juice exudes from the 
plant, of a most penetrating diffusable nature, which, if applied 
only to the eyelid produces a powerful effect upon the eye, 
whence the name eyebright. This plant being biennial throws 
out the first year only a few radical roundish leaves laying close 
to the ground ; the next year it produces the stem, branches, and 
seeds. The leaves and roots of the first year are as powerful 
as the mature plant, excepting the seeds, which are the strong- 
est. 

The whole plant is acrid and nauseous, producing salivation; 
whence we suppose originated the mistaken supposition that it 
produces the slavers in horses and cattle. It is not known to 
produce this affection; but on the contrary, horses and cattle 
are affected in this way when feeding in pasture grounds where 
this invaluable herb does not grow. 

The lobelia is (he most valuable and efficient emetic known; 
its full merits being scarcely appreciated even by those who are 
in the habit of making frequent use of it. It aslo acts as a 
sudorific, expectorant, and diffusable stimulant; and for the 
relief -and even cure of asthma, and as an antispasmodic, its 
equal has not yet come to the knowledge of the world. As a 
stimulant it extends its effects to every part of the system, re- 
moving obstructions and restoring a healthy action wherever the 
one exists or the other is needed. Its action or effects may 
often be sensibly felt or known by a pricking sensation over the 
system, particularly in the fingers and toes, frequently attended 
by another singular sensation comparable to the purring of a 
cat Professor Raeinesque says that some of the medicinal pro- 
perties of lobelia were known to the Indians; it being used by 
them to clear the stomach and head in their great councils. 

A diversity of symptoms attend the operation of lobelia emet- 
ics, evincing the magnitude of its power and the surprising 
energy of its operation on the human system, which often terrify 
those who are unacquainted with its superior and astonishing 
influence in arresting diseased action and restoring health and 
harmony to the human machine. Its effects are different on 



33(> MATERIA MEDICA. 

different individuals, and upon the same individual at different 
times. Sometimes there will be severe pain in the stomach and 
bowels; strange, agitated and indescribable, but not always 
unpleasant sensations. Convulsive motions of the lower jaw, 
often attended with a convulsive breathing, like the sobbing of 
a child. General distress, or universal sickening feeling.— 
Sometimes perfectly easy and quiet, without the power to move 
hand or foot, or even of rolling tne eyeballs in their sockets; and 
at other times great restlessness and anxiety, with symptoms of 
a most alarming character prevail. In some instances the coun- 
tenance becomes pale, and the skin cold, with the appearance of 
approaching death; whilst in others, the countenance become* 
florid, bearing the marks of health. 

These symptoms, together with a great variety of others 
which it would be impossible to describe, are very alarming to 
those who are unacquainted with the lobelia; and we mention 
them here in order to guard such against unnecessary fears from 
their occurrence. The practitioner and patient may be assured 
that we have never seen nor known of an instance in which those 
alarming symptoms produced or were followed by any perma- 
nently bad effect. Dr. Thomson, who claims the honor of first' 
introducing the lobelia into general notice, speaking of .them, 
says "they appear to be the effects of the last struggle of disease, 
and are a certain evidence of a favorable turn of the disorder." 
However we may disagree with Dr. Thomson in calling that a 
cause which is only an effect, we must acknowledge that he has 
hereby furnished us with a valuable hint. The alarming effects 
of the lobelia are probably caused by the restoration of a healthy 
action to diseased parts which have long been accustomed to a 
morbid sensibility and a diseased action. A healthy operation 
being thus suddenly restored, and the organs not being properly 
prepared to receive the new impulse, an unusal and oftentimes 
an alarming train of symptoms are produced. But this state is 
generally of short duration; the organs soon become accustomed 
to their new and healthy action, the perturbation of nature sub- 
sides, and the patient feels no ill effects from the previous un- 
pleasant symptoms. And what still further confirms these views 
is, that those alarming symptoms are almost always followed by 
a more rapid improvement of health, and are, therefore, to be 



MATERIA MEDtCA. 331' 

regarded as indications favorable to the prospects of a speedy 
recovery. 

As an antidote to poisons of all kinds, whether animal or vege- 
table, the lobelia stands unrivalled; particularly in the cure of 
hydrophobia. Several well attested cases of cures of this terri- 
ble and fatal disease, have come to our knowledge, one of 
which occurred in the city of Cincinnati, an account whereof 
is published in the appendix to the diseases in this volume. 

The lobelia is used in powder, infusion, or tincture, of the 
leaves and pods, or the seeds, either simply by itself or com- 
pounded with other articles. The best time to gather it is in the 
fall, when the leaves are beginning to turn yellow, as the seed is 
then ripe, and we have the advantage of the whole plant. For 
preparation and doses see under the heads of compounds, and 
course of medicine. 

■ — Q&Q — 
LOBELIA SYPHILITICA. 

Common Names — Blue Lobelia, Blue Cardinal Flower, Highbelia. 

The blue cardinal flower is a common plant in the Western 
Country, and is found in most of the Western, Southern, and 
Southwestern States. The roots are perennial, milky, white, 
fibrous, from one to three inches long. Stem erect, somewhat 
angled, hairy towards the top, from one to three feet high, ter- 
minating in a spike of dense clustered large, pale blue blossoms. 
Leaves, milky, large, diminishing in size towards the top, crowd- 
ed on some plants, and resembling the leaves of the lobelia 
inllata, finely indented on the edges with unequal teeth. Grow- 
ing; in wettish lands, along dry runs or drains, often in clusters. 

The root of this species of lobelia is the part which is used 
for medicine, and is said to be diuretic, cathartic, sudorific, pur- 
gative, emetic, and antisiphilitic, from which last reputed pro- 
perty it has derived its specific name. It is said by Chapman, 
that some of the Western physicians use it with success as a 
cure for the dropsy. Its diuretic properties are certainly wor- 
thy of further investigation; but it is introduced here principaily 
from its high recommendation as a remedy in diarrhoea raid dys- 
entery. From half to a whole tea spoon full of the pulverized 

43 



33S MATERIA MED10A. 

roots, taken in water,- arid repeated, if necessary, is said by some 
who have often t:ried it, to be a certain remedy in those com- 
plaints. 

MARRT'BIUM VULGARE. 

Common Names — Horehound, White Horehound. 

This is a common perennial plant, growing on road sides, 
along lanes, near houses, and amongst rubbish. The leaves 
have a very strong smell and bitter taste. Said to be good for 
poisons, to check and cure salivation, to remove obstructions, 
and highly valuable in a sweetened infusion for coughs and 
asthma ; and in large doses laxative. 

— Q*Q© — 

3IENTHLE PIPERITA. 

Common Name — Peppermint. 

Very common in wet land. Hot and pungent, being the 
strongest of all the mints. Useful to check nausea and vomit- 
ing, to expel wind, relieve hysterics, &c. 

— 3Q£> — ■ 
MENTIOE VIRIDES. 

Common Name — Spearmint. 

Grows on the banks of streams, and in wet land ; has a warm, 
rough, bitter taste, and strong aromatic smell. Used in decoc- 
tion, oil, or essence, for complaints of the stomach, and to expel 
wind. Also very valuable to remove sickness at the stomach, 
and to check vomiting. 

MINISPERMI* M 'CANA DENSE. 

Common Names— Yellow Parilla, Vine Maple. 

Root perennial, very long, yellow, woody, with but few fibers. 
Stem a woody vine, from .three to six feet high, small, of a dark 



MATERIA MEDICA. 339 

green color, twining around whatever it way come in contact 
with. Leaves scattered, deeply indented, very much resem- 
bling the maple leaf, grows in rich and often moist lands, near 
streams, &c. 

The root of the parillais a pleasant bitter tonic and laxative; 
useful in all cases of debility; strengthens the nervous system; 
very good for worms. May be used simply by itself, or be com- 
bined with other tonics. 

— 3Q£h~ 

3IONOTROPA UNIFLORA. 

Common Names — Fit-root, Ice-plant, Pipe-plant. 

This plant is not uncommon in the Western States, growing 
in shady solitary places. It is a singular herb, several plants 
growing from the same root, white, each stem bearing a single 
blossom on the top, and without leaves. 

This plant is said to be a good nervine, useful in epilepsy 
and convulsions, simply by itself or combined with lady's slipper. 
The juice mixed with water, used for sore eyes, and probably 
might be available in other cases, both external and internal, in 
which astringents are useful; considered equal to the beech 
drops. 

— e©9— 

MYRICA CERIFERA. 

Common Names — Baybery, Candleberry, Wax Myrtle, Sweet Gale, 

Waxberry.: 

Bayberry is a shrub," growing in almost every kind of soil, 
from Canada to Georgia. It rises from two to twelve feet high, 
being largest in the South; the top is much branched, and 
covered with a greyish bark. The leaves are oblong wedge- 
shaped, broadest at the outer end, sometimes entire, but fre- 
quently toothed near the extremity. The fruit is a greyish 
berry, growing in clusters at the sides of the branches, and 
covered with a substance called bayberry tallow, of which can- 
dles are often made. 

The bark of the root is the part used as. medicine, and. is 
possessed of powerful medicinal properties, being an astringent 



340 MAXEK1A MED1CA. 

tonic of the purest and best kind; available in all diseases, in 
hirze doses, when the stomach is foul, it often operates as an 
emetic. It is also a powerful errhine, making aa excellent 
sneezing and head-ache snuff. It enters into a number of com- 
pounds, being useful in all complaints, particularly diarrhoea 
and dvsentery. Dose, from half to a whole tea spoon full irt 
hot water sweetened. 

— &©8 — 
MYRISTICA MOSCHATA-- 
Cominon Name — Nutmeg tree, 

The nutmeg tree is a native of the Molucca Islands, the fruifc 
of which i«lbe common nutmeg. The involucre, husk, or shelly 
of the nutmeg is called mace, and possesses all the virtues of 
the nutmeg, with lest astringency. 

Nutmeg is a pleasant aromatic, stomachic, astringent, and 
nervine. We direct its use only in one compound, though it 
might be employed in any other which taste or fancy may indi- 
cate or desire, 

— e©e— 

MYRRHA. 

Common Names — Myrrh, Gum Myrrh, 

This article is not a proper gum, but a gum-resin, and is the 
concrete juice of an East Indian shrub, of which little or nothing 
is known to botanists. The best myrrh is of a reddish brown 
color, partly transparent, of a bitter and slightly pungent taste,. 
and s'rong aromatic, but not disagreeable odor. 

Myrrh is a good tonic, antiseptic, and vermifuge. It strength- 
ens the stomach, assists digestion, and promotes the secretions. 
It is highly useful in malignant, putrid, and pestilential disorders; 
and eminently serviceable in ulcers, both externally and inter- 
nally applied. It is prepared in tincture, twelve ounces of best 
myrrh to a gallon of alcohol, high wine s , or brandy. The 
niy'rrh should be pulverized and added to the brandy in a jug, 
placed in a sun heat, often shaking for eight or ten days, and 



MATERIA MED1CA. 311 

then poured off or filtered. Or it may be placed in boiling 
water, and after the brandy remains for a few minutes at the 
boiling heat must be taken out and corked. After it has become 
cool and well settled, pour off or filter, and bottle for use. This 
is also a valuable remedy for dysentery. The addition of an 
eqi:wl quantity of the tincture of aloes is supposed to add to its 
efficacy as a worm medicine. The tincture of myrrh may be 
taken in doses of a tea or table spoon full, or more. 

— QQ9 — 

MYRTTTS FIMENTA. 

Common Names — Alspice Tree, Pimento Tree. 

This tree is a native of Jamaica, and produces the allspice ci 
Jamaica pepper. Allspice is the fruit plucked from the tree 
before it is ripe, and dried in the sun. Its smell resembles a 
mixture of cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves, whence the name 
allspice. It is a warm, grateful, aromatic stimulant, much used 
as a condiment in cookery; and in medicine is very advantage- 
ously substituted for the more costly spices. It enters into Dr. 
Wells' colic drops* 

NEPETA CERTARIA. 

Common Names — Catnip, Catmint. 

This common plant is accounted valuable as an external ap- 
plication in poultice to swellings; internally for head-ache, colic, 
female obstructions, hysterics, worms, and spasms. Administer- 
ed by injection, it relieves the restlessness and colic of children, 
for which it is highly valuable. It may also be administered by 
the mouth for the same purpose. 

— »»ft @©44«.— 

NYMPH A ODORATA. 

Common Names — White Pond Lily, Toad Lily, 4-c. 

Root perennial, nearly the size of one's wrist, very long, some- 
what hairy, horizontal, blackish, and knotty, always growing in 



342 MATERIA MEDICA. 

the svater. Leaves large, round, cleft from the edge to the stem 
which is in the center, each lobe ending in a short, acute point r 
upp«r surface smooth and glossy, without veins, lower surface 
reddish, with radiating nerves. Flowers large, white, giving out 
a sweet odor, opening to- the sun in the morning and closing at 
night. 

The white pond -lily is a very valuable article of medicine, 
for either internal or external use. Internally it is an astringent 
tonic, useful in diarrhoea, dysentery, and all cases of debility. 
Externally it is useful in poultice, for biles, tumors, inflamma- 
tions, ulcers. &c. The leaves are also useful for the same pur- 
pose. The fresh juice of the roots mixed with lemon juice, is 
said to be good to remove freckles, pimples, or blotches from the 
skin. A tea of the root may be used at discretion; or it may 
be compounded with other astringent or hitter articles, and used 
as a tonic, 

— .»>a@e«~— 

PANAX QUINQUEFOOUM. 

Common Names — Ginseng, Glnsang, Ginshang. 

Root perennial, fleshy, yellowish-white, spindle-shaped, often 
forked. Stem from eight to eighteen inches high, round, smooth? 
divided at the top into three branches, supporting from 'three to 
five oblong leaves, broadest towards the outer end, and jagged. 
Flowers small and white, producing a large red berry. 

This plant is said to be the famous ginseng of China, to which 
country it was formerly exported, and commanded a high price. 
Ginseng, in the Chinese language, means,accordingtoRafinesque, 
man's health, which indicates the high estimation in which this 
article is held by them. The American ginseng is said, how- 
ever, to be inferior to the celebrated Chinese plant, though pos- 
sessing the same virtues. 

The roots have a pleasant camphorated smell, and sweetish, 
pungent, and slightly aromatic, bitter taste. We introduce the 
article here, as a gentle stimulant, tonic, and nervine. But the 
Chinese attribute to it wonderful powers; such as that by chew- 
ing the root when walking a person will not become fatigued; it 
warms the stomach and bowels; cures the colic and obstruct 



MATERIA MEDICA., 343 

lions in the breast, sustains excessive labor of both body arul 
mind, preventing weariness and dejection; quenches thirst, as- 
suages hunger, prevents dropsy, promotes the appetite, assists 
digestion, prevents unpkasant dreams and frights, strengthens the 
judgment; cures nervous, asthmatical, and hysterical affections; 
removes all the disrrders of weakness and debility; and also 
cures or relieves, according to Jartoux, almost "every ill that 
flesh is heir to." "Such," says Rafinesque, "are the wonderful 
properties ascribed to this plant by the Chinese authors, after 
an experience of two thousand years. They often unite it with 
orange peel, ginger, liquorice, cinnamon, peach-kernels, honey/j 
&c. to aid its effects; and prescribe it in powders, electuary-, 
extract, pills, and decoction." 

The root of the ginseng is a mild but pretty efficient nervine, 
either taken in powder, decoction, or tincture. It is also a good 
stomachic and restorative medicine; and as a gentle and agree- 
able stimulant, is avaluable medicine for children. Drs. Green- 
way and Cutler, have found it useful in convulsions, nervous af- 
fections, palsy, vertigo, and dysentery. The leaves are also said 
to make a very grateful medical tea. Dose, from one to two tea 
spoons full of the powder, in hot water sweetened, or it may be 
mixed with honey or molasses. 

— Q%&— 

PHYTOLACCA DECANDRA. 

Common Names — Poke, Scoke, Pigeon berry, Garget-root. 

Root large, perennial, branching, covered with a very thia 
brownish bark or skin. Stems many, annual, large, green at- 
first, afterwards purple or red, smooth, branching, rising from 
four to eight feet high. Leaves large, scattered, smooth, oblong. 
Flowers opposite the reaves, on long racemes or spikes, produc- 
ing many fleshy, dark purple berries, depressed or flattened. 
Found in abundance throughout the United States. 

The poke root is generally regarded as a strong poison, though 
by some recommended as a good emetic. We think it, how- 
ever, not to be relied upon for this purpose. Externally, the 
roasted root is often advantageously applied as a poultice to 



344 MATERIA MEDICA, 

swellings, bad ulcer?, and rheumatic joints. The juice of the 
berries dried in the sun to a proper consistence for a plaster, is 
said to have cured cancers. 

The poke is introduced into this work principally on account 
of its high reputation as a remedy for rheumatism. For this 
purpose, the ripe berries are collected in the fall, the juice 
pressed out, and about half the quantity of brandy (or enough 
to preserve it.) added to it, and bottled for use. We are also 
very strongly of the opinion that equal qualifies of this juice 
and a strong decoction of the rattle root, with brandy enough 
to preserve the mixture, taken in small doses, would probably 
make a better medicine for rheumatism than any single remedy 
ever tried. We wish some individual whose opportunities allow 
him to make frequent and extensive trials, would test the pow- 
ers of this compound. 

— 0*09— 

PIMPINELLA ANISUM. 

Common Name — Anise. 

This is an annual plant, native of Syria, Crete, and other 
parts of the East. The seeds, which is the part of the plnnt 
used, have an aromatic odor, and a warm sweetish taste. — 
They afford by distillation a considerable quantity of oil, which 
has a strong flavor, and sweet but not pungent taste. 

Anise is good to expel wind from the stomach or bowels, and 
is a grateful stimulant and stomachic. The seeds inter into 
bitter tonic compounds; and the oil or essence, into several com- 
pound tinctures, either as medicinal agents, or to correct the 
bad taste of other articles. 



PINUS BALSAMEA. 

Common Names — Balsam Fir, Hemlock Fir. 

The fir tree is a native of northern climates where it is most 
common. It also grows as far south as Tennessee, where ' is 
confined to the highest mountains. 



MATERIA MEDICA. 345 

The liquid resin, called balsam of fir, or balsam of Canada, 
is of a light color, very tenacious or sticky, and inflammable. 
It is found in small blisters on the surface of the fir trees; these 
blisters are pierced with a knife or some sharp instrument, from 
which the balsam exudes and is thus collected for use. 

As an internal remedy, this balsam is advantageously employ- 
ed in complaints of the breast and lungs, either pain, soreness, 
or cough; it strengthens the nervous system, loosens the bowels, 
cleanses and heals internal ulcers, and diseases of the urinary 
passages, often proving useful in the cure of gleet as well as the 
preceding stages of the venereal complaint; and in fluor albus 
or whites. Externally, this valuable balsam is applied to ulcers 
and wounds, being an excellent ingredient in healing salves. — ■ 
Dose, internally, half a tea spoon full. 

PINUS CANADENSIS. 

Common Name — Hemlock tree. 

The inner bark of the common hemlock tree affords a very 
good astringent, which may be employed in all cases where 
articles of that class are indicated. The leaves and boughs 
are famed for producing perspiration by drinking the tea and 
sitting over the steam. The oil and essence are a good stimu- 
lant tonic, useful in colds, &c. The oil is also a valuable ingre- 
dient in bathing drops. 

PIPER NIGRUM. 

Common Name — Black pepper. 

The tree which produces the black pepper is a native of the 
East Indies, which seems, indeed, to be the nursery of the spices. 
The dark color of black pepper is owing to the berries being 
gathered and dried before they are ripe. 

Black pepper appears to possess, in an inferior degree, the 
stimulant properties of cayenne, for which it may be substituted, 
but is probably slightly astringent. It may be used as a sub- 
stitute for the cayenne, or red pepper, whe,n neither of thoge 
' . 44. 



346 MATERIA MEDICA. 

articles can be obtained. Dose, from half to a whole tea spoon 
full, in hot water sweetened. 

PLANT AGO MAJOR. 

Common Names — Plantain, Great Plantain, 

This common herb needs no description. Its most popular 
use is an antidote to poisonous bites and stings. Also said to be 
good for ulcers, sore eyes, bowel complaints, bloody urine, &c. 
For either external or internal application, the tea or expressed 
juice may be used, or the bruised leaves may be applied exter- 
nally for stings, bites, slight wounds, sores, or tumors. 

PODOPHYLLUM PELTATUM. 

Common Names — Mandrake, May-apple. 

The mandrake is a common plant, growing throughout the 
United States, in shady, and oftentimes, moist situations. Root 
perennial, horizontal, round, long, larger than the largest goose 
quill, jointed, with fibrous roots issuing at each joint. Stem 
smooth, round, and erect, from eight to sixteen inches high, 
dividing at the top into two branches, each branch supporting a 
single large leaf. Flowers large, white, only one on a plant, and 
grows from the forks of the stem. 

The root of the mandrake is, by some considered poison- 
ous and unfit for medicine, whilst by others it is considered a? 
one of the most valuable articles. All who have written upon 
the subject agree in recommending it as a most certain, safe 
salutary, and efficacious purge. Almost all botanical physicians 
make use of it for this purpose, and one who is very celebrated, 
(Dr. Anibal or Hannibal,) it is said calls it "the king of roots," 
relying upon it in all cases of disease. The dose usually given^ 
is from half to a whole tea spoon full. The best time to give it 
is at night on going to bed, and it will commonly operate the 
next morning, it being slow but sure. In small doses it is a 
gradual and easy laxative; but in large ones it is active and 
drastic. Useful in dropsy and pleurisy. 



MATERIA MEDICA. 347 

The root is also prepared in syrup which makes a mild plea- 
sant purge ; the dose being two spoons full. The Cherokees it 
is said use the fresh juice of the root for deafness, putting a few 
drops into the ear. The Wyandot Indians say that roasting the 
root destroys the poison it contains and makes it less drastic. 

The Indian Doctor Hough, recommends the powdered root 
as an escharotic to cleanse foul and ill-conditioned ulcers, and 
dispose them to heal, and to promote the exfoliation or removal 
of carious or rotten bones. He directs the powders to be 
sprinkled on the affected part once in. from two to five days. It 
will destroy proud flesh, he says, without injury to the sound 
parts. We have also seen the whole roots used to cure the pole- 
evil of horses, by plunging the root into the very bottom of the 
sore. 

POLYGALA SENEGA. 
Common Name — Seneka Snake-root. 

Root perennial, firm, hard, branching, crooked, and woody. 
Stems many, annual, smooth,, occasionally tinged with red. — - 
Leaves numerous, alternate or scattered, long, narrow, and 
pointed. Flowers white, in a close terminal spike. The spike 
opens gradually, so that the lower ones are in fruit while the 
upper ones are in blossom. The root has an unpleasant and 
somewhat acid taste. Grows in most parts of the United States, 
generally on the sides of hills, and in dry woods. 

The seneka snake-root, is deemed an antidote to snake bites, 
as well as being stimulant, diuretic, expectorant, emetic, purga- 
tive, sudorific, and emmenagogue. Useful in coughs, pleurisies, 
asthma, croup, and female obstructions. It may be given in 
powder, tea, or syrup. The proper dose of the powder is from 
one-third to half a tea spoon full, every three hours until the 
desired effect is produced. For the croup of children, the 
decoction is used, which must be made strong, and given in tea 
spoon full doses every hour or half hour; as the urgency of the 
symptoms may demand, until it acts as an emetic and cathartic. 
During the intervals between giving the tea spoon full do?es, a 
few drops should be often administered so as to keep up a sensi* 



348 MATERIA MED1CA. 

ble action in the throat; and this must also be continued after 
the vomiting, by which means, in the course of from two to eight 
hours, a membrane is oftentimes discharged by the mouth, of 
one, two, or even three inches in length; though sometimes 
swallowed and discharged by stool. Nothing ought to be drank 
for some minutes after each dose. 



POPULUS TREPIDA. 

Common Names — Poplar, Quaking Asp, Quiver Leaf, Aspin. 

The quaking asp is a common tree in most parts of the coun- 
try, growing to various sizes, some trees large enough for sawing 
timber. The leaves are round, smooth, and jagged, and the 
petioles or foot stalks, being flattened transversely with the sur- 
face of the leaves, the least breath of air agitates and keeps 
them in motion; and hence the name of quaking asp, &c. — 
There are several species of the poplar, all valuable for medi- 
cine, but that with tags is considered best. 

The bark of this tree affords one of the finest of bitter tonics. 
It may be used in powder, decoction, or tincture, for diarrhoea, 
obstructions of the urine, indigestion, faintness, at the stomach, 
consumption, and worms. The bark may also be pulverized 
and compounded with other tomes, and used in all cases. 

— ."f-8 © ©+"•— 

PI5INO.S VERTICIIXATUS. 

Common Names — Winter-berry, Black Alder, 

This is a common shrub or branching bush, growing usually 
in swamps, near ponds and streams, and in wet lands. It is usu- 
ally found in bunches, from six to ten feet high, having alternate 
branches; bark of a dark-ash color, spotted with white. Leave; 
alternate or scattered, edges indented with sharp teeth. Flow- 
ers small, and while, producing irregular bunches of berries 
which remain attached to the sides of the branches until winter, 
presenting, with their beautiful red color, a delightful contrast 
with fading nature. This shrub may be readily distinguished 
by its berries, from the Alnus Serrulata, another shrub called 
black or tag alder, which we have heretofore mentioned* 



MATERIA ItfEDICA. 349 

The bark of the winter-berry is highly celebrated as a tonic, 
antiseptic, and vermifuge. Used in all cases of recovery from 
fevers, and other sickness; in dropsy, jaundice, mortification^ 
eruptions of the skin, and externally for foul ulcers, mortified 
parts, &c. For mortification, ii may be used alone, or combined 
with sassafras or other stimulating tonics, in decoction, both ex- 
ternally and internally. For all complaints of the skin, this ar- 
ticle is an excellent remedy, by taking a tea cup full of the de- 
coction several times a day, and using the same frequently as a 
wash. 

The berries are also used for the same purpose as the bark, 
and may be tinctured in spirits, which makes a good tonic for all 
complaints, particularly tor worms. 

Dose, from half to a whole tea spoon full of the bark three or 
four times a day, in hot water sweetened; or an ounce of the 
bark may be steeped in a pint and a half of water down to a 
pint, and taken in gill doses every two or three hours. 

— .»>a@ ©<...— 
PRUNUS CERASUS. 

Common Names — Wild Cherry, Black Cherry. 

Too common to need a description. Bark bitter, tonic, as- 
tringent, and anthelmintic. Useful in all cases where astringent 
or bitter tonics are indicated. The bark of the root most pow- 
erful, and may be used externally as a wash for foul or mortifying 
ulcers. Leaves poisonous to cattle. 

PYROLA ROTUNDIFOLU. 

Common Name — Wild Lettuce. 

Root perennial, long, round, white, and horizontal. Leaves 
evergreen, small, round, smooth, resembling the round smooth- 
leaved garden lettuce. A tea of this article is good to take 
internally for diseases of the skin; and externally to wash ulcers. 



850 MATERIA MEDICA. 

PYROLA UMBELLATA. 

Common Names — Pipsisewa, IVinter-green, Rheumatic-raeed, 
Prince's Pine. 

Root perennial, woody, creeping, sending up stems at various 
distances. Leaves growing in irregular whorls, few, evergreen, 
long, wedge-shaped, edges indented with teeth, smooth and shin- 
ing. Found in all the States, but most abundant in the moun- 
tainous parts of the Eastern and Middle States, growing in dry 
sandy lands, and elevated shady situations. Flowers, from three 
to six, purple and white, growing at the top of the stem, forming 
an imperfect umbel. 

A tea of the tops and roots of this plant is a valuable internal 
medicine for fever, rheumatism, diseases of the urinary organs, 
scrofula, cancers, dropsy, and nervous debility. Externally it 
is used for bathing rheumatic joints, washing cancerous, scroAr 
lous, and other bad ulcers, and hard swellings. 

JRHAMNUS CATHARTICUS. 

Common Names — Buckthorn, Purging Buckthorn, 

This shrub grows in woods or hedges; and attains, if cultiva' 
ied, the height of fifteen feet. The berries have a faint disa- 
greeable smell, and oauseous bitter taste. They have been long 
esteemed as a cathartic, celebrated in dropsy and rheumatism. 
They occasion griping, sickness, and dryness of the mouth and 
throat, leaving a thirst of long continuance. They may, how- 
ever, be combined with other cathartics, and are thus united 
with Dr. Reed's celebrated antibilious pills 

The bark of the buckthorn is said to be of great service in 
reducing inveterate inflammation of the eyes, and for curing the 
itch, as it cleanses the skin and relieves the burning heat with- 
out repelling the humors. Used in decoction, as a wash. Also 
said to be tonic, and antiseptic. 



METERIA 6IEDICA*. 351 

RHEUM PALMA.TUM. 

Common Name — Rhubarb. 

This root is a native of China and the East Indies, but is now 
cultivated in both Europe and America. The rhubarb employ- 
ed in medicine is imported from Russia, Turkey, and the East 
Indies. But that which is raised in our own gardens, if allowed 
to attain to the age of six, eight, or ten years, is said to be equal- 
ly good or better than the imported. 

Rhubarb is a fine mild, tonic purge, very useful in bowel com- 
plaints, as it has a tendency to leave the bowels in a costive 
state, and therefore should never be used in costive habits. Dose 
from one to two tea spoons full. 

A very elegant and pleasant medicine for children, may be 
made by scorching or rather roasting, but not burning, pulver- 
ized rhubarb, and putting about one ounce to a pint of brandy, 
with enough essence of cinnamon to give it a good flavor, and 
then sweetening very sweet with loaf sugar. This, in tea spoon 
full or larger doses is a very valuable remedy for all bowel 
complaints. 

RHUS GLAURUir, 

Common Name — Sinnuch. 

The common upland sumach rises to the height of from five 
to ten feet, producing many long compound leaves which turn 
red in autumn. The berries are also red when ripe, and are of 
an agreeable but very sharp acid tasie. The bark, leaves, or 
berries, may be used as medicine, and possess valuable proper- 
ties, being astringent, tonic, and diuretic. Either the bark, 
leaves, or berries, may be used in strong decoction, in all cases 
in which medicines of this class are needed. The berries made 
into a tea and sweetened, make a pleasant drink for children. — 
The bark of the root is said to be a mild cathartic. 

In strangury the sumach is said to promote the discharge of 
urine, relieving difficulties of the kidneys, and strengthening 
the urinary organs. The berries and leaves are found equal to 
nutgalls in dying or making inl^ giving a deep and permanent 
black. 



352 MATERIA MEDIC A, 

RUBtS DILICIOSUS. 

Common Name — Red Raspberry. 

There are several species of the raspberry good lor medicine, 
but the red is the kind most highly recommended, the leaves of 
which are the part used. The stem grows from two to four feet 
high, commonly straight and without branches, very thickly cov- 
ered with stiff hairs. The leaves are somewhat similar to the 
common black raspberry leaves, pale green on the upper, and 
almost white on the under side. 

No author, wc believe, has mentioned this article medicinally 
but Dr. Thomson. The leaves are a valuable astringent; use- 
ful in bowel complaints, and for external application to moisten 
poultices for burns and scalds, and for washing sore nipples. A 
strong tea is an excellent article to regulate the pains of women 
in travail. 

RUBUS PROCUMBENT RUBUS YILLOSUS. 

Common Names — Dewberry. High Blackberry . 

These articles are too common to need a description ; and as 
both possess the same properties they are arranged under the 
same head. They are valuable astringents, rather too power- 
ful to use without some care. The dewberry considered the 
best, and has cured dysentery after the bayberryand Dr. Thom- 
son's best remedies had failed. The tea of the roots may be 
administered in tea cup full doses, for adults, and table spoon 
full for children. One ounce of the root to a pint of hot water 
makes a decoction of suitable strength. 

A jelly made of the berries when they are turning from red to 
black, is much esteemed by some for gravel; and Dr. Thacher 
suggests that a tea of the root might be more efficacious. 

The ripe fruit, either fresh gathered or made into jam or jelly, 
taken at pleasure, is a very pleasant and highly efficacious reme- 
•iv in diarrhoea and dysentery. 



. Materia medic a. 353 

RUMEX ASCETOSELLA. 

"Common Names— Wood Sorrel, Sheep Sorrel. 

This is a very common perennial plant, growing in woods and 
ghady places. The leaves have a pleasant and extremely acid 
taste; and may be used in all cases in which acids and antisep" 
tics are indicated* The leaves, says Thacher, simply bruised, 
have been applied to scofulous ulcers with excellent effect, pro- 
moting suppuration and granulation in the most satisfactory 
manner. 

The inspissated or concrete jaice of the sheep sorrel has, of 
late, become somewhat celebrated as an external application for 
cajicerous affections. Repeated cures of cancers are reported 
to have been performed with this simple article; and we have 
no doubt that much confidence may be placed in it, in the treat- 
ment of this painful and highly dangerous affection. A salve 
made of the sorrel has also been very advantageously u^ed in 
cancers, a remarkable instance of which has been related in the 
appendix in the case of John Pegg. 

The juice of the sorrel is prepared for use in the following 
manner: — Take of the sorrel, any quantity, bruise it in a mortar, 
and then press.out the juice, put it ou pewter plates or dishes 
and set it in the sun.. When it has become of a proper consist- 
ence to form a plaster it ought to be put into earthen or glass 
vessels to preserve it for use. When applied to the ulcer, spread 
a thin plaster of it on a piece of bladder, leather, or cloth, of a 
size suitable to cover the sore. These piasters must be occa- 
sionally renewed, washing the cancer with soap suds at each re- 
newal. Two plasters have been known to cure a bad cancer of 
the female breast: and in other instances one has been sufficient. 

This remedy has been kept a secret, and the knowledge of it 
cold at a high price. 

— e©&— 

RU3IEX CRISPUS. 

Common Names — Curled Dock, Narrow Dock, Sour Dock, 
Yellow Dock. 

Root perennial, spindle-shaped, yellow, with a few fibers. 
Leaves mostly radical, very long and narrow, waved and curled 
on the margin. 45 



354 MATERIA MtfDlCAl 

The root of this plant is slightly purgative; and both root and 
seeds are said to have been successfully used in the cure of dys- 
entery. The bruised or pulverized roots made into an ointment 
or tea is a valuable external application for itch and most other 
diseases of the skin, using at the same time a decoction inter- 
nally. The dry root pulverized and steeped, one tea spoon full 
to a tea cup of hot water, is an excellent alterant and corrector 
of the fluids in^all cutaneous affections and various other com- 
plaints, particularly for ulcers and scurvy. In this last disease? 
it is recommended very highly; one case successfully treated 
with nothing but the decoction of the dock root has fallen under 
our own notice. Bad ulcers and hard tumors have been re- 
moved by the application of the bruised root in poultice. 

— QOS — ■ 
-SAMBUCTS NIGRA. 

Common Names — Elder, White Elder, Sweet Elder, Black Elder, 

The common elder grows too plentifully in this country t© 
need any description. The inner bark, flowers, and berries, 
are used as medicine, being cathartic, emetic, and diuretic. 

The inner bark is highly recommended as a diuretic in drop- 
sy. For this purpose take of the inner green bark of the com- 
mon elder, two handsful, Lisbon, Teneriffe, or Madeira wine, or 
Cider, two quarts, digest for twenty-four hours, when it is fit for 
use. Dose, one gill every morning before eating, or a larger 
quantity may be taken if the stomach will bear it. This pre- 
paration is a certain diuretic, producing a copious discharge of 
.urine. 

The flowers, in decoction, are a mild purgative anodyne, use- 
ful for the complaints of children. The bark may also be made 
into at. ointment with cream, lard, or fresh butter, and is a cool- 
ing application for most eruptions of the skin. Likewise the 
bark boiled and applied to the cheek is said to cure the tooth- 
ache. The berries mav be used for the same purposes as the 
bark and flowers, gently loosening the bowels, and promoting 
the urine and perspiration. The young leaf buds are purgative 
in a high degree, being too powerful and drastic for use. 



MATERIA MEDIfiA. 35& 

SANGUINARIA CANADENSIS. 
Common Names — Blvod-root, Red Puccoon, Redroot. 

Root perennial, horizontal, fleshy, throwing out a few fibers, 
reddish out side, emitting, when fresh and broken, a bright red 
juice. Leaves few, roundish or heart-shaped, upp^r side a light 
green, under side almost white, only one on a stalk. Flowers 
white, supported on separate stalks, putting forth very early in 
the spring before the leaves are near grown. Grows in rich 
woodlands, along roads, and in fields around stumps. 

It is said the Indians highly esteem this article for its medi- 
cinal properties; and it has also acquired considerable celebrity 
amongst the whites. We, however, think it a rather unsafe 
medicine applied internally, except in small quantity combined 
with other articles to modify its action. The powdered root, in 
doses of fifteen or twenty grains, is a powerful emetic, but it 
ought not to be administered in this way. 

The blood root is used as an expectorant in coughs and inflam- 
mations of the lungs; and for croup it is, by some, deemed a 
sovreign remedy. For this complaint, a strong infusion may be 
given in table spoon full, or less, doses according to the age of the 
patient. Infused in vinegar, the blood root is an excellent appli- 
cation to tetter or ring-worm; and the powder applied to fun- 
gous or proud flesh, removes it. It has also cured polypus of the 
nose, when used as a snuff. But the principal use which we 
make of this article has been in combination with other sub* 
stances in the form of cathartic pills* 

— Q&&— 

SMI LAX SARSAPARILLA. 

Common Name — Sarsaparilla. 

The root of the common sarsaparilla has held a very fluctuat- 
ing character in the materia medica; sometimes being regarded 
as a powerful medicine, capable of curing the venereal disease 
in its worst forms, and then again sunk into oblivion, as a worth- 
less article. It is, however, regarded in many parts of the 
United States, as a good remedy in the treatment of all diseases 
of the skin, scrofulous sores, rheumatism^ gout, indigestion, mer? 



35(> MATERIA MED1CA. 

curial disease, and the venereal complaint. It may be given in 
decoction, one ounce of the bruised root, to two quarts of water 
boiled down to one, and taken from a pint to a quart a day, or as 
much as the stomach will bear. 

Dr. Gunn is the latest author whom we have consulted on the 
virtues of the sarsaparilla. He says "it may be considered as- 
one of the most valuable roots in the Western Country, and 
although possessing great power, is entirely innocent. It ought 
most certainly to be used in all cases in which mercury has had 
any effect on the system, or in which there is the least doubt that 
any infection lurks in the system connected with venereal."— 
For its use in the venereal disease see under that head. • 

— e©e— 

SPIGELIA MARILANDICA. 

Common Names — Carolina Pink, Indian Pink, £c. 

Root perennial, branched, and very fibrous. Stems erect, 
simple, smooth. Leaves opposite, long-oval, outer points acute, 
entire and smooth. Flowers terminal^ large, bright red outside, 
yellow within, upper end resembling a golden star. Found in 
Tennessee, and at the South. 

Carolina pink is an active vermifuge, and somewhat cathartic. 
Its properties were first learned from the Cherokee Indians. — 
Used in decoction, most beneficial in large quantities, in syrup, 
or made very sweet. In too large doses it causes head-ache, 
stupor, and delirium. When these symptoms occur it should be 
omitted. 

— Qi&Q — ■ 
TELA ARANEII. 

Common Names — Cobweb, Spider 1 s-web. 

Although some of the virtues of the cobweb were known 
and published, as early as 1644, and notwithstanding it has long 
been ranked amongst empirical remedies for the ague, yet it is 
but recently that it has attracted the attention of medical men. 
And whether it will sustain the high character which has been 
given it, in further trial, is uncertain; and even if it does, it will: 
probably be considered too disgusting ever to be entensively 



MATERIA MEDICA, 357 

introduced into the practice of medicine. It is said to be almost 
a specific for intermittent fever, and has afforded extraordinary 
relief in consumption, by allaying irritation and procuring relief 
in at least one case past the reach of common remedies. Dr, 
Jackson observes, that he might multiply instances of its effi- 
cacy and tranquilizing effects, on the human system. 

Cobweb has afforded remarkable relief in asthma, having, in 
one instance, procured sleep the first night after taking a dose 
(nearly a scruple) which the patient had not enjoyed for more 
than six years. It is recommended as being useful in spasmodic 
complaints; and as procuring the most tranquilizing sleep, fol- 
lowed by no bad effects. In one case, that of an old infirm 
asthmatic, slight but pleasant delirium was produced, resem- 
bling a dose of nitrous oxide gas, (sometimes called exhiliara- 
ting gas,) though of longer duration. The muscular energy was 
very much increased, so that the patient could not be kept in 
bed, but jumped and danced about the room nearly all night; 
but towards morning fell into a qmet sleep, and no unpleasant 
symptoms followed. The cobweb has also proved highly bene- 
ficial applied to irritable sores. 

From all the facts recorded respecting the medical properties 
of this article, it seems to merit a trial in all cases of irritability, 
in fever and ague, hysterics and hypochodria. The fact, that 
no unpleasant symptoms have followed its most violent operation, 
is certainly favorable to its further trial. 

— Q©9 — 

TENACETUM VULGARE. 

Common Name — Tansy. 

Common tansy is a warm bitter, useful for worms, female com- 
plaints, &c. It is also said that if fresh meat be rubbed with it ? 
the flesh-fly will not injure it. 

— -&&&-?- 
TRILLIUM LATIFOLIUM. 

Common Names — Birth-rooty Beth-root, Jewsharp, Indian Balm, &rc 

There are several species of this valuable family of plants, all, 
or nearly all, of which may be used indiscriminately for the same 
purposes, and have the same general appearance. 



358 MATERIA MEDICA. 

Roots perennial, oblong, thick and short, somewhat resembling' 
the wild turnip, wrinkled, giving out man) small libers. Stem 
smooth, erect, from four to eight inches high. Leaves three, in 
a whorl at the top of the stem; and one terminal flower rising 
above the leaves; color white, red, purple, and some times 
mixed. 

The birth-root is astringent, tonic, styptic, pectoral, and anti- 
septic. Useful in ail kinds of hemorrhage, immoderate men- 
struation, asthma, catarrhal cough, diarrhoea, dysentery, &c. 
The pulverized root may be given in tea spoon lull aoses, or it 
may be steeped, one ounce to the pint, and given in gill doses; 
or the root may be combined with other astringents or bitters. 

Externally the root is beneficial in poultice applied to tumors,, 
bad or putrid ulcers, and mortification. The leaves are also 
said to be useful applied to tumors. In all excessive feraaje 
evacuations, the birth-root is one of our most valuable articles^ 
and is likewise highly esteemed by the Indians for the same pur- 
poses. They also use it to cure the bites of rattle-snakes. — - 

Dies red with alum. 

—WfQ — 

VIM. AS ASPEHA. ' 

Common Names — Slippery Elm, Red Elm, 

The bark of the red elm is an article of much importance in. 
the practice of medicine, and particularly in medical surgeryv 
Infused in water, it affords an abundant mucilage, which is use- 
ful in dysentery, coughs, pleurisies, quinsies, &c. A very good 
way of preparing the bark for internal use, is to pulverize it 
finely, mix an equal quantity of sugar with it, and add warm 
water enough to form it into a soft pulpy mucilage. 

But the most valuable purpose to which the red elm can pro- 
bably be applied is to the making of poultices, for all kinds of 
ulcers, inflammations, &c. 

URTICA t>IOCIA. 

Common Name — Nettle. 

A well known weed, growing in rich lands, cither dry or 
slightly moist, covered with sharp prickles which, when applied 



MATERIA MEDICA. 359 

to the skin, irritate and inflame very much. Hence useful in 
palsy applied to the diseased side or limbs. Used in decoction 
for gravel, inflammation of the kidnies, pleurisy, spitting of 
blood, and all hemorrhages; the juice said to be the most pow- 
erful styptic known. Also highly recommended as a tonic in 
fevers; the seeds and flowers, to be taken in doses not exceeding 
one drachm (eighth of an ounce) three times a day. 

— Q©§ — 

VERBENA IIASTATA. 

Common Names — Vervain, Vervine, Purvaln. 

Vervine is a common plant, growing at the road sides, in un. 
ploughed fields, and in open waste lands. There are three kinds 
or species, differing in their appearance, as well as in the color 
of their blossoms, being white, red, and blue. 

It is said to be a good emetic, ranking, amongst herbalists who 
are accustomed to use it, next to the lobelia, and is said, by Dr. 
Thomson, to have cured the consumption. It is an excellent 
sudorific, and may be used in decoction in all cases of colds, or 
obstructions of any kind. 

— G&© — 
XANTHORHIZA APIIFOLIA. 

%'ommon Names — Yellow-zeort, Yellow-wood, Parsley-leaved 
Yellow- root. 

This small shrub is a native of the Southern States, and is 
also said to be very abundant along the Ohio river. It grows 
from two to three feet high, somewhat thicker than a goose quill, 
bark smooth, but that on the young shoots covered with angular 
fissures, the wood a bright yellow. Leaves very much jagged 
or indented deeply with acute teeth, and crowded together at 
the top of the stem. Flowers on drooping racemes or spikes, 
of a dark purple color. Roots from three to twelve inches long^ 
about the size of oue's little finger, and sending up many scions 
or suckers. 

The yellow-wort is a pure bitter tonic. Both the wood and 
bark of the roots may be used for medicine. It may be pre- 
pared by itself, and given in decoction, or combined with other 
tonics, and employed in all cases of disease. 



360 MATERIA MEDICA, 

The following plant, is introduced in consequence of its being 
a part of Dr. FiNCH'sremedy for gravel; and those which follow 
were procured from the Indians, for none of which we could 
obtain the botanical names. But believing, from information 
derived from the most respectable sources amongst our red 
brethren, as well as from the sensible qualities of the articles 
themselves, that they are highly valuable, we have introduced 
them in this work; hoping that the attention of botanists may 
thereby be directed to these plants. 

— Q&Q — 
POOLItOOT, WHITE SNAKE-ROOT. 

This plant is a very abundant production in many parts of the 
Western Country, delighting in a dry soil, and growing most 
plentifully in land which is timbered with oak and hickory. 

The root is small, fibrous, of a dirty white, from two to four 
inches long. Stem from two to three feet high, somewhat angu- 
lar and furrowed. Leaves opposite, the pairs crossing each 
other, supported on long foot-stalks, very broad at the base, the 
extreme point very acute, edges jagged with very large obtuse 
teeth. Axillary to the leaves, are bracts growing on short 
branches at the bottom, but become longer towards the top 
where they extend themselves considerably and produce the 
flowers. These grow in clusters, are white, and as the plant 
generally grows in bunches or beds often very extensive, the 
face of the country along roads and in open situations often pre- 
sents a white appearance to a great extent. 

The plate representing this plant was made from recollection, 
at a place and time when the article itself could not be procured, 
in consequence of which it is not altogether accurate. The 
most striking defects are the want of a sufficient number of 
leaves, and the bracts and axillary branches which come out 
between the leaf and stem. 

The root of this plant is the part used as medicine. It ap- 
pears to be a warm stimulating tonic; producing in the mouth, 
when chewed, a warm aromatic pungent sensation. Its usefuU 
ness in gravel we learned from Dr. Ira Finch Esq. but the first 
knowledge which we obtained of its medicinal virtues was d^; 



MATERIA MEDICA. 361 

rived from the Indians who use it as a cure for the ague. It no 
doubt possesses active properties worthy of further investigation. 

INDIAN ANODYNE-ROOT. 

Root perennial, large, branched, giving off fibers, with pits or 
scars remaining where the old stems grew, as exhibited in the 
plate. Stems several from the same root, round, smooth and 
shining, rising from two to two and a half feet high. Flowers 
said to be deep blue. Leaves opposite, smooth, shining, long 
and very pointed, an outline of one of the full size, being given 
in the plate. Grows in rich up lands, bottoms or intervals, and 
prairies. 

The anodyne root or as the Indians call it longroot, is used 
by them in strong tea, for internal, sharp, darting pains, and for 
pleurisy, for which purposes it is highly valued by them. If 
drank freely in warm decoction, it promotes perspiration. It is 
also an excellent bitter tonic as its taste strongly indicates.—- 
They consider this as one of their most valuable articles of 
medicine* 

INDIAN CUP-PLANT. 

Root perennial, large, long, crooked, forming a joint where the 
<»ld stalk grew, which decaying leaves a hole, several of which 
are found in all the old roots, with fibers issuing at each joint. 
Stem rising to the height of seven or eight feet, being angular 
or square, with the sides concave or sunk, which makes the cor- 
ners very sharp Leaves opposite, very large, and indented on 
the edges with deep, large teeth, connate or united at the ba^e, 
with the edges of the wings by which they are united so raised 
as to forma deep excavation or cup, which may contain one or 
two tea spoons full of water. Grows in rich bottom or inter- 
vale lands. 

The root of this plant is very useful in fevers, ague-cakes, in- 
ward bruises, weakness, ulcers, and, if persevered in, will, they 
say, make an old man young; the inference from which is, that 
it is a powerful restorative. It is used in strong tea, the roof 

46 



862 MATERIA MEDICA. 

requiring long steeping to extract the strength. The Indians 
say that it dissolves ague-cakes and carries them away, cures 
fevers, &c. It is also one of the articles which they employ in 
their vapor bathing or steaming to promote perspiration, and is 
regarded as a highly valuable medicine. 

INDIAN FEVER-ROOT. 

Root perennial, horizontal, throwing off many fibers, dark 
colored, strong rich taste, sending up several stems, which are 
round, faintly striped, covered with short, almost imperceptible 
hair or down, from two and a half to. three feet high. Leaves 
scattered, supported by long foot-stalks which sheath the stem, 
and like it are covered with down, which, towards fall, becomes 
stiff and rough. Flowers yellow, large, one to two inches in di- 
ameter. 

A strong decoction of the root of this plant, drank freely, will 
operate as an emetic, and by continuing its use more moderately, 
relaxes the bowels, promotes perspiration, and effectually cures 
fevers. This article is also one of the sweating plants used by 
the Indians, and there is no doubt that its usefulness in fevers is 
partly owing to its diaphoretic property. It promises to become 
a valuable article of medicine. 

— ~»»e ® »♦«•— 

INDIAN SANICXE, 

Root small, fibrous, and black. Leaves, growing at the* top 
of a long naked stem, five in a whorl, several stems rising from 
the same root. The scape or flower stem rises considerably 
higher than the leaf stalks, with two or three 'whorls of small 
leaflets near the top. Flowers few, in terminal corymbs. 

A tea of this root is considered by some of the Indians as a 
sovereign remedy for rattle-snake bites. For this purpose, take 
three bunches of roots, and boil them in a pint of water, and 
drink in divided doses, at intervals of twenty or thirty minutes. 
At the same time, prepare a decoction of the leaves and stems, 
and bathe the bitten part. By pursuing this course, the Indian 



METERIA MEDICA. 363 

doctors say they can cur,e a snake bite although it may have 
happened two days previous to the application. 

The sanicle is also a good remedy for sore throat, croup, hives, 
and other diseases of the skin, and for fevers. They use it in 
tea, or chew the root and swallow the juice. One Indian said 
he was cured of a fever, with this article, after other remedies 
had failed. 



DIRECTIONS 

FOR THE GATHERING, SELECTION, AND PRESERVATION 
OF MEDICINES. 



The gathering of medicinal herbs, roots, and barks, at the 
proper seasons,and the judicious selection and careful preserva- 
tion of them, are matters of the utmost importance. Too muck 
attention to these subjects can scarcely be given; and all persons 
engaged therein, ought to have their minds suitably impressed 
with the vast importance of their avocation. When we reflect 
upon the sufferings of the sick — their anxiety, as well as. the 
sympathy of their friends, and the necessity, in many instances-, 
of promptly administering the best remedies in order to save 
life, we shall be the better able to appreciate the high impor- 
tance of carefully selecting, preparing, and preserving the vari- 
ous articles of medicine, and the heavy responsibility of those 
who for gain, or from any other motive, are selling, or using in 
practice, articles which have been damaged and are of inferior 
medicinal powers. By using inferior medicines the sufferings 
and anxiety of the sick may pot only be protracted, but many 
valuable lives may also be actually lost. And we cannot close 
these remarks without expressing an ardent wish that all per- 
sons engaged in the purchasing of the simple articles of botanic 
medicine, would exercise the utmost care to instruct those en- 
gaged in gathering and curing them, in the best manner of doing 
it, and then rigidly enforcing a compliance with those instruc- 
tions or not purchase the articles. It is from the extreme and 
criminal carelessness or negligence in the curing of medicine 
that disappointments as to their efficacy arises, and by which 



364 MATERIA MEDICAi 

means also, valuable articles have often fallen into disrepute. 
Great care ought also to be taken to reject or separate every 
thing from the medicinal article which does not belong to it; as 
poisonous substances are sometimes gathered along with medi- 
cines. 

1. Roots which are annual, that is, grow from the seed every 
year, should be gathered juet before flowering, as they are then 
in the highest slate of perfection. Roots which are biennial, 
that is, spring from the seed one year, live through the winter, 
arrive at maturity, bear seed and die during the second year, 
ought to be gathered in the fall of the first year, or early in the 
spring of the second. Triennial roots should be collected in the 
fall of the second, or spring of the third year; and perennial 
roots ought to be collected either in the fall after the leaves and 
tops begin to die, or in the spring before they begin- to grow. 
Roots which are gathered out of season, either lose in theis 
properties, weight, value, or in all these respects. 

Soon after the roots are collected, and before they become 
dry, they must be washed clean, carefully throwing out such as 
are worm-eaten, unsound, or dead, but not allowed to remain long 
in the water as that will extract some of their virtues. After 
washing, they should be spread in a dry, airy place, or better in 
the sun shine; but if spread in the open air, great care must be 
taken to prevent their getting wet with rain or dew, as this will 
very much impair their value. When perfectly dry, they should 
be carefully packed away in jars, boxes, or barrels, according to 
the quantity, and placed in a dry, airy room, but never in a 
damp one. 

2. Herbs and leaves ought generally to be gathered about 
the time of flowering, as they are then in their greatest perfec- 
tion. Some, however, the lobelia for instance, with an eye to 
economy, may be collected about the time the leaves- begin to 
change from green to yellow, or rather before, as the seed is 
then ripe. Herbs and leaves should be dried in the same way, 
and with the same precautions as roots, and preserved in the 
same manner, after drying. They ought to be gathered in dry 
weather, after the dew goes off* in the morning, and before it 
falls at evening. Such as are imperfect or injured, dry, with- 
ered, or dead, must be rejected. 



MATERIA MEDICA. 365 

3. Barks should be gathered in the spring or fall; and ought 
to be taken from young thrifty trees, freed from every thing but 
the inner living bark, carefully dried, and preserved, as directed 
for roots and herbs. 

4. Flowers should be collected when in perfection, and in 
dry weather, after the dew is off, carefully dried and preserved 
as directed for other articles. 

5. In the preparing roots and herbs for use, if to be done on 
a large scale, grinding in a grist mill, and bolting most articles, 
is to be preferred. To prepare them for grinding, if the weath- 
er be dry and a hot sun, the article to be ground must be spread 
in the sun shine, until it becomes perfectly dry and brittle; or 
if the weather be not suitable, the article may be put into an 
oven moderately heated, or, what is better, spread on an upper 
floor over the fire where there is no sealing over hea,d. When 
sufficiently dry, if it be roots, put them into a barrel or box, 
and with an axe or any thing else more suitable, beat and break 
them up so that they will readily go into the mill; and if they 
have not been well washed, they may be sifted, and as the dirt, 
by the process of beating, is separated from the roots, it will 
readily sift out and leave the roots clean. 

Herbs are sometimes put into a box made for cutting straw 
for horses, and cut up in pieces of from one to two inches long, 
then they are run lightly through the mill, and the stems or 
woody parts separated from the leaves, when it is run through 
again and again, if necessary, until made sufficiently fine. 

Bark must also be cut up into short pieces, and run through 
the mill, repauting the operation until reduced to a proper fine- 
ness. In general, bark is not made so finp as other articJes, it 
being sifted instead of bolted. * 

For pulverizing medicines in a mortar, on a smaller scale, the 
drying must be done in the same manner as for grinding. 

After medicines are pulverized they should be kept in bottles, 
jars, boxes, or barrels, according to the quantity- But as all 
medicines lose something by being long pulverized, unless com- 
pletely excluded from the air, all persons using or dealing in 
them, should, when grinding or otherwise pulverizing them, have 
in view the probable quantity which they might use or dispose 
of in any given time. 



PART IV. 
COMPOUNDS. 

Having gone through with a description of the simple articles, 
and pointed out their most obvious properties and acknowledged 
virtues, together with thjeir mode of preparation, doses, &c. we 
now direct our attention to the various compounds into which 
they enter. 

In the arrangement of the various articles under this head 
we shall not be so systematic as we should wish to be. Cir- 
cumstances beyond our control have protracted the appearance 
of the work to a period far beyond our expectations; which has 
at the same time afforded an opportunity, as the knowledge of 
the proposed publication became more diffused, for the friends 
of the undertaking to contribute to a much greater extent, 
many valuable facts, for its pages. By these means also, the 
size of the present volume has been increased considerably be- 
yond our original -calculations, which has still further retarded 
its publication. As a consequence of this, the demand for the 
work has become so pressing as to deprive us of the time and 
attention necessary to give the compounds that regular system- 
atic arrangement of which we think them capable, and which 
we believe would add something to the value of this part of our 
work. 

In the first place, under the different heads, we will give the 
compounds for which we have obtained patents, and then 
introduce such others of the same class as we may thin 1 : most 
valuable or necessary to give an idea of the various ways in 
which simple articles may be combined to increase their virtues 
or improve their taste. We shall, however, omit some of our 
own prescriptions to make room for others which have been 
obligingly communicated, usually giving the name of the indi- 
vidual who communicated the article, or the work from which 



compound^. 367 

itis taken. We also intend introducing, in a promiscuous man- 
ner, a variety of recipes selected from the great numbers which 
have been furnished us by the friends of the work. Many, 
however, that we have rejected are unquestionably valuable, 
but we are compelled to omit them in order that we may con- 
fine this volume within its present assigned limits. 

We are, however, constrained, before leaving tins subject, to 
observe, that, to many n? doubt, our selection of simples as well 
as preparations of compound^, may be considered by far too 
large. In reply to objections of this kind, should they be raised, 
we will observe, that the object was to benefit as far as possible, 
individuals and families in all parts of the country, enabling them, 
from their own gardens, their own fields, or their own forests, 
to obtain the healing balm, the potent remedy, to cure their 
various ills. We believe that every soil, in every clime, that 
produces the means of sustaining the body while in health, also 
abounds with a profusion of remedies suitable to the wants of 
the sick. But these remedies are not every where known, and 
for the want of this knowledge the people must sutfer, must lan- 
guish, and die. It is the -duty of those who wish to confer all 
the benefit in their power upon suffering humanity, to diffuse, 
not only the knowledge of the medicines of their own particular 
neighborhood, but, as far as in their power, the medicines which 
have been found useful in other places and in other climates. 
The people of one country ought not to be made dependent 
upon those of another for their medicines any more than for 
their bread; and it was under these impressions that we took 
so wide a range in the articles of our materia medica. Every 
section of country should be zealously engaged in developing 
Us own medical resources, in testing and proving the remedies 
of its own soil. Medicines might then be had fresh and sound, 
free from adulteration, and at half, or less than half the expense 
that many of them now cost. 

It is also no less with the same view of benefitting the peo- 
ple of the United States, that we introduce such a large number 
of compounds and recipes, to show how variously the great pro- 
fusion of medical plants may be combined, and thereby either 
increased in value or rendered more pleasant and agreeable. 



308 COMPOUNDS. 

DOSES OF MEDICINE. 

The quantity of medicine to be taken as a dose of the follow- 
ing compounds, as well as throughout the whole work, are calcu- 
lated for an adult or grown person unless otherwise stated; for 
children, the doses may be graduated by the following rule: 

For a youth of fifteen years, the dose may be two-thirds the 
quantity for a grown person; for a child of ten years, one-half 
the quantity; for one of five years, one-third the quantity; for one 
of two years, one-sixth the quantity; and for a child of one year, 
one-tenth the quantity. These doses, however, will necessarily 
be often lessened, or enlarged, according to circumstances and 
the effects produced; the grand object being to give enough; 
but, at the same time, using proper discretion, and not give more 
than is necessary. 

DIAPHORETICS AND SUDORIFICS. 

The only difference between diaphoretics and sudorifics is 4 
that sudorifics promote perspiration in a more powerful manner 
than diaphoretics, a distinction, however, which we think it 
unnecessary to make. 

The different compounds arranged under this head may be 
used indiscriminately on all occasions, especially in cases of 
slight indisposition, and preparatory to and during the operation 
of vapor bathing or steaming, for the purpose of promoting per 
spiration and sustaining the living power during this process. 
They may also be administered after a process of the vapor 
bath and the operation of an emetic, not only to promote the 
discharge of perspirable matter, but to stimulate and strengthen 
the living power, and to give firmness and tone to the muscular 
fibers. In some cases of fever and of other violent or obstinate 
attacks of disease, the diaphoretic compounds may be made 
more stimulating by the addition of a larger proportion of cay- 
enne. 

It will be perceived that the different compounds which will 
follow, embrace a variety of articles belonging to the class of 
astringents, some one or more of which can almost always be bad 
with but little trouble in every neigaborhood ; but in case they 



compounds. 369 

cannot be procured, almost any other article of. the astringent 
medicines which have been treated of in the materia medica may 
be substituted; such as birth-root, dewberry or high blackberry 
root, white pond-lily- root, &c. We will also observe that as we 
do not wish nor intend to infringe upon Dr. Thomson's patent 
nor copy rights, we are unwilling to publish any of his com- 
pounded articles: Those who wish to know what they are 
may be satisfied by reference to his books. We will, however, 
just, remark, that any of the diaphoretic powders may be used 
in all cases where his Composition Powders might be considered 
useful, or have been adverted to, and are, at the same time, 
believed to be better. We deem this notice the more necessary, 
as it will have been perceived by a perusal of the Appendix 
containing a number of actual cases, that many of the names 
given by Dr. Thomson to his remedies have been made use of; 
though in numerous instances the medicine administered was a 
compound quite different from his medicine bearing the same 
name. We also hope that these observations will not be con- 
sidered as originating from any disrespect to Dr. Thomson; we 
think those who have perused our work thus far, will have be- 
-oome -satisfied that we have done ample justice to his character 
as a medical reformer. 



DIAPHORETIC OR SWEATING POWDER. 

Take of, Butterfly-root, t lb. 

Bayberry,bark of the root, 1 lb. 

Sassafras, bark of the root, 4 oz. 

Colic-root, 4 oz. 

Ginger, 1 lb. 

Cloves, 2 oz. 

Cayenne, 2 oz. 

All finely pulverized, and sifted through a fine seive and well 
mixed. Dose for an adult, one tea spoon full in hot water, 
sweetened if most agreeable. For children the dose must be 
proportionably less; and to make it more agreeable, cream or 
milk maybe added as well as sugar. 

47 



370 COMPOUNDS. 

The following prescription is very often us«d, being mere sim- 
ple but not so valuable as the foregoing: — 

Take of, Bayberry, 2 lbs. 

Ginger, 1 lb. 

Cayenne, 2 oz. 

Cloves, 2 oz. 

Prepared and used in the same manner as the foregoing. — 
This is the preparation most commonly alluded to under the 
name of Composition Powders in the Appendix. 



DR. J. T. WELLS' FORMULA. 

Take of, African Capsicum, 1 ©a. 

Cloves, 2 oa. 

Ginger root, pared, 4 oz. 

Bayberry, bark of the root, 4 oz. 

Pleurisy (Butterfly) root, 4 oz. 

Hemlock, inner bark, 4 oz. 

Sumach leaves, 4 oz. 

All to be finely pulverized, sifted, and thoroughly mixed.— 
Dose, a large tea spoon full; or one ounce of the powder to a 
pint of hot water, "and after pouring off, may have another pint 
added, taking one gill of this tea, and to each dose adding a 
tea spoon full of the tincture of myrrh. 



DR. J. EVERETTS FORMULA. 

Take of, Bayberry, 3 lbs. 

-Ginger, 2 lbs. 

Caraway seeds, 2 lbs. 

Cloves, S oz. 

Sassafras, bark ef the root, 4 oz. 

Cayenne, 4 oz. 
All finely pulverized, sifted, and well mixed. Dose, one t*re 
spoon full. 



ELIAS SMITH S FORMULA. 

Take of, Bayberry, 1 lb. 

Hemlock bark, 8 oz. 

Witch-hazel leaves, 4 oz. 

Ginger, 8 oz. 

Cayenne, * 4 oz. 

Cloves, 2 oz. 
All finely pulverized, sifted, and well^mixed. Dose, one tea 
tpeon full. 



COMPOUNDS. 371 

The following is one of the compounds communicated by Dn 
J. T. Wells, under the name of Anti-dysenteric powders, and 
considered by him as an invaluable article in the treatment of 
dysentery. We arrange it under the head of diaphoretics 
instead of astringent tonics because it embraces several aromatic 
articles which are valuable diaphoretics, and no doubt these 
powders may be usefully employed to promote perspiration at 
the same time that they are valuable as a remedy in dysentery, 
as all the diaphoretic compounds are* 

Take of, African Cayenne, 3 oz. 

Ginger root, pared, 4 or. 
Bayberry, bark of the root, 4 oz. 

Pleurisy (Butterfly) root, 4 oz.. 

Hemlock, inner bark, 4 oz. 

Sumach leaves, 4 oz. 

Witch-hazel leaves, 4 oz. 

Red Raspberry leaves, 4 oz. 

Golden Seal, 4 oz. 

Valerian root, 4 oz. 

x\nise seeds, 4 oz. 

All made fine, sifted, and thoroughly mixed. Dose, a heap- 
ing tea spoon full, in a gill of boiling water, drank as hot as can 
be borne. Or if the patient cannot readily take it in substance, 
one ounce of the powder may be steeped in a pint of hot water, 
taken in doses of a gill, and when the liquor is used off, fill up 
again, and use ag before. _ 



Under the head of Anodyne Powders, Dr. Wells has the fol- 
lowing recipe: 

Take of, African Cayenne, | oz. 

Ginger root, pared, 4 oz. 

Cinnamon bark, 4 oz. 

Sumach leaves, 4 oz. 

Witch-hazel leaves, 4 oz. 

Red Raspberry leaves, 4 x>z. 

Valerian root, 4 oz. 

Fresh Anise seeds, 4 oz. 

All finely pulverized, sifted, and well mixed. 

"•These powders are good for all menstrual derangements in 
the female system, for bearing down pains, and affections of the 
UidnlesvWadder. or womb, and especially during pregnancy and 



372 COMFOUNB3. 

in labor they are the best corrector, prompter, and alleviater, V. 
know of. 

"Directions for using. — Make a strong decoction of the pow- 
ders, in the proportion of one ounce to a pint of boiling water, 
simmered slowly in a tin vessel, for tenor fifteen minutes; which, 
after settling, and using off the decoction, will bear filling up 
with boiling water, stirring, simmering, settling, and using off, a 
second time. Dose, take half a gill of this decoction as warm 
as can conveniently be drank, (sweetened, if most agreeable,) 
and either add from two to three tea spoons full of the anodyne 
drops (hereinafter to be mentioned,) to each dose, or the drops 
may be taken during the intervals between the doses o( the 
decoction. Doses to be repeated once in from fifteen to sixty 
minutes, according to the state and condition of the patient." 

Dr. Wells also states that these powders are excellent in all 
female complaints, weakness, venereal disease, &c. taken into 
the stomach, or used by injection to the part affected. 

ASTRINGENT TONIC COMPOUNDS. 

Compounds of this class may be multiplied to almost any 
extent desirable. No class of medicines perhaps are more 
abundant than astringents, and few ought to be more generally 
used. There are, however, some states of the system in which 
they ought to be administered with a sparing hand, or omitted 
altogether. In obstinate costiveness, and in burning fevers 
attended with great and constant dryness of the mouth, and 
more especially if this dryness is increased by the astringent 
remedies, this class of medicines ought not to be used. In cos- 
tive habits reliance should be mainly placed on laxative bitter 
tonics; and in fevers, the moisture of the mouth must be restored 
by the use of cayenne pepper, spice-wood, pennyroyal, and other 
warm teas, together with the frequent application of the vapor 
bath. After the natural secretions have restored moisture to 
the mouth, the astringent tonics may be employed, and are 
among the best remedies to change that peculiar state of the 
system which occurs during a fever, and restore ii to one mor<- 



COMPOUNDS. 373 

congenial with health. Their free administration during re? 
aevery from disease, and especially from fevers, have a most 
powerful tendency to prevent relapses; and hence the propriety 
o{ combining them with the bitter tonics. Indeed so great is 
their influence over the human system, that a strong decoction 
of these medicines alone will very frequently remove fevers and 
many other complaints in their incipient or first stages; whence 
the propriety of employing them so extensively in the diapho- 
retic powders, which are calculated for using on all ordinary 
occasions, of slight attacks, or first stages of disease. 

The astringent tonics are also peculiarly adapted to the treat- 
ment of diarrhoea, dysentery, and all cases of looseness of the 
bowels. They are likewise the proper remedies for canker, 
ulcers, fioodings and hemorrhages of every description, for all 
relaxed states of the system, and profuse evacuations of almost 
every kind. 



ASTRINGENT TONIC. ^Sf * J 

Take of, Birth- root, } 

Pleurisy-root, f aJ tg 

Bayberry, bark of the root, C 

Hemlock, the inner bark, j 

All finely pulverized and well mixed. One ounce of this 
powder steeped in one and a half pints of water, dose, half a 
tea cup full, with from half to a whole tea spoon full of cayenne 
in it, sweetened if most agreeable. A dose of this tea may be 
taken three times a day in ordinary cases, but in diarrhoea, dys- 
entery, fioodings, &.c. the doses should be more frequent. 

The most economical method of preparing this medicine, is 
to take what sifts or bolts out of such different articles as are 
pulverized very fine for making the diaphoretic powders, as 
there is always a certain portion of them which it is very difficult 
to grind, particularly of the hemlock and bayberry. 



Dr. J, T. Wells has furnished us with the following recipe, 
mider the name of Anti-Morbific Powders; and as he appears 



374 COMPOUNDS. 

tx> employ them for the same purposes that we use the astringent 
compound, we introduce them under the same head: 

Take of, African Capsicum, 4 oz. 

Ginger root, pared, 1 lb. 

Bay-berry, bark of the root* 1 lb. 

Pleurisy root, . 1 lb. 

Hemlock bark,, 1 lb. 

Sumach, root, bark, or leaves, 1 lb. 

All finely pulverized, sifted, and mixed. Method of prepar- 
ing for use, and dose, nearly similar to that directed for the 
astringent tonic. 



CHERRY CORDIAL. 



Take of the bark of the roots of wild cherry tree and poplar- 
bark, equal parts, and make a strong tea, by moderate steeping. 
Strain off and add to each gallon of the tea four pounds of 
sugar, (loaf sugar is the best,) four ounces of the finely pulver- 
ized m^ati£ or,' kernels ©f peach stones, and two quarts of good 
brandy!* Dose\ half a wine glass full, several times a day. 

This is a most valuable astringent tonic, useful in all cases of 
obstinate diarrhoea and dysentery. It also combines the pro- 
perties of a bitter, but the astringent by far predominates, and 
is so powerful as to need using with care. This cordial is a 
grateful, and very valuable medicine. 

As there is so much similarity in all the compounds which can 
possibly be made by mixtures of the simple articles under the 
denomination of astringent tonics, we deem it unnecessary to 
add any more formulas under this bead. We may also observe, 
that a single article of the astringent class is quite as frequently 
used as any compound, and often deemed quite as good. In 
compounding for ordinary use it is a good rule in general, to 
combine those which are most drying or astringent with those 
which are more mild and do not obstruct the flow of the juices 
of the mouth. The reader is referred to the rule for choosing.. 
medicine?, laid down in the first volume, pages 79 and 80. 



* 



COMPOLSDS. 3/5 

BITTER TONIC COMPOUNDS. 

The term restorative is often applied to medicines of this 
class, because they are commonly resorted to, after the force of 
the disease has been overcome, for the purpose of assisting the 
solids in recovering a perfect healthy firm tone, whereby the 
living power is enabled to exercise a proper influence over them* 

Bitter tonics are a valuable class of medicines, universally 
applicable in all cases of disease. It is found by experience, that 
combining a portion of some astringent tonic increases their bene- 
cial influence upon the system. The article most commonly 
used for this fpurpose is the bayberry, though almost any other 
--astringent article would answer instead of it; particularly the 
dewberry- root, birth-root, dogwood bark, or even a small portion 
of the bark of white oak. 



BITTER TONIC. t/Y " ^f 

Take of, Poplar bark, 1 lb. 

Golden seal, 1 lb. 

Bayberry, bark of the root, 1 lb. 

Colombo root, 1 lb. 

Capsicum, 6 oz. 

Cloves, 6 oz. 

Loaf or lump sugar, 4 lbs. 6 oz. being a 

quantity equal to all the other articles. All to be finely pulver. 

ized, sifted, and well mixed. Dose, one tea spoon full in either 

hot or cold water; or the powders may be taken into the mouth, 

moistened with the saliva and swallowed, or washed down with 
i- 

cold water,. 

To make laxative bitters, add one pound, more or less, of the 
bitter-root to the foregoing compound, increasing, in the same 
proportion, the quantity of capsicum, cloves, and sugar. The 
following compound may algo be rendered laxative by the same 
means. 

"> fir 



SPICE BITTERS. *•" 


/r 


Take of, Poplar bark, 

Bayberry, bark of the root, 
Golden seal, 


i ib. 
i ib. 
i ib. 


Cayenne, 

Cloves, 

Prickly Ash berries, (if at hand,) 


4 oz. 
4 oz. 
2 oz. 



Loaf or lump sugar, in-quantity equal to all the 



376 COMPOUNDS. 

other articles. All finely pulverized, sifted, and well mixed. 
Dose, &c. the same as the bitter tonic. Or either of those 
compounds may be put, two ounces into a quart of wine, and 
taken in small doses, three or four times a day, for dyspepsy, or 
any complaint whatever. 

DR. WELLS' ANTI-DYSPEPTIC OR RESTORATIVE BITTERS. 

Take of, African Cayenne, 4 oz. 

Cloves, 4 oz. 

Cinnamon bark, 8 oz. 

Poplar bark, 1 lb. 

Golden seal, 1 lb. 

Bitter root, bark of the, 1 lb. 

Bayberry, bark of the root, 1 lb. 

Pleurisy root, 1 lb. 

(* Ginger root, 1 lb. 

* Soimach leaves, 8 oz. 

Hemlock bark, 8 oz. 

Loaf sugar, 8 lbs. 

All made fine, sifted, and well mixed. Dose, a heaping tea 
spoon full, in half a gill of boiling water, three times a day. 
Or, take one ounce of the powder, three gills of gin or of Lis- 
bon wine and one gill of water, and two ounces of loaf sugar, 
mix in a bottle, to be shaken before using. 



DR. EVERETT S HOT BITTERS. 



Take of Balmony leaves, 8 oz- 

Bitter root, 8 oz. 

Barberry bark, 2 oz. 

Prickly Ash berries, § oz. 

Rhubarb, 2 oz. 

Caraway seeds, 1 lb. 

Cloves, 8 oz. 

. t r*" Jv African Cayenne, 12 oz. 

All finely pulverfzed, and well mixed. Put one ounce of this 
powder, and two ounces of brown sugar, into a quart of spirits, 
shake often for a few days, when it will be fit for use. Dose, two 
tea spoons full in a gill of hot water sweetened. Removes a 
cold, promotes the appetite, quenches thirst, relieves cough, re- 
moves costiveness, and cures colic. For colic and costiveness, 
the dose must be increased to double the quantity. 



compounds. 377 



TONIC CORDIAL- 



Take of, Poplar bark, 1 lb, 

Bayberry, bark of the root, 8 oz. 
Dogwood bark, 8 oz. all made Gne. 

Water, a sufficient quantity, boiled to two gallons; then strain 
cff, and add of Sugar, (loaf the best,) 7 lb. 

Peach kernels, pulverized, 8 oz. 
French brandy, 1 gallon. 

To be kept closely bottled. Dose, half a wine glass full, three 
or four times a day. This is a very valuable tonic compound, 
partaking of the properties, of both bitter ami astringent tonics, 
the bitterness, however, rather predominating. It is a most ex- 
cellent restorative; useful in all cases, particularly in diarrhoea 
and dysentery. 



TONIC EXPECTORANT SYRUP. 



4 



This is made exactly as the tonic cordial, with the addition of 
four ounces of the freihor three ounces of the dry rattle-root, and 
two ounces of the spignard, elecampane, or common horehound. 
This syrup is an excellent article for coughs, consumptions, and 
all complaints of the breast. Dose, half a wine glass full, two 
or three times a day. It is best, however, to begin with one 
spoon full, and gradually increase the dose. 



DR. WELLa TONIC, OR AGUE PILLS. 

Take of, African Cayenne, best quality 2 drachms, 
Ginger root, pared and pulverized, 3 do. 
Quinine, 1 do. 

Lupuline, 2 do. 

Honey, sufficient to form it into a mass suitable for making 
into pills. Then roll into one hundred and twenty pills. For 
ague, take one every half hour for five hours previous to the ex- 
pected return of the chill. Said to be an excellent article. To 
have the full advantage, however, the stomach ought to be well 
cleansed by an emetic, or the bowels by a cathartic, before tak- 
ing the pills. \ 

48 



31$ ( COMPOUNDS, 

NERVINE COMPOUNDS. 

But very little has hitherto been done to improve the nervine 
medicines by compounding those of different qualities, which is 
to be accounted for in the fact, that this class of medicines em- 
braces, so far as known, a much fewer number of simple articles 
than most other classes do. These medicines are highly useful 
in the healing art ; their mode of action being that of giviDg tone 
to the nervous system, and hence might, with propriety, be styled 
nervine tonics. 

Nervines ought to be used in almost all cases of disease, espe- 
cially if symptoms* of nervous irritation be perceivable. The 
principal articles of this class, which we recommend, are the as- 
safetida, the ginseng, and the lady's slipper. 

Take of. Lady's slipper, 4 oz. 

Ginseng, 2 oz. and two 

«*• Nutmegs, all finely pulverized and well mixedv 

^JDose, onetea spoon full ; or one ounce may be steeped in a pint 

of hot water, of which three or four great spoons full, or more 

snay be taken at a dose as often as circumstances may require* 



NERVINE TINCTURE. 

A valuable tincture is made by infusing four ounces of the 
above powder in a pint of alcohol or brandy, placed in a hot sun 
heat, often shaking, for ten days; when it may be poured off, 
strained, or filtered, and add of the Essence of Anise, l oz. 
Dose, from one tea spoon full to a table spoon full* 
The simple tincture of lady's slipper, is also a valuable pre= 
paration for all nervous symptoms. It may be made by digest- 
ing in a hot sun heat, four ounces of the pulverized root in a 
pint of brandy or alcohol, often shaking it for ten days; then 
strain or filter. Dose, from one tea spoon full to a table spoon 
full, repeated at discretion. 



COMPOUND TJNCTURE OF VALERIAN. 
(A prescription of Dr. Wells.) 

Taise of, Valerian (lady's slipper) root, 5 oz. 

Liquorice root, 5 oz. 

Oil of Anise, 1 oz. 

Camphor, 1 dr. 

Alcohol, m pints,) £4 oz. 



COMPOUNDS- 379 

The 6olid articles must be pulverized, all mixed together 
and infused in a hot sun heat for ten days, and then filtered or 

strained. 



ANTISPASMODICS* 

Very nearly allied to the nervine, compounds, are the anti- 
spasmodics. They act indeed upon the same principle, but are 
more powerful; and those which are to be relied upon in the 
worst cases, such as fits, spasms, locked-jaw, hydrophobia, Sec 
contain the nauseous properties of the lobelia, and are, therefore* 
notsuitable to use in ordinary casea. 



ANTISPASMODIC TINCTURE. 



•Tf 



Take of, Tincture of Lobelia seeds, 1 pint, 
Tincture of Cayenne, 1 do. 

Nervine Tincture, 3 gills. 

Mix, and bottle for use. Dose, from half n tea spoon full to 
a table spoon fall, repeated according to circumstances. This 
tincture is used not only in cases of fits, spasms, &c, but in all 
violent attacks of disease, and in cases of suspended animation 
from drowning, hanging, by lightning, or any other cause what* 
ever. It also operates as a speedy emetic, and should therefore 
be used in all cases of the accidental or criminal introduction of 
poisonous substances into the stomach. It may likewise be used 
to facilitate the operation of an emetic of the more common 
preparations of lobelia, for which purpose it may be adminis- 
tered in tea or table spoon full doses. 



TINCTURE OP CAYENNE, 

Is made by digesting for ten days in a hot sun heat, four and 
a half ounces of best cayenne, finely pulverized, in a pint of 
alcohol, often shaking it; then strain or filter. 

TINCTURE OP LOBELIA SEEDS, isV f 

Is made by digesting four and a half ounces of pulverize4 
lobelia seeds in a pint of alcohol, in the same manner as for the 
tincture of cavenne, 



380 COMPOUNDS. 

The tinctures of which the Antispasmodic Tincture is com- 
posed, ought to be fully saturated, that is, made as strong as the 
different articles will make them. 



1} OZi 


H oz. 


Tib. 


1 lb. 


1 lb. 


3 lbs. 


12 lbs. 



COMPOUND ANTISPASMODIC TINCTURE. 
(A prescription of Dr. Wells .) 

Take of, Cloves, 
Nutmeg, 

Ginger root, pared, 
Cinnamon bark, 
Anise seeds, fresh, 

• Valerian (lady's slipper") root, 

f % ^Alcohol, (li galls.) 
he sofcclwticles to be finely pulverized, and digested in 
the alcohol for ten days, in a hot sun heat, then fiitered through 
paper. Dose, from one to three tea spoons full. Useful in alL 
spasmodic or nervous affections. 

— •»»© © ©««•- — 

ANTISEPTICS. 

This class of medicines is used to prevent, or to stop morti* 
fication. They may act as stimulants, tonics^or as chemical 
remedies. The two first, however, are the only ones with which 
we have any thing to do here. Antiseptics include stimulants 
and tonics of all classes, and especially the astringents. They 
all produce their beneficial effects upon the same general prin- 
ciples by which they act in other diseases; giving action and 
tone to the diseased organs. They ought to be freely used in 
all cases of mortification, or where there is good reason to appre- 
hend that it may take place; both internally and externally ap- 
plied, if the mortified part be so situated as to admit of exter- 
nal applications. 



COMPOUND TINCTURE OF 9IVRRH, 

^ %ake, of. Best Myrrh, 12 oz. 

Capsicum, 2 oz. 

Balsam of Fir, 1 oz. 

Nutmeg, j oz. 

Brandy, 1 gallon.- 



COMPOUNDS. 



381 



The solid articles all to be finely pulverized, and infused in 
the brandy for ten days, in a hot sun heat, and often shaken, 
when it may be strained or filtered. This is a powerful anti- 
septic, and is highly valuable to wash and cleanse old foul ulcers, 
which are obstinate to heal. 



SIMPLE TINCTURE OF MTRRH. 

Take of, Myrrh, 12 oz. 

Capsicum, 2 oz. 

Peach or cherry kernels, & oz. 

Brandy, alcohol, or highwines, 1 gallon. 
Pulverize the myrrh and capsicum and digest ten daysjki a 
hot sun heat, strain or filler. For internal use iiftases of dysen- 
tery, or mortification, either of the above tinctures are best made 
with brandy; but for external use and for internal application 
the alcohol or high wines, as they are much cheaper than brandy, 
will answer the purpose very well. The simple tincture of 
myrrh is a very valuable family medicine; useful for worms, 
pains in the stomach, colic, head-ache, &c. Dose, from one to 
four tea spoons full, or even more. 

In addition to these compounds, the bitter and astringent ton- 
ics, as well as the diaphoretic powders, are useful internal reme- 
dies in mortifications. Poultices are also valuable external 
applications to mortifying sores or wounds. They may be made 
by boiling dogwood, (cornus lloridus) alder or winter-berry, sas- 
safras, bayberry , or white oak barks, or pond-lily, birth, or black- 
berry roots, making a strong decoction, then skim out the barks 
or roots and thicken with slippery elm, cracker, and a little gin- 
ger, to the consistence of a poultice. Or any of these barks or 
roots may be pulverized and mixed with slippery elm, cracker, 
and ginger, and moistened with the aforesaid tea. In bad cases, 
a small quantity of cayenne mixed with the poultice makes it 
more stimulating, is a valuable addition and ought not to be 
neglected. 

CATHARTICS. 

This class of medicines, although by far too generally used, 
(or rathe^cJKse of this class which have been most frequent!/ 



382 C0MP0UWD3. 

employed, are of too dangerous a character to be used at all,) 
are nevertheless valuable medicinal agents. Thej may be ad- 
ministered in most cases of fever, ,diarrhcea 1 dysentery, severe 
head-ache, biliou3 colic, worms, &c. 



VEGETABLE CATHARTIC PILL3, 

Take of, Mandrake root, 6 02^ 

Black root, 4 oz. 

Blood root, 4 oz. 

Gamboge, 8 oz. 

Lobelia seeds, 4 oz. 

k Cayenne, i oz. 

All finely pulverized, sifted, and well mixed. To form inte- 
pills, make a thick mucilage of gum Arabic, peach tree gum, or 
even slippery elm bark, by dissolving in water, or instead of this 
take molasses, and moisten the powders just so as to make them 
adhere together. Then make them into pills about the size of a 
pea, and roll them in fine slippery elm, bay berry, or flour, lay 
them in a dry place exposed to the air to dry, and when suffi- 
ciently dry they may be put into boxes, and have a little fine 
bayberry or elm mingled with them to prevent their adhering 
together. Dose, from three to six, taken, in* ordinary cases, at 
bed time. 



BR.. BUNNELLS ANT1BILIOUS FEMALE PILLS.. 

Take of, Mandrake root, 8 oz. 

Gamboge, 8 oz. 

Biood root, 4 oz. 

Lobelia seeds, 4 oz. 

All fine'y pulverized, sifted, and we!" mixed; the powder 
moistened with molasses to a proper consistence for making into- 
pills. In other respects managed as the foregoing. Dose, from, 
two to five. 

These pills are useful in diarrhcea, dysentery, rheumatism,, 
jaundice, female obstructions, &c. For chronic complaints 
enough should be taken to operate as a brisk purge, and then 
about' two a day, and if necessary again repeat thejjwsgS* 

% 



"COMPOUNDS. 383 

DR. REED'S ANT2BILIOUS PILLS. 

Take of Gamboge, 2 62, 

Blood root. 2 oz. 

Lobelia seed, 1 025. 

Cayenne pepper, 2 dr's. 

Rhubarb, 4 dr's. 

_ Pearlash, 1 dr. 

^^cnsKe firef sifted, and mixed. Brought (o a proper con- 
vlsteme lor makrfcg into pills by the addition of syrup of buck- 
thorn or butternut. After making, roll them in pulverized 
Golden seal. 

"These pills," says Dr. Reed, "may be used ag a puke or 
purge. Take one every hour till they purge; or take four at 
once, and they will puke. Take one every hour until the bow- 
els begin to move, then take three, and they will vomit, purge, 
sweat, and produce a free discharge of urine." Dr. Reed also 
states, that with these pills he cured a case of rhumatism, of 
eleven years standing, in five days. The pills were adminis- 
tered three at a time, three times a day. He also mentions two 
other cases, of shorter standing, which he also cured. 



DR. WEX^s' VEGETABLE CATHARTIC PILL&- 

Take of, Mandrake root, 1 drachm., 

Ginger root, pared, 2 scruples, 

Pleurisy root, 1 dr. 

Bitter root, 1 dr. 

African pepper, I scruple, 

All finely pulverized, sifted, and well mixed. Formed into a 
mass suitable for making into pills, by mixing with honey.— 
Make into pills of a suitable size for swallowing. Dose, three 
pills, and if they do not operate in six hours, take two more. 

In addition to the purgative properties of these pills, Dr- 
Wells alleges that they are diaphoretic, antiseptic, and tonic, . 

EMETICS. +/* F 
The most simple form in which an emetic can be adminis- 
tered, is in powder. For this purpose, the leaves and pod9 of 
the lobelia iuflata answer an excellent purpose. The seed3 are 
more powerful in their effects upon the system thaw the leaves and 



384 COMPOUNDS. 

pods,and are generally more violent in their operation. They are, 
however, most commonly preferred, especially in bad cases, their 
effects being usually more beneficial* The tincture of the 
leaves, or leaves and pods, is probably the mildest form in which 
the lobelia can be given, and is the preferable mode of adminis- 
tering it to children. 



TINCTURE OF LOBELIA. 



?.#*/ 



Take of the lobelia, fresh gathered, any quantity, bruise in a 
mortar and put into an earlhen or tin vessel, pressing it down 
close and firm; then add of proof spirits, sufficient to cover the 
herb. Cover the vessel close, and let it stand for a day or two, 
and then strain and press out the liquor from the herb, and to 
each quart of this tincture, add one ounce of essence of sassafras, 
and bottle it for use. Dose, from one to ten tea spoons full. 

This tincture is valuable not only as an emetic, but also as an 
external application to wounds, bruises, inflammations, ulcers, 
eruptions of the skin, and poisons of every description. 



DR. EVERETT S ASTHMATIC TINCTURE. 

Take of the tincture, of lobelia, made from the dry herb, eight 
quarts; liquorice paste, half a pound dissolved in warm water 
and added to the tincture. This is said by Dr. Everett, to be 
excellent for the asthma. The term liquorice paste, used by 
Dr. Everett, is new to us, but we suppose it must be the extract 
of the liquorice root, commonly called liquorice ball. 



DR. EVERETT'S EMETIC COMPOUND. 

This is made by mixing the asthmatic tincture with the tinc- 
ture of blood root, which is prepared as follows: — 

Take of, Blood root, bruised, 4 oz. 

Hot water, 1 pint. 

Pour the ^tej- on the pulverized roots, and digest for two 
days; then acr^a pifftoip roof spirits. 

Take of. Asthmatic tincture, 4 gills, 

Blood root tincture, 1 gill. 

Mix. Of this mixture Dr. Everett states, that he give5 from 
one to five or six ounces as an emetic, which operates much 



compound*. 385 

easier for both patients and attendant?, than the lobelia alone. 
For stubborn cases of adu?ts ; he usual]}' adds a little of the pul- 
verized seeds of lobelia to give it more energy or activity. 

We will just remark, that we think Dr. Everett's tincture of 
the dry lobelia, which he thinks much stronger than can be made 
from the green herb, is, nevertheless, a great deal less powerful 
than the tincture that we are in the habit of making from the 
fresh plant, or it would not require so much as he speaks of to 
operate as an emetic. 

a * - 

EXPECTORANTS. 

The object of expectorants is to loosen and promote the ejec- 
tion of mucus and other fluids from the throat and lungs.— 
A variety of compounds are employed for this purpose, from 
amongst which we select the following: — 



EXPECTORANT POWDER. 



^-r- 



Take of, Skunk Cabbage root, 8 oz. 

Unicorn root, 2 oz. 

Lobelia seeds, i oz. 

All finely pulverized, sifted, and well mixed. Dose, from half 
to a whole tea spoon full, in honey or molasses, or they may be 
^formed into pills, and taken at bed time. 



DR. WELLS' COUGH DROPS. %y / Z^ ^"" 

Take of, Tincture of Lobelia, 1 pint, 

Anodyne drops, hereafter mentioned, 2 pints, 
Antispasmodic drops, 1 pint. 

Mix. Dose, half to a whole tea spoon full, repeated at dis- 
cretion. 



DRi EVERETT S EXPECTORANT SYRUP. 



+w r 



Take of, Horehound, dry, 'lib. 

Caraway seeds, 1 lb. 

Sage, dry, 8 oz. 

Liquorice root, sweet, 8 oz. 

Coltsfoot, roots and tops, 8 oz. 

Cayenne pepper, 2 oz. 



45 



386 COMPOUNDS, 

Water, a sufficient quantity to boil for two or three hours, 
and leave, whe"n Btrained, two gallons. Then add .yen pounds 
of good brown sugar, boil and skim off the froth or scum; when 
cool add one gallon French brandy, and bottle for use. 

Dose, for a child of three or four years old, one tea spoon full 
adding the same quantity of water; and for grown persons two 
or three tea spoons full without water, taken several times a day, 
if the cough is severe. 



DR. WELLS VEGETABLE SYRUP. 



^r^S^ 



Take of, Onions, fresh from the garden, 1 6 lb. 
Spignet root, fresh dug, 8 lb. 

Horehound, 4 lb. 

Lobelia, 2 lb. 

Pleurisy root, 2 lb. 

Skunk Cabbage root, 2 lb. 

j~ ^ Water, 5 galls. 

BoK in a« -4ron vessel down to two gallons; then strain and 
simmer over coals down to one gallon; then add two pounds of 
honey, one pint of vinegar, and one pint of gin, and simmer down 
to two quarts. 

Dose, one table spoon full every fifteen minutes, till relief is 
obtained. This, says Dr. Wells, is the best thing I know of to 
relieve distressed, difficult, or laborious breathing, &c. &c. 

* V 5 J ANTIEMETICS. 

These medicines are calculated to allay the irritation of the 
stomach and stop vomiting. They may be used in all cases 
where emetics operate too long, or in cases of spontaneous vomit- 
ing which exhaust the patient and prostrate the powers of the 
system. Spearmint or peppermint tea is an excellent article for 
\triis purpose, and may be freely used; but should be made very 
strong. 



ANTI-EMETIC DROPS. 

Take of, Table salt, 3 oz. 

African Cayenne, 1 oz. 

Vinegar, best quality, 1 quart. 



COMPOUND)?. 387 

Mix and bottle for use. Dose, one table spoon full r or lesi, 
©nee in from fifteen to thirty minutes, according to the urgency 
of the symptoms. This is the best remedy to stop vomiting 
which we have ever used. A very common and ready way to 
make it, is to take a heaping tea spoon full each, of salt and 
cayenne pepper, and add it to a tea cup full of good vinegar. 
The most common name for this compound, is pepper sauce, of 
which notice is sometimes taken in the treatment of disease. It 
is also an excellent external application to painful parts, such as 
rheumatism, head-ache, inflammations, bruises, sprains, and to 
palsied limbs, fee. &c. 



SPEARMINT SLING. 



Take of, The bruised herb, a sufficient quantity, or 
Essence of Spearmint; 

Brandy and loaf sugar, enough to make palat- 
able. Taken at pleasure. Very good to check vomiting. 





_ 


ANTISPA8M0*1C AROMATIC DROPS. 




Take of, Lady's Slipper root, 


3 1b. 


Ginger root, pared, 


4 oz. 


Cinnamon bark, 


4 oz. 


Anise seeds, 


8 oz. 


Nutmeg, 


14 OZ. 


Alcohol, 


6 quarts. 



Pulverize the solid articles, put them into the alcohol, digest 
ten days in a hot sun heat, often shaking. Then strain or filter. 

Do%e, from^ne to three tea spoons full, once in fifteen or 
twenty*rninutes uUtil the vomiting stops. 

■I »» #0 »M .. 

ANODYNE DROPS. 

Under this head we include several of Dr. Wells' valuable 
compounds. We will just observe, however, that in our opinion, 
more simplicity might be used in some of these preparations, 
without impairing their value. But we give them as they were 
handed to us, not feeling ourselves at liberty to make any alter- 
ations, We will also further observe, that these remarks arc 



COMPOUNDS. 



not made out of any disrespect to the ingenious inventor of these 
compounds, who has also furnished us with a number of other 
new recipes, which, so far as we have tried, promise to sustain 
the high recommendations we have had of them. 



COMPOUND TINCTURE OF LADY 3 SLIPPSR. 

Take of, Lady's Slipper root, 5 oz. 

Liquorice root, 5 oz. 

Oil of Anise, 1 oz. 

Gum Camphor r 1 drachm, 

Alcohol, li pints. 

The solid articles to be pulverized, and digested in a hot sub: 
heat for ten days, shaken every day, then strained or filtered, 
Useful as a nervine. 



COLIC DROPS, 




Take of, Cloves, 


1 oz. 


Cinnamon, 


£ oz. 


Ginger root, pared, 


2 oz. 


Alspice, 


2 oz. 


Oil of Lavender, 


3 drachms, 


Alcohol, 


l'i pints. 



The solid articles to be pulverized, and digested in the alco- 
hol in a hot sun heat for ten days, often shaking it, then strained 
or filtered. Dose, one to two tea spoons full, on sugar. Very 
useful in cholic, and pains in the stomach and bowels. 



DIAPHORETIC DROPS, 



^i^6 



Take of, Myrrh, 6 oz. 

Cayenne pepper, li oz. 

Alcohol, H pints. 

Prepared as the former. Good to relieve pain and promote 
perspiration. 



ESSENCE OF ANISE. 

Take of, Anise Oil, 3 oz. 

Alcohol, 1 t pints, 

Mix, and shake well together. 



COMPOUNDS. 38f 

SIMPLE TINCTURE OF LADY'S SLIPPER. 

Take of, Lady's Slipper root, 6 oz. 

Alcohol, li pints. 

Prepared in the usual way, by digesting ten days, &c. 



ANODYNE DROPS. 

Take of, Compound Tincture of Lady's Slipper, 1 pint, 
Colic Drops, 1 pint, 

Diaphoretic Drops, 1 pint, 

Essence of Anise, 1 pint, 

Simple Tincture of Lady's Slipper, 4 pints. 
Mix, and shake well together. Dose, from one tea spoon full, 
to one table spoon full, repeated at discretion till relief is ob- 
tained. 

The r e drops are good for pains of every description, particu- 
larly in the stomach, bowels, or head. Also for cholera morbus, 
diarrhoea, dysentery, &c. to betaken mixed with tea of the anti- 
morbific, anti-dysenteric, or astringent powders. 

HEALING SALVES. 

Modern medical writers have advanced the idea that the ap- 
plication of salves, &c. to ulcers, produces no direct beneficial 
effect upon them; or, in other words, that salves contain nothing 
in their nature or preparation, which when applied to an ulcer- 
ated surface, disposes it to heal. The usefulness of those valua- 
ble applications, it is contended, depends entirely upon their 
power of shielding the ulcer from the air. 

However popular may be this theory, we see no rational 
ground for it to rest upon. If one application can be made to 
an ulcer which will irritate and inflame it, we see no good reason 
why another may not be made that will soothe and dispose the 
injured vessels to assume a healthy action, and thus incline the 
ulcer to heal. It is well known that, in general as well as local 
diseases of the system, medicines taken internally will change 
a diseased action to a healthy one ; and why may not external 
applications do the same? It is also as well known that the ap- 
plication of rubefacients, that is, the external application of ttinv 



390 coairounEs. 

ulants, especially to rheumatism, pleurisy, &;c. where the surface 
is sound, produces a beneficial effect by transforming a diseased 
into a healthy action; and it appears equally as rational to sup- 
pose that proper applications to ulcerated parts might do the 
same. Much more might be said on this subject, but at present 
we are compelled to forbear, both for want of room as well a* 
time. 





DR. WELLS' 


HEALING SALVE. 




Take of, 


Turpentine, 




lib. 




Beeswax, 




1 lb. 




Salt Butter, 




1 lb. 




Balsam of F 


>n 


1 lb. 




Tincture of 


Myrrh, 


1 gill. 



Melt and simmer all these articles together over a fire of coal*, 
for three hours, in an iron vessel; then strain and cool. 



SUMACH SALVE. 



Take of the bark of the root of the common sumach, bruised, 
any quantity ; boil until the strength is extracted, strain off the 
liquor; add for each pound of the bark, a few spoons full of 
lard or butter, and mutton tallow enough to give it a proper 
consistence, then simmer on coals until the water is all evapo- 
rated, when it may be again strained and put by for use. 

Ointments differ from salves in being of a softer consistence: 
both are applied externally, salves most commonly to ulcers? 
and ointments to bad humors and other eruptions of the skin, 



SCROFULOUI OINTMENT. 
[Communicated by Dr. Wells.] 

Take of, Tobacco, best quality, 1 oz. 

White ash Moss, 4 oz. 

Soot, 4 oz. 

Hog ? s lard, 4 oz. 

Tar, 4 oz. 

Antispasmodic drops, 2 oz. 
Boil the tobacco, moss and soot, in two gallons of water, down 

to one gallon; then strain off and boil down to one quart; then 






C0MP0¥ND8. 392 

add the lard and tar, and simmer over a fire of coals, down to 
a pint and a half, and then add the antispasmodic tincture and 
stir till cool. 

This ointment is applied to scrofulous ulcers, scald head, itch f 
and all diseases of the skin. 

INJECTIONS OR CLYSTERS. 

This mode of administering medicine is very ancient and 
useful. Injections are resorted to for the double purpose of 
producing an evacuation of the contents of the rectum, and of 
applying medicine to a part of the system which is very sus- 
ceptible of its influence, and thus produce an impression upon 
it to a greater extent and in a more powerful manner than can 
be done by introducing medicine into the stomach alone. 

Where injections are employed merely for the purpose of 
evacuating the contents of the rectum, in other words to pro- 
cure a stool, it matters but little, in general, what they are 
made of. Warm water with a little lard in it, or warm penny- 
royal or catnip tea, either of them answers a good purpose. It 
is a rare thing, however, that injections are needed to procure 
a passage from the bowels unless some disease be present; 
wherefore it may be almost always advisable to prepare them 
of something more stimulating than warm water. But in cases 
of very obstinate cosiiveness where it becomes necessary to 
administer a great number of injections in order to evacuate 
the contents of the bowels, it may then be sometimes proper 
to omit the cayenne, which, in ordinary cases, may be advan- 
tageously used. The repetition of ten, fifteen, twenty, or even 
forty injections, all charged with a portion of cayenne pepper, 
would be too irritating to the sensitive parts about the rectum, 
and therefore ought only to be put into a few of them. The 
same remarks will also in part apply to the employment of the 
lobelia in the injections. Although it is in general a very valua- 
ble addition to them, yet where they are administered to remove 
costiveness, the lobelia ought to be left out. Independently of 
its tendency to produce costiveness, the quantity which would 
be administered in so many injections would produce sickness 
at the stomach and vomiting, which it is not always necessary 
to do. 



392 compounds. 

As a general rule, injections may always be administered at 
the time of taking a course of medicine, and more especially 
if the bowels are disordered, either by diarrhoea, dysentery, 
costiveness, colic, inflammation, piles, <fcc. For common use 
they are made as follows: — 

Take of, Astringent tonic, pennyroyal, > . .,. 
catnip, or other hot tea, } ° ' 
Lobelia, leaves or seed, pulverized, half to a whole 

tea spoon full, 
Cayenne pepper, one-eighth to half a tea spoon full. 

Mis these articles together and pour them hot into a pint 
syringe, having first unscrewed the cap and taken out the piston ; 
then pour in cold water or cold tea until the liquid in the syringe 
is about blood warm, when the piston is to be returned into the 
syringe, the cap screwed on again, and the contents thrown into 
the intestines. This should be performed with a due regard to 
decency; and those who know nothing about its performance 
only what report has said, should have explained to them the 
manner in which it is performed. They ought to be informed 
that no exposure is necessarily connected with it, and that each 
sex is competent to administer to its own wants in these respects. 
The usual mode of administering injections is to place the sy- 
ringe, after being filled as has been directed, in the bed, Tvhen 
the patient may introduce the pipe, the attendant then throws 
tip the liquid and withdraws the syringe without any exposure 
whatever. 

For diarrhoea, dysentery, &c. the injections should be wholly 
composed of a strong tea of the astringent tonic, or of some 
article of the astringent class, with the addition of a tea spoon 
full or more of the tincture of myrrh, or the same quantity of 
the anodyne drops; and where they are necessarily often re- 
peated, the cayenne may be occasionally omitted. 

In obstinate cases of costiveness, they ought to be made of a 
tea of butternut bark, or of some other laxative article, some- 
times adding a little cayenne, and repeated until the obstruction 

is removed. 
» 

ANTHELMINTICS OR VERMIFUGES. 

These are medicines to destroy worms; of which the butter- 
nut syrup and Carolina pink are among the best articles, Tfmcfc 



compounds. 393 

the reader will find under their proper heads. We give the 
following compound from Dr Wells. 



WORM DROPS. 

Take of. Spirits of Turpentine,^ 

Castor Oil, f each equal parts. 

Anodyne drops, ? Mix. Shake before using. 

Antispasmodic drops, ) 
Dose for a child of five years old, one large tea spoon full 
every hour until it operates mildly as a purge. Then followed 
by bitter tonics. 

—..»©©&««•— 

EYE WATER. 

Although we have condemned the use of minerals in every 
form, and under all circumstances, whether internally or exter- 
nally applied, yet the following eye water has so often manifested 
its extraordinary power and superiority over most other kinds in 
use, we have believed it to be our duty to give it a, place in this 
work: — 

Take of white vitriol, a lump about the size of a pea; loaf 
sugar, twice the quantity; together with three cloves, all finely 
pulverized and well mixed. Then have a hen's egg roasted or 
boiled very hard, peel off the shell, cut through the middle, 
take out the yolk, put the aforesaid powder into the hollow 
where the yolk was, place the two halves of the egg together 
again, wrap it in a strong cloth, and wring it hard, having some- 
ting to catch the fluid in. This process, if dexterously done, 
will yield about a table spoon full of eye water; but if done 
carelessly, or if the egg be wrapped in too much cloth, there 
will be none obtained. This may be applied to the eye at plea- 
sure, by wetting the end of the finger with the eye water and 
touching the corner of the eye, or one drop may be dropped 
into the eye. 



STIMULATING TONIC EYE WATER. 

Take of, Tincture of Lobelia, > Equal parts. 

Decoction of Golden seal, 5 Mix. 
To be used in the same manner as the former. 

50 



394 



COMPOUND'S. 




CHRONIC EYE DROPS. 




Take of, Lobelia seeds, 


1 02, 


African Cayenne, 


1 OZ. 


Myrrh, 


1 OZ. 


L^dy';* dipper, 


1 OZ. 


Camphor, 


J OZ. 


Alcohol, 


1 pint, 



Let the solid articles be pulverized and infused in thp alcohol 
for ten days in a hot sun heat, often shaking it; then filter and 
bottle for use. 

Directions for using. — "Mix one tea spoon full of the drops 
with three of new milk, and apply to the eyes for three days; 
then mix one tea spoon full of the drops with two of milk, and 
apply this three days; then mix equal quantities of the drop? 
and milk, and apply till cured." — Dr. Wells. 

—»>♦»©««<•—- 

STRENGTHENING PLASTER. 

Take of, Rosin, } 

.. Beeswax, > 1 lb. each. 

White Turpentine, ) 
Black pepper, pulverized, 1 table spoon fulL 
Brandy, 1 pint. 

Put the whole into a new earthen crock, and melt and sim- 
mer until the brandy is all evaporated. 

This plaster is also useful applied to ulcers, wounds, &x. as a 
salve. 

Strengthening plasters may also be made by melting turpen- 
tine with a quantity of rosin sufficient to give it a proper con- 
sistence. For summer use it w r ill require more, and for Avinter 
less rosin. 



FELON SALVE. 

Take of. Rock, or any other table salt, 1 oz. 
Hard soap, 1 oz. 

Spirits of Turpentine, £ oz. 

Roast the salt rolled in a cabbage leaf or wet paper, for 
twenty or thirty minutes; then pulverize it, mix with the soap 
previously shaved down, and add the spirits of turpentine, which 
will make a soft salve or poultice. This must be applied to the 



COMPOUNDS. 39S 

affected part, and renewed as often as it becomes bard and dry 5 
and if applied in time, that is before matter is formed, it will 
prevent its formation, by three or four hoifrs application. If the 
salve be not applied until matter is formed,, it will s<ill st<>r> its 
progress, but the matter must be let our, when the ulcer mttb 
be healed by the same means that would be used in any other 
case of like kind. 

DIURETICS. , 

This class of medicines produce an increased discharge of 
urine, and are valuable in the treatment of dropsy. We are 
acquainted with but few compounds of this class that may be 
considered valuable. We will, nevertheless, present the follow- 
ing, in addition to those which -have been given under other 
heads, and which may be found by reference to the index. 



DIURETIC BEER. 

Take of, Elder berry juice, 2 lbs. 

Pure honey, 8 oz. 

Yeast, 2 oz. 
Let it ferment or work clear, then add of 

Tincture of Juniper berries, 2 oz. 

Essence of Winter-green, 2 oz. 
Mix, and it is fit for use. 



DIURETIC CORDIAL. 

Take of, Water melon seeds, 1 lb. 

Featherfew, J lb. 

Yellow parilla root, 1 lb. 

Burdock root, 1 lb. 

s Horse radish root, 1 lb. 

Golden seal, 8 oz. 

Parsley root, 8 oz. 

Agrimony, 8 oz. 
All bruised and boiled in five gallons of water down to four, 
then strain and add twelve pounds of good sugar and two gal- 
lons of brandy. Dose, half a wine glass full once or twice a 
day. 



COMPOUND*. 

CANCER PLASTER. 

Take of, Red clover blossoms, 4 \b&. 

Roots, or roots and tops, of narrow dock, 1 lb. 

Or any larger quantity in the same proportion, boil in water 
until the strength is out, then separate the clover and dock from 
the liquor, carefully pressing all the juice from them, and return 
it again into the kettle, and continue the boiling with the utmost 
care to prevent burning, until reduced to the consistence of a 
salve or plaster. This plaster may be used in all cases of can- 
cerous affections or other bad ulcers, and is believed to be bet- 
ter than the cancer balsam of Dr. Thomson alluded to at page 
32, and referred to in page 33 of this volume. 

WHITE LEY- 

Take of good wood ashes, from four to six great spoons full, 
put them into a tin cup or an earthen bowl or mug; then pour 
about three gills of boiling water on them, and cover the vessel 
immediately up with a plate or some such vessel. Made in this 
way, the ley is deprived of that sharp biting taste which it 
always has if left uncovered and exposed to the air; in lieu 
of which it has, to many at least, a sweetish and rather plea- 
sant taste. This may be used in doses of half a tea cup full, 
more or less, in all cases of acidity of the stomach, especially 
when taking an emetic. 

ESSENCES. 

These are made by dissolving any of the aromatic oils m 
alcohol, in the proportion of about three drachms of the oil to a 
half a pint of alcohol. 



AROMATIC CORDIALS. 

These are pleasant drinks, often very grateful to the sick; any 
kind of which may be made by observing the following rule: 

Take of, Loaf sugar, 12 oz. 

Essence of peppermint, 4 oz. 

Gin, 1 pt. 

Pure water, 1 qt. 



gampounhsu 397 

Dissolve the sugar in the water; then mix the essence with 
the gin, when the whole may be mixed and well shaken 
together. 

ADHESIVE PILASTER. 

Take of, Common Turpentine, 2 lbs. 

Salt Butter, 1 lb. 

Beeswax, 1 lb. 

Balsam of Fir, 1 lb. 

Melt all the articles together; then strain and simmer dowa 
to the consistence of sou. wax. Tni? plaster is for the purpose 
of confining together the edges of deep or large wounds and 
ulcers, and thus enable them with greater facility to heal. 
When thek application is necessary, spread some of this plas- 
ter on a Ions; narrow slip of cloth, then bring the edges of the 
wound or ulcer together; or as nearly so as possible, when apiece 
of the cloth cut to the proper length is to be applied across the 
wound, and so continue laving them on until it is covered from 
one end to the other. In some instances, the wound may be 
covered wholly by one plaster, in which case small holes must 
be made through it to permit the matter to escape should any 
be formed, as there certainly will be in case it is an ulcer over 
which the plaster is placed. 

COMPOUND BATHIXG DROPS. 

(A prescription of Dr. A. Reed.) 

Take of, Tincture of Myrrh, 1 gall. 

Buds of Balm of Gilead, 1 pint, 

Camphor, 2 oz. 

Pulverize the buds and add them, with the camphor, to the 
tincture of myrrh; digest for ten days and strain or filter. Use^ 
fill for bruises, pains in the back, rheumatism, &c. 



dr. Everett's bathing drops. 

Take of, Myrrh, 15 02. 

Oil of Hemlock, 1 oz. 

Cayenne, H oz. 

Alcohol, 2 quarts. 



398- compound*-. 

Pulverize the solid articles, add them to the alcohol, digest for 
ten days in a hot sun heat; then strain and add the oil of hem- 
lock. To be used in all cases where stimulant applications are 
required externally, such as rheumatism, head ache, inflamma- 
tions,* &c. 

MEDICAL RECIPES. 
for women's swollen, inflamed, or sore breasts. 
Take soft soap and make a strong suds, and with a flannel 
cloth, well saturated with the suds, wash and rub the breasts,, 
downward, with some degree of violence, once an hour; after 
which, each time, bathe the breast with pole-cat oil, and cam- 
phor, and keep it covered with a flannel. Pursue this course 
until a cure is effected. — Dr. Daniel Butler. 



ANOTHER FOR THE SAME. 

Take of hard soap, and common salt, each, two ounces; of 
new milk, half a pint; after shaving the soap line, put the above 
ingredients in a vessel and simmer or boil them slowly over the 
fire, (being careful not to burn,) and when hot, stir in a spoon 
full of corn meal, and keep it simmering until of a proper con- 
sistence to spread on a cloth. The whole quantity should be 
used for one poultice, and should cover the whole breast. Aftei 
being spread, the surface of the poultice should be covered over 
with pole-cat oil, or any other soft grease, and applied to the 
breast as hot as can be borne. A new poultice, similar to the. 
above, should be applied once in three hours, until relief is ot* 
mined. The above is considered infallible. — ibid. 



FOR RHEUMATISM. 

1 — Take of, Unicorn roots, 4 oz. 

Prickly ash bask, 4 oz. 

Blood root, 4 oz. 

Old rum, or whisky, 1 gall. 

Pulverize the solid articles, and put the whole in a jug well 
stopped, and keep it in a warm place, often shaking it, for a 
wieek, when it is fit for use. Dose, for an adult, one table spoon 



C0MF0UNDS. 



39i 



full, three times a day, increased, after a week, to a wine glass 
full. 

2— Take of. Prickly ash bark, 8 oz. 

' Xanthoxylon, 2 oz. 

Bitter-sweet, 1 oz. 

Squaw root, 4 oz. 

All boiled in two gallons rain water, down to one gallon.—- 
[This decoction, we should suppose, ought to have three pints 
or two quarts of proof spirits added, to preserve it, though noth- 
ing is said of it in the recipe; nor is the dose given.] To be 
drank four times a day. 

3 — Take of, Skunk cabbage leaves, and) Bruised of each 
Smart weed, $ one hand full, 

Hogs' lard, 2 lb. 

Brimstone, pulverized, 1 oz. 

Boil the skunk cabbage leaves and smart weed in the lard 
until they are crisped; then strain and press out the lard from 
the leaves and weed, and add the brimstone. With this oint- 
ment anoint the painful part, by active friction or rubbing for 
(en minutes, twice a day, and keep it covered with flannel. 

Dr. Henry's Family Herbal 



FOR INFLUENZA. 

Take equal parts of good vinegar and water, and to a tea 
cup full of this mixture add one tea spoon full of best African 
Cayenne; sweeten with honey or sugar. Dose, one table spoon 
full, which will allay the cough instantly. A dose taken at bed 
time will generally enable the patient-to rest well all night; if, 
however, the cough becomes troublesome at any time before 
morning, another spoon full will allay it. 

Communicated by Jolin Shaw\ 



FOR WHOOPING COUGH, 

Eq&al parts of sweet oil, honey and vinegar, simmered toge- 
ther, given in tea spoon full, or larger doses. — ib. 



FOR THE GRAVEL. 

Let the patient drink a gill of red onion juice, and a pint of 
horse-mint tea, twice a day, morning and evening, (but not to^ 



40© COMPOUNDS. 



getber.) The eTect will be perceivable within three days.— - 
Rrp )rted to me by a man who says it will dissolve tbe stone. 

T/ie foregoing was communicated by a slave, to a Baptist 
minister of 'Virginia, who was cured by it, and afterwards bought 
the slave and set him free.— ?6. 



ANOTHER FOR THE GRAVEL OR STRANCURY. 

Steep the roots of asparagus in cold water, after heing well 
bruised or split into shreds, and let t!se patient drink of the 
water often through the course of the day. It will increase the 
discharge of urine in a short time. Simple as it may appear it 
is an effectual remedy. — ib. 



FOR CONTRACTED JOINTS. 

A most valuable experienced remedy for a lameness proceed- 
ing from a fixed contraction of the parts affected; from the pen 
of a late English Surgeon. 

Take the yolk of a new laid egg, and let it be beaten with a 
spoon to the greatest thinness: then by spoons full add three 
ounces of pure water, agitating the mixture continually that the 
egg and water may be well incorporated. The liquor may be 
applied cold, or only milk-warm, to the parts contracted, by a 
gentle friction for a few minutes three or four times a day. This 
remedy has been repeatedly tried by different practitioners, and 
with happy success. — ib. 



FOR COSTIVENESS. 



The foregoing prescription brings to my recollection the same 
medical preparation for removing habitual costiveness, that 
dreadful nursery of every complaint. I was many years ago 
troubled with it, and have often tried this remedy, and also have 
recommended it to others who, as well as myself, have proved its 
superior efficacy: — 

Begin with one new laid hen's egg, (raw;) add it to three 
times its bulk of cold water; let it be beaten for thirty minutes 
to the finest consistence. Take it in the morning on an empty 
stomach, and once or twice in the course of the day afterwa-rds; 



COMPOUNDS. 401" 

continue for eight or ten days, increasing the quantity from one 
to three at a time, if the stomach will relish them; and they will 
gradually and pleasantly remove costiveness and strengthen the 
system. I am also of opinion that it is of considerable benefit to 
the lungs. 

Dr. Moore has mentioned in his Medical Lectures an astonish- 
ing and desperate case of habitual costiveness, in an English sur- 
geon stationed at Gibraltar, who had taken medicine for the 
removal of it until the bowels became so torpid, that they almost 
ceased to act, and hope had nearly vanished. The eggs and 
water was prescribed lor him by a Spanish sergeant of the army, 
-and report says, performed a perfect cure. — ib. 



FOR PAINS FROM COLD OR RHEUMATISM. 
[•A Paivcrful Remedy.] 
Take a large hand full of smart weed, bruise it and add as 
much sharp vinegar as it will absorb; warm it in a pot, or pan, 
and lay it on the part affected in form of a poultice, and renew 
it frequently. If it should prove too painful, as it sometimes will 
when applied to the tender skin, mix it with corn mush or bran. 
The tea made of it I am told is very good to take by the stomach 
for colic pains. — ib. 



FOR CONSUMPTION. 

Take a hand full each, ofhorehound, spignard (or spignet) 
roots, elecampane roots, and garden beets, boil in water, a suffi- 
cient quantity, to extract the virtues of the articles; then strain 
and when cool add honey enough to make a good syrup. Take 
in small doses several times a day. — ib. 



SYCAMORE BUDS. 

The buds of the common sycamore or button wood, is a new 
article in the materia medica, and appear from their sensible 
properties to be possessed of great power. Their taste is warm, 
very pungent, and slightly nauseous, producing a copious dis- 
charge ofsaliva, and a very durable impression on the mouth. 

51 



402 COMPOUNDS. 

Dr. W. H. Anderson, of Warren county, O. seems to have beeft 
the discoverer of the virtues of this article, and communicated it 
not long since to us. The most usual mode of preparation is in 
tincture, which is made by digesting one ounce of the pulverized 
buds in a pint of alcohol, often shaking it, for a week. Dose, for 
an adult, from one to two tea spoons full; for children less. 

Dr. Anderson recommends this article as being a good reme- 
dy for cramp, bowel com daints, pain in the breast, flatulency, 
&c. He also thinks it will be found a valuable remedy for sup- 
pression of urine, as the bark of Ihe tree is known to be. 

We may add, that we think that tincture promises to become 
a valuable article of medicine. 



Ointment for hard swellings, lumps, or wens on the neck, or 
other parts of the body. 

Take a hand full of the flowers of may weed, bruised, and 
about an equal quantity of lard, put into an earthen vessel and 
set in the sun for several days. — Dr. W. H. Anderson. 



To remove proud or fungus flesh from wounds and ulcers, 
use soot instead of burnt alum, and is said to be much better, by 
Dr. Anderson. 



ointment for scalds or burns. 

Take of, Spirits of Turpentine, 1 oz. 

Olive Oil ur Lard, 2 oz. 

Mix. Apply this ointment to a scald or burn, and it takes out 
the lire or removes the inflammation. 



remedy for gravel, 

Obtained from Horatio R. Keys, alluded to in page 91 of this 
volume: — 

Make a strong tea of the blackberry brier root, with the ad- 
dition of a smali quantity of Virginia snake root. Whilst this is 
steeping, give the patient a dose of the cajenne pepper or dia- 
phoretic powder, and in fifteen or twenty minutes drink very 
freely of the brier root tea. In fifteen minutes after drinking 



©OMPOUNDS. 403 

this tea, take two tea spoons full of the pulverized root of the 
butterfly or pleurisy root in a tea cup full of hot water sweet- 
ened; and repeat it at intervals of from half an hour to an hourj 
until the stone is dissolved; and at the same time taking the 
brier root tea in half tea cup full doses, every half hour for 
twelve hours. 

After relief is obtained, that is, the stone appearing to be dis- 
solved, take a tea of the roots of common paisley, two or three 
times a day, for three or four days, to remove the sediment from 
the bladder, 



TO CURE A COUGH. 

Take equal parts of the loose coarse moss which grows on 
white oak, white maple, and white ash trees, make a strong tea, 
sweeten, and drink freely. — Jacob Dozoell, E:q. 



TO CURE CRAMP. 

Drink plentifully of a strong tea of the blue cohosh roots. — Ah-. 



POULTICE FOR HARD TUMORS. 



Make a very strong tea of white oak bark, and thicken to the 
consistence of a poultice with Indian corn meal; apply it as hot 
as can be borne, and change it every two hours. — Eli Stedman. 



CLEANSING BEER. 



Take equal parts of burdock, sarsaparilla, and soignard roots, 
as much as can be boiled in six quarts of water; bod it down to 
two quarts, strain it off, and when a little cooled, add a pint of 
molasses or half a pound of sugar, with yeast enough to work or 
ferment it. As soon as the fermentation commences, begin to 
drink, and continue drinking freely until it is all drank; and thus 
continue, making it fresh and drinking every day, until health is 
restored^ If the sarsaparilla cannot be obtained, the yellow par* 
ilia may be used instead of it. — ib. 



404 COMPOUND&i 

NERVE OINTMENT. 

Take of the flowers of may weed, 2 ounces; of smart weed r 
1 ounce; of bitter archangel 1 ounce; of the bark of the root 
of bittersweet, 3 ounces; of wormwood, 2 ounces; of Cayenne 
pepper, \ of an ounce. Bruise the herbs and bark, and simmer 
all the ingredients in a sufficient quantity of bear's grease, or 
any other soft animal oil, over a slow fire, five or six hour? — then 
strain the liquid, and add to if two ounces of Spirits of Turpen- 
tine to each pound of liquid. It should be botiled clo^e from 
the air. 

This ointment is to be used in cases of bruises, sprains, swel- 
lings, tumors, &c. by rubbing it frequently on the affected part,, 
and binding it up with flannel, to keep it from the air, 



POLYPUS OF THE NOSE. 

Take of blood root and bark of the bayberry root, equal 
parts, use as a snuff freely several times a day. 



— .»»e©®<«" 



In copying the following recipes, we do not wish to be under- 
stood as recommending all the articles therein contained ; but 
as the Reformed Colleges of New York and Worthington, Ohio, 
have obtained some celebrity, we felt disposed fo lay a few of 
their remedies before our readers, which we copy from a small 
work purporting to contain the Practice taught at those Colleges, 



TO CURE EAR ACHE, 

Take a large onion, bore a hole in it and fill it with sweet oil y 
then roast the onion, press out the juice and add a small quan- 
tity of laudanum, put this into the ear with cotton. This is very 
highly recommended. — Reformed Practice of Medicine. 



FOR WORMS. 

Take equal parts of skunk cabbage roots, Indian hemp roots ? 
white-wood bark, and aloes, finely pulverized and mixed. Of 
this take a tea spoon full three times a day in molasses, for a 
few days, and then take a brisk purge. — ib. 



COMPOUNDS. 405 



TRATMENT FOR SORE EYES. 



If there is great pain in the head, to which there is often a 
great determination of blood, steam it by directing the steam 
of a hot decoction of hops and wormwood or of the common 
fomentation to the eyes and forehead, after being covered by a 
woollen blanket; let the feet and legs be placed in warm water 
or weak ley — endeavor to equalize the circulation as much as 
possible by determining to the surface with sudorifics; occa- 
sionally the sudorific tincture, with warm water, catnip, or 
pepermint tea may be given. At night let there be a poultice 
applied, made of the fine pulverized and bolted slippery elm 
bark, directly to the eye, or over a thin piece of muslin. This 
cataplasm will often be varied, according to the symptoms; it 
should always be made moist, and sometimes before its applica- 
tion or before morning, it will become extremely dry. At times 
it should be prepared after the common way in equal parts of 
milk and water, with a due proportion of Indian meal, applied 
warm, at other times cool; sometimes less water and more milk.; 
if the inflammation should not subside as fast as would be wished, 
let it be changed and prepared in a solution of borax, or what 
is called the ophthalmia wash — the effects of this is often speedi- 
ly to give relief. Through the day the patient may be directed 
to wash often and freely with the ophthalmia wash — sometimes 
three or four ounces may be made use of in a day. Great objec- 
tions have been made to poultices, which we shall not answer here, 
but let it suffice to say, perhaps the wise men did not know what 
kind of one to use, or how to apply it. The bark of the slippe- 
ry elm seems admirably calculated for the eye, on account of the 
great quantity of mucilage which it contains. A mucilage of 
the bark or the pith of sassafras may be put into the eye through 
the day. — ib, 

FOR SALT RHEUM. 

Wash altogether in spirits, and apply freely a tincture of 
black ash bark, which will generally cure. — ib. 



RHEUMATIC LIQUID. 

Take of white turpentine four ounces, inspissated juice of 
poke berries (called garget) four ounces, wine three gallons— 



406 COMPOUND- 



digest for iwo day? — filter and bottle. Used for chronic rheu- 
matism. Dose, half a wine glass full, three times a day. — ib. 



MARSHALL S PILE LIQUID. 



Take of spearmint, bruised, any quantity, or enough to satur 
Tate a given quantity of alcohol — digest for several days. Ap- 
plied externally for piles, internally for gravel, strangury, or 
any suppression of urine. Dose, a table spoon full- — ib. 



HYDRAGOGUE TINCTURE. 



Take of bark of the white elder, one pound, spirits one gal- 
lon — infuse four hours — filter and bottle. Dose, a wine glass 
full three or four times a day. Used in dropsy. — ib. % * 



TINCTURE OF HOPS. 



Take of the pollen or the flour that is on the blow of the 
common hops, sufficient quantity to saturate two pints of alco- 
hol — digest ten days, and filter. Dose, one or two tea spoons 
full in milk, every hour. Used as an anodyne in many cases, 
where preparations of opium disagree with the stomach, for 
pains and to produce sleep. — ib. 



TINCTURE OF SKUNK CABBAGE ROOT. 

Take of the roof of the skunk cabbage, bruised, three ounces, 
spirits one quart — digest, and filter. Dose, from a tea spoon 
full to a table spoon full. Used in nervous diseases. It is a 
powerful antispasmodic ; it is exhibited with benefit in asthma. 
hysteria, and spasms. — ib. 

SUDORIFIC TINCTURE, OR RED DROPS. 

Take of ipecacuanha, in powder, saffron, camphor, Virginia 
snake-root, opium, of each, two ounces; gin, or brandy, three 
quarts — digest for ten days, and filter. Dose, a tea spoon full> 



COMPOUNDS, 407 

to an adult, according to symptoms, sometimes as often as once 
in half an hour. It will be seen by the foregoing pages, (Re- 
formed Practice,) that this preparation is much used in practice. 
It is admirably calculated to relieve many diseases, in combina- 
tion with warm diluent?, depending on an obstructed perspira- 
tion, by its powerful sudorific effects. In derangement of the 
functions of the stomach, arising from the too fiee use of Cold 
water in warm weather, rheumatism, coughs, colic, cramps, 
and pains in the stomach, it is exhibited with great benefit. It 
produces nausea and vomiting with some.— ib. 



BILIOUS PHVSIC. 



Take of jalap in powder, one pound; senna powdered, two 
pounds; cloves, three ounces; rub them together to a fine pow- 
der, and sift; dose, a tea spoon full, in two-thirds of a cup full 
of warm water, sweetened; repeat it in three hours, if it should 
not operate; this is a combination that is much used, as a pur- 
gative. — ib. 



BLACK OR HEALING SALVE. 



Take of olive oil three quarts, rosin three ounces, bees- 
wax three ounces, red lead pulverized two and a half pounds, 
camphor half an ounce. To the oil, rosin and beeswax pre- 
viously melted, add the lead by degrees, carefully stirring the 
whole over a fire of charcoal for a long time, or until of a dark 
color, then remove, continue the stirring until cool, add the cam- 
phor. Great use is made of this salve in ulcers, swellings., 
wounds, burns, scalds, scrofula, &c. — ib. 



ward's celebrated salve, or paste for fistula and piles. 

Take of black pepper, elecampane root in powder, of each 
four ounces, fennel seed twenty-two ounces, honey and sugar of 
each a pound. Melt them together and stir until cool. About 
a drachm may be applied to the rectum three times a day for 
pile tumors. — -ib. 



408 COMPOUNDS. 

BAYBERRY POULTICE. 

This is made with the pulverized bark of the root of bayberrv, 
simmered in milk, or heat- moderately applied to it, with some- 
times the addition of a little elm bark or Indian meal. 

iPerhaps of all the poultices we make use of in scrofulous com- 
pbkts, those prepared from this bark are the most useful. Its 
effects are decidedly beneficial, and should be known to every 
practitioner, — ib. 



DIURETIC DECOCTION. 

Take of the root of the queen of the meadow, milk-weed, 
bark of the root of white elder, juniper berries, spearmint, wild 
carrot seed, horse-radish in powder, of each, equal parts; cider 
in proportion to the quantity of water — boil with a gentle heat, 
and strain. Dose, as much as the stomach will bear. This is 
found of eminent service in dropsy, provokes a free discharge of 
urine and often cures the patient without any other medicine — ib. 



BONE S CELEBRATED BITTER. 



Pulverized tamarach bark six pounds, prickly ash bark four 
pounds, wild cherry bark three pounds, seneka snake root three 
pounds, aloes half a pound ; mix well together. To one ounce of 
the mixture, add about three pints of fluid, consisting of two- 
thirds of gin, one-third of water, and one gill of molasses; mace- 
rate several days; dose, from half to a wine glass full three times 
a day. This is used in all cases where bitters are necessary. — ib. 



YELLOW SALVE. 

Take of wild indig© root [baptista tinctora] one bushel, boil 
the strength all out, strain, and evaporate the decoction to a 
proper consistency, to which add ten pounds of fresh butter, 
half a pound mutton tallow, and three pounds of beeswax; then 
boil until the water is all out, and strain. 

This is an excellent application in many cases, and to cilcers 
in particular. — ib. 



i 

COMPOUNDS. \ 409 

FOR THE DROPSY. 

The following medicine has saved many lives: — Take one 
pint of bruised mustard seed, two hands full of bruised horse 
radish roots, eight ounces of lignum vitas chips, and four ounces 
of bruised Indian hemp root: put all the ingredients into seven 
quarts of sound cider, and let it simmer over hot ashes until it is 
reduced to four quarts: strain the decoction, and let the patient 
take a wine glass full four times a day for a few days, increasing 
the dose to a tea cup full three or four times a day, according to 
its effects: after which let the patient use the tonic medicines. 

It was by this prescription that I was instrumental, under God, 
of curing Judge Hopper's wife, of Ramepo, New Jersey, of the 
dropsy, in one week, which had bniBed the skill of some eminent 
physicians, and is a secret worth hundreds of dollars. 

Dr . Hetorg , s Family Herbal , 



FOR CANCER. 

Take a pint of the juice of the leaves and roots of poke weed, 
put it in an earthen pot, and set it on the hot ashes to simmer for 
a short time: then mix it with a pound of fresh butter, burn it in 
a frying pan, and stir in it half a pint of finely pulverized gun 
powder, and keep it over the fire until it flashes once or twice; 
after which set i( on hot ashes in a pipkin until it is well incorpo- 
rated, when you may put it in pots, with a little alcohol on the top 
to prevent its moulding, close covered, for use. This ointment 
applied twice a day will kill the cancer and entirely eradicate 
tiie roots. — ih. 



ANOTHER CURE FOR THE CANCER. 

The following recipe is for killing the roots and healing the 
cancer in a few days, which I have hitherto kept as an invalua- 
ble secret, but now make it public for the benefit of mankind. 
Take the expressed juice of sharp pointed dock and poke roots 
and leaves, of each half a pint, put it in a lead vessel and set it 
in the sun, in dog days, stirring it often until it becomes inspis- 
sated to the consistence of a thick salve, and cover it with a 
piece of dry bladder for use. Spread this ointment on a pieqe 

52 



410 COMPOUNDS. 



of dressed sheep skin, and apply it over the cancer twice a day, 
which speedily eradicates the roots and heals it: observing at 
the same time to give the patient a tea cup full of the decoction 
of the hark of tag alder, which grows along water brooks every 
where throughout the United States. — ib. 



INFALLIBLE WORM POWDER. 

Take the round balls which grow near the ground on the 
Stalks of skunk cabbage, cut them in thin slices, and after they 
are drv pulverize them. Mix an ounce of this powder with the 
powder of the white wood bark and Indian hemp root, each one 
ounce: from half a tea spoon full to a whole one may be taken 
in molasses three mornings successively, before either the full 
or change of the moon, to a child three years old, and so in pro- 
portion to their age. — ib. 



VALUABLE COMPOUND FOR SWELLED BREASTS. 

Beat or rub camphor in a mortar with a little alcohol, and to 
a tea spoon full of this add a table spoon full of sweet oil. Use- 
ful for any kind of swelling, pain, bruise, rheumatism, &c. - 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

WEIGHTS. 

20 Grains, or gr. make I Scruple, scru. 

3 Scruples, 1 Drachm, dr. 

8 Drachms, 1 Ounce, oz. 

Twenty grains, that is one scruple, of the powder of roots,, 
barks, or vegetables, will measure from rather less than a large 
tea spoon full to a large heaping tea spoon full, some being' 
heavier, and some lighter than others. 



WEIGHT OF FLUIDS. 

A fluid drachm measures about a tea spoon full. 

Three fluid drachms measure about a dessert spoon full. 

Five fluid drachms measure about a table spoon full. 



COMPOUNDS. 411 

Eight fluid drachms, or one ounce, measures the fourth of a gill. 
Sixteen fluid ounces, or one pound, measures one pint. 



FLUID MEASURE. 

4 Gills, make 1 pint, r\t. 

2 Pints, 1 quart, qt. 

4 Quarts, 1 Gallon, gall. 

Those who wish to be very nice and exact about the quanti- 
ties in administering or compounding medicines, may purchase 
at the apothecary shops a graduated glass for measuring fluids, 
and small scales for weighing solids. 



COURSE OF MEDICINE* 

— @©e — 

This includes the application of the vapor hath or steaming^ 
to promote perspiration; the administration of an emetic to 
cleanse the stomach, injections to relieve or evacuate the bowels, 
the final conclusion of the process by the cold affusion or wash- 
ing with cold water, and occasionally a cathartic to cleanse the 
intestines. 

The use of vapor or steam is of very remote origin, having 
been used by perhaps nearly all the nations of ancient times; 
and is still resorted to by some of the rude as well as more po* 
lished nations of the present day. 

In Russia, as we have shown in our first volume, the va- 
por bath is very extensively used, and also more or less in other 
nations of the European. Continent. The Indians of America 
have also been in the habit, from time immemorial, of employ- 
ing the vapor bath, to assist in curing their maladies, and con- 
tinue the practice to the present time. 

Carver, in the history of his travels among the Indians during 
the years 1766, '67, and '68, in treating of their diseases, says— 
"The disorder to which they are most subject is the pleurwsy; 
for the removal of which, they apply their grand remedy and 
preservative against the generality of their complaints, sweat- 
ins;. The manner in which they construct their stoves for this 
purpose is as follows : — They fix several small poles in the 
ground, the tops of which they twist together, so as to form a 



413 eotmsv. of MEnmncE. 

rotunda: this frame they cover with skins or "blankets, and lay 
them on with so much nicety that the air is kept from entering 
through any crevice; a small place being only left just sufficient 
to creep in at, which is immediately after closed. In the mid- 
dle of this confined building they place red hot stones, on which 
they pour water till a steam arises that produces a great degree 
of heat. This causes an instantaneous perspiration which they 
increase as they please. Having continued in it for some time, 
they immediately hasten to the nearest stream and plunge into 
the water; and after bathing therein for about half a minute, 
they put on their clothes, sit down and. smoke with great com- 
posure, thoroughly persuaded that the remedy will prove effi- 
cacious. "They often," continues Carver, "make use of this 
sudorific method to refresh themselves, or to prepare their minds 
for the management of any business that requires uncommon 
deliberation and segacity." 

We have also before us, a letter from Caleb Atwater, Esq. 
whose opportunities for making observations amongst the Indians 
have been very extensive, in which he gives a somewhat more 
particular account of the Indian method of steaming, which he 
learned amongst them during the years 1796, '97, and '98. It 
may also be proper to state, that this letter is in reply to one 
addressed by ourselves to him, requesting any information in his 
power to give respecting the treatment of disease and the reme- 
dies peculiar to the Indian natives. 

His account coincides with that of Carver, respecting their 
method of steaming, and further adds, that the bath-room is 
constructed inside of the wigwam previously made tight and 
warm. In the center of the bath-room, a small hole is dug in 
the earth, into which water is poured and a red hot stone is put 
into it ; the patient in the mean time being placed in the room 
and drinking of a warm tea prepared from the seneka snake 
root, including both the roots and tops. "One stone after an- 
other is thrown into the water, and a copious steam produced 
around the sick person," and "after steaming sometime in this 
way, the patient is taken from his bath-house and plunged into 
a stream of running water, always near the wigwam. This 
bathing in cold water occupies but a minute or two at most, 
after which the patient drinks some of his warm tea, and sits a 



COURSE OF MEDICIiNE. 413 

abort time in the bath-room again in which the steam is renewed. 
Then he is placed in a warm bed, prepared for him, where he 
ikjs in a state of gentle perspirauon for some time.". "So far as 
I now remember," continues he, "iri every case where these re- 
medies were thus applied, during the first three days of a fever, 
it was cured." "Instead of the hole in the earth, a sap trough 
was sometimes used for the water and heated stones." 

This mode of steaming is precisely similar, in principle at 
least, and very nearly so in practice, with that employed in Rus- 
sia, which was detailed more particularly in the first volume; it 
is the same as is practised by the greater part of the American 
Indians, and adopted by Dr. Samuel Thomson, and approved, 
used, and recommended by ourselves. 

METHOD OF STEAMING. 

In all chronic complaints, that is, those which are of long 
standing, such as dropsy, consumption, liver complaint, rheuma- 
tism, &c. the patient should take, four or five times a day, a dose 
of the diaphoretic powder or spice bitters, or in case of costive- 
ness, of the laxative bitters, for two, three or four days previous 
to the application of the steam or vapor bath. And in case of 
diarrhoea, dysentery, colic, cholera morbus, milk sickness, obsti- 
nate constipation of the /bowels, suspended animation, &c. an 
injection should also be administered as soon as it can be pre- 
pared, and if necessary repeated before the process of steaming 
is commenced. For the method of preparing and administer- 
ing injections, seepage 391. But if the disease be a recent 
attack, preparations should be immediately made to apply the 
vapor bath. 

Various methods have been devised for applying the vapor or 
steam bath; but the following may be used in all cases, and as 
the means are to be had in every family, they are most usually 
adopted: — 

Have a good fire kindled, into which five or six stones or 
bricks must be thrown, and a tea kettle of water put over to 
heat. As soon as the water boils, take a tea spoon full of the 
diaphoretic or sweating powders and add to it the fourth of a 
tea cup full of hot water, which may be sweetened if most 
agreeable, and administered to the patient. Two or three 



414 COURSE OP MEDICINE. 

doses similar to this must, in genera], be given to the patient 
before applying the steam, and if the disease be a bad case of 
fever, or attended with much pain, one-fourth of a tea spoon full 
of cayenne pepper should be added to each dose of the dia- 
phoretic powder. 

To prepare the steam bath nothing more is necessary, if the 
patient is able to stand during the process, than a small iron ves- 
sel (a deep one is best,) and a thick blanket, coverlet, or quilt,, 
With the blanket held loosely around him, he should strip off all 
his clothes, or at least all but his shirt, when he must be more 
closely wrapped in the blanket. The iron vessel being now 
placed near the patient with one of the hot bricks or stones in 
it, hot water is poured from the tea kettle into the vessel until 
the stone is about half immersed, which quantity is sufficient to 
produce a lively steam. The blanket is now drawn over and 
around the kettle, and the hot vapor ascends, being confined by 
the blanket around the body of the patient. When the stone- 
becomes so cool as not to produce a lively steam, it must be 
carefully turned over on the other side, and when this has be- 
come cool also, it must be taken out, and a hot one from the fire 
put in its place. This also, when too cool to produce a lively 
steam, must be removed, and thus continue changing the stones 
until a profuse perspiration is produced, which will usually be 
in from ten to twenty minutes. If the steam be too hot, the 
blanket must be opened to allow the cool air to enter. Should 
there be any difficulty in producing a sweat, the patient ought 
to take from half to a whole tea spoon full of cayenne, in warm 
water, sweetened if most agreeable, whilst over the steam. If 
he becomes fatigued with standing, he may sit down occasionally, 
and by laying something across the steam vessel, may place his 
feet over it or near its edges, and thus have the benefit of it to 
his feet. 

In cold weather he should have a warm board to stand on; 
and when the first stone which is put into the steam vessel be- 
comes cool, it should be wrapped in a damp cloth and placed in 
the bed at the foot; and the next one near the middle, to warm 
the bed. and keep up the sweating when the patient goes into it. 

It often happens, during the process o{ steaming, that, the 
patient becomes feeble and faint. !n such cases, as well as at 



COURSE OF MEDICINE. 



4l< 



tiH other times, let him, if he craves it, drink cold water, and 
<3ash a little into his face or bosom, or pour it on his head or 
back, which, if properly attended to, will generally afford relief? 
but if it does not then put him into bed. 

In the absence of the diaphoretic powders, the cayenne pep- 
per, common red pepper, black pepper, ginger, or pennyroyal, 
mint, balm, or any other warm aromatic teas, may be used in- 
stead of it, or in cases of emergency, hot water may be substi- 
tuted if nothing else can be obtained. Emergencies of this 
kind, however, can rarely occur, unless it might be sometimes 
an accident, as drowning, severe bruises, &c» 

If the patient be too weak to stand over the steam, he may 
be placed in a chair, wrapped in a very thin blanket, or he may 
be entirely naked or have his shirt on, first putting a hot stone, 
as before directed, into a shallow vessel under the chair, when 
a thick blanket must be thrown around the patient and chair, 
and hot water poured into the vessel, and managed in every 
other respect, as directed for steaming when the patient is able 
to stand over the steam. 

For steaming small children, let a blanket or something of 
that kind be spread on a chair so that it shall reach, in front of 
the chair, to the floor; then let some person who can best man- 
age the child be seated in the chair, with the child in his arms. 
A deep iron vessel containing a moderate sized stone, must now 
be placed before the person and nearly between his feci; pour 
in hot water sufficient to produce a lively steam, and then place 
a blanket or quiit around the child and person holding it, in such 
a way as to come over the steaming vessel and down to the iloor, 
and in every other manner so arranged as to confine the vapor 
and exclude the air. The person holding the child must be 
the judge of the proper temperature or heat of the steam, and 
the attendant will regulate it by raising the blanket when too 
hot, or changing the stones when too cool. 

The quantity of medicine must be regulated by the judgment 
of the individual administering; remembering often during the 
process, to give the child drink, and in other respects managing 
in the same manner as with a grown person. 

We may also observe, that some practitioners omit steaming 
until after giving the emetic, by which the patient only receives 



416 BOURSE OF MEDICINE. 

one process of the vapor bath instead of two. We think, how* 
ever, that the steaming before the emetic, prepares the patient 
better for its operation, making it more easy and more thorough. 
The steaming may be also very advantageously employed at 
other times than when taking an emetic. It should always? 
however, be immediately followed by the cold bath; and in this 
manner may be profitably resorted to daily, in fevers, rheuma- 
matism, and various other complaints* 

ADMINISTERING AN EMETIC. 

After the steaming which has just been described, and the 
patient being placed in a warm bed, if necessary, an injection 
should be administered, observing the utmost care to avoid all 
exposure to the cool air, especially in cold weather, when an 
emetic must be administered. 

For an emetic, the pulverized leaves and pods or the seeds, of 
tincture of the lobelia, may be administered. The seeds are 
commonly preferred, as being most active and powerful. The 
quantity necessary to produce full vomiting will be different for 
different individuals, and for the same individual at different 
times. These observations apply with equal force to all the 
preparations of the lobelia. 

In ordinary cases, we may commence by giving from half to a 
whole tea spoon full of the pulverized seed3 in a table spoon full 
or two of warm water or warm tea of any kind, to which should 
be added half a tea spoon full of the essence of sassafras, from half 
to a whole tea spoon full of cayenne, and the same quantity of 
the nervine compound, or its tincture. This may be washed 
down with pennyroyal, may-weed, or boneset tea, or chicken 
broth, gruel, or milk porridge. Two more doses, similar to this, 
but doubling the quantity of the pulverized lobelia seeds at each 
dose, should be administered at intervals of fifteen minutes, un- 
less sufficient vomiting is sooner produced. In some instances, 
however, the quantity here prescribed for an emetic will not be 
sufficient, in which case more, of course, must be administered, 
the quantity of which must be regulated by the judgment of 
those who administer; but enough should be given to cleanse 
the stomach thoroughly. But experience will teach better than 
any general rules can do, the quantity necessary to operate snf 



COURSE OF MEDICINE. 41 1 

ficienlly on different patients. The first and second doses ought; 
to be so small as not to produce vomiting, if they can be so regu- 
lated, but always endeavor, at the third dose, to give enough to 
answer the desired purpose. Some practitioners, however, pre- 
fer giving enough at one dose, in which case they give from two 
to four tea spoons full. 

As we neglected in the proper place, we will observe here, 
that in administering an emetic, if the essence of sassafras cannot 
be obtained, a tea of the bark of this tree may be substituted for 
it; orif neither can be procured, the emetic must nevertheless 
be given without either. The advantage of the sassafras ap- 
pears to be that of modifying the violent action of the lobelia, 
without impairing its value. 

Whilst taking the emetic, and during its operation, the patient 
-ought to drink freely of warm water, or pennyroyal or some 
other teas, which has a tendency to promote vomiting as well as 
to make it more easy. It may be regarded as a general rule, 
that the more a person drinks, especially if vomiting be difficult 
to excite, or is laborious, the more readily and easily he will 
vomit. 

The pulverized leaves and pods of the lobelia rank next t© 
the seed for an emetic. They may be given in the same manner 
as the seeds, only the doses must be somewhat larger; or from 
three to six teaspoons full of the powder may be infused in half 
or three-fourths of a teacup full of hot water, pennyroyal, catnip, 
or almost any other tea, for twenty or thirty minutes closely cover- 
ed: then strain off, divide into three unequal doses, adding the 
essence of sassafras, cayenne pepper, and nervine medicine as 
directed for the seeds; give the smallest doses first, at intervals 
of fifteen or twenty minutes, and in other respects manage as 
directed in giving the seeds. 

The tincture of the green herb is thought to be the mildest form 
in which the lobelia can be administered as an emetic, though 
there is probably but little difference between this and the infu- 
sion of the powder just treated of, either of which ought com- 
monly to be preferred for children and delicate or irritable 
females. 

If, however, no preparation of the lobelia is at hand, either 
r >f the following articles mav be substituted, viz: Vervain, bene* 
53 



418 COURSE OF MEDICINE. 

set, wild horehound of the South, or even ipecaccuanha (com 
rr.only called ipecac) of the shops. 

It often happens that emetics do not operate freely, apparent- 
ly in consequence of acidity or sourness of the stomach. When 
this appears to be the case, or at any time when an emetic is 
slow in its operation, the white ley or pearlash water, may be 
given, which will generally produce vomiting. 

When the patient has done vomiting, or as soon as the sto- 
mach will bear it, he should take some kind of nourishment, 
such as broth, soup, porridge, tea and toast, or any thing else 
which the appetite may crave, in reasonable quantity; and when 
sufficiently recovered from the effects of the emetic and fatigue 
of the vomiting, he should be again steamed in the manner here- 
inbefore described; and when perspiration has become profuse, 
the blanket, or whatever is around the patient, should be held 
loosely from him, and a quart, or more, of cold water poured 
instantaneously upon the head or shoulders so as to spread as 
nearly as possible over the whole surface of the body. The pa- 
tient should then be wiped dry, and his necessary clothing put 
on, and go into bed, having the sheets or blankets in which he 
lay whilst vomiting taken off, and dry ones put in their place. 

For patients who are very weak, or irritable, the coldness of 
the water may be taken off a little by the addition of some that 
is warm; or if strong prejudices or objections exist in the mind 
of the patient against the pouring on of the water, wiping off 
with a cloth wet with cold water, vinegar, or spirits, may be 
adopted instead of that process. 

ADMINISTERING CATHARTICS. 

In all casps where it is thought advisable to administer pur- 
gative medicines, it is best, in general, to give it so long previous 
to the steaming and emetic just described, as to allow its oper- 
ation to be over before the steaming process is commenced. — 
Thisxourse may sometimes be proper in bilious fevers, dysente- 
ries, liver complaints, dropsies, jaundice, &c. and amongst the 
different articles of which we have treated, the vegetable cath- 
artic pills, or Dr. Bunnell's pills, are considered very valuable 
in these diseases. For dropsical complaints, two pills may be 
taken every night, with bitters and diuretics during the day, 



COURSE OF MEDICINE. 419 

and the vapor bath and emetic once or twice a week. For 
jaundice, or liver complaints, take three pills every other night, 
spice bitters during the day and the steaming and emetic once 
or twice a week. But for using in ordinary cases where cathar- 
tics are employed, and in bilious fevers, the black root is con- 
sidered more valuable than any other article. This mav also 
be given at bed time, in the dose of one to two heaping tea 
spoons full, and if it does not operate by morning, half as much 
more may be administered* 

During the operation of a purge, and especially if the patient 
is weak or feeble, he ought to drink frequently of nourishing 
broth, soup, porridge or gruel, to support the powers of life, and 
prevent that exhaustion which most cathartics are apt to pro- 
duce. Care should also be taken to prevent exposure to the 
cold, as by this simple precaution, many of the evils arising front 
the use of purgatives might be avoided. If they continue their 
operation too long, or prove by their violence too exhausting, 
the patient should take a few doses of the tincture of myrrh, or 
of Dr. Thomson's No. 6. 

In some cases of fever where the course of medicine is not 
commenced with a purge, it sometimes happens that after the 
fever is checked, the patient does not readily regain his strength 
but continues weak and feeble; in which cases the administra- 
tion of a purge produces a most salutary effect We repeat, 
however, that purges should be cautiously administered in all 
cases where great debility prevails, and the utmost care ought 
always to be observed in all serious complaints to prevent their 
debilitating effects, by the use of nourishing broths and stimu- 
lating medicines, such as tincture of myrrh, diaphoretic powders, 
spice bitters, &x. 

We will ako remark, in conclusion, that as some of Dr. Thom- 
son's medicines are named in the appendix, we will state for the 
satisfaction of those who are ignorant of his book or may wish to 
know which of our medicines we would apply in similar cases 
instead. of his, that where Dr. Thomson's third preparation is re- 
commended or has been employed, our antispasmodic tincture 
should be used, and is considered better. Where his No. 6 is 
employed, we would use the simple or compound tincture of 
myrrh; instead of his composition, use our diaphoretic medicines; 



420 course or medicine. 

instead of his bitter?, any of cur bitter tonics; and instead ofhiY 
No. 5, our tonic cordial. 

REPETITION OF THE COURSE OF 35EDICINE. 

Although this has been perhaps sufficiently noticed in the treat- 
ment of the various diseases which we have herein before des- 
cribe d, yet as there are cases sometimes occurring of which no 
description will be found in our work, as well as others to which 
no name can nor need be assigned, but which are to be treated 
on the same plan, we thought it advisable to present some gen- 
eial rules for regulating this important part of the curative pro- 
cess. 

Where a course of medicine has afforded perfect, or only very 
considerable relief in sudden attacks, we may very fairly presume- 
in mot . instances, that with common prudence and the use of 
bitters* diaphoretic powders, or cayenne pepper, the patient will 
scon regain his health without another course. Or if the violent 
symptoms are removed, and still, as sometimes happens, recovery 
is not so speedy as might be expected or wished, a cathartic 
may often be very serviceable, and accomplish all that might be 
necessary; remembering to follow it with the bitters, &c. 

It my be regarded as a general rule in all cases of disease, 
whether acute or chronic, that when very important relief is 
obtained, whether by the first or any succeeding course of medi- 
cine, this process need not be again repeated so long as the bit- 
ters, or whatever else may be thought best to give, keeps the 
patient improving in health and strength. But whenever we 
find that this is not the case, another course is immediately to 
be resorted to. 

In acute diseases, especially fevers, and all cases which have 
a tendency to run their course in a short time, the courses of 
medicine ought to be repeated every day, or once in two or three 
days, according to the violence of the symptoms. In violem 
cases, the cayenne pepper should be frequently administered be- 
tween the courses, whilst the bitters or diaphoretic powders may 
be less frequently given. 

In chronic diseases, the same rule may also be observed, only 
that the courses of medicine need not be so often repeated, ex- 
cepting sometimes in dropsy or some other complaints which have 



COURSE OF MEDICINE. 421 

become very virulent in their character, or threaten a speedy ter- 
mination in death. 

OMISSIONS. 

We find, in spite of all our care and attention, that we hare 
omitted several things which we intended to have introduced, 
among which the following, so far as yet discovered, are the most 
important: — 

FRESH WOUNDS. 

By these we mean wounds made with sharp instruments, as 
edge-tools of every description. Many of these, however, are 
too trifling to need any kind of treatment only the most simple 
binding up with a cloth or bandage. But should the wound be 
large or much blood be discharged, it ought to have the blood 
washed away with cold water, then place the edges of the wound- 
ed flesh as near together as possible, carefully bind it up, and 
occasionally wet it with either the compound or simple tincture 
of myrrh, and with cold water. This course if properly pursued, 
will prevent inflammation, and induce the wound in a short time, 
to heal. Very large wounds ought to have their edges confined 
together by a few stitches taken with a needle and thread, or by 
the application of the adhesive plaster, as directed under that 
head. 

If a small artery should be wounded, in which cage the blood 
will not flow in a continued stream but by spurts, and if it is on the 
limbs, the wounded part should be kept elevated above the heart 
or head, washed with cold water, tightly bound up, and kept in 
that condition, often wetting it with the coldest water, until the 
bleeding is completely stopped. When larger arteries are 
wounded so as suddenly to endanger the life of the patient, an 
experienced surgeon ought immediately to be sent for, and in 
the mean time the flow of blood must be stopped by pressure, with 
the finger or some solid substance on the bleeding vessel. The 
application of the spider's web, is is said, scarcely ever fails to stop 
bleeding, and should therefore, always be resorted to where 
bleeding is profuse. 



4^2 Amissions. 

Wounds are to be treated, after the first dressing, in everv" 
respect the same as simple ulcers. If they do not become in- 
flamed, all the application that is necessary will be the healing 
salve; and if inflammation takes place, treat them with poultices 
and cold water. 

DISLOCATIONS AND BROKEN BONES. 

TO RELAX THE MUSCLES, 

In order that the bones may be readily reduced or put in their proper 

place. 

The world, so far as we know, is indebted to Dr. Thomson? 
for the following method of relaxing the muscles, in cases of 
joints getting out of place, or bones being broken. The' mode 
which he recommends, possesses the double advantage of pre- 
venting, to a great extent, the excrutiating pain which usually 
attends the reduction of fractures of the bones and dislocations 
of the joints, and of being simple and the means almost always 
at hand. 

Dr. Thomson directs the patient to have a dose of cayenne 
pepper and the powder of ladj^'s slipper root, to promote perspi- 
ration, prevent fainting, and quiet the nerves. Then having a» 
kettle of hot water, wet a large cloth in it and apply as hot as 
can be borne around, and for some distance both above and be- 
low the injured part, if it be on one of the limbs. This being 
done, hold a vessel under, and pour water as hot as can be 
borne on the wet cloth, and so continue for fifteen or twenty 
minutes, when the cloth must be taken off, and the bone or 
bones placed in their proper position by some skillful person. — 
If the case be a broken bone, it must be splintered; but if it is 
a joint out of place, nothing more will be necessary than to pour 
cold water on the part, which will contract the muscles, and 
keep the bone in its proper position. 

In reducing either dislocated or fractured bones to their pro- 
per place, much less skill is necessary than many suppose. 

Any person of common sense knows how the bones ought to 
be when not displaced ; and by exercising a little mechanical 
ingenuity,, after the muscles are relaxed, he will be able to re 



•©missions. 423 

turn them to their proper situation. It must also be carefully 
remembered not to extend the limb, as is the common practice, 
but bend or draw it towards the body. Any individual may 
satisfy himself of the relaxing effects of a bent position of the 
arm, by first extending one of his own at full length, then grasp 
it with the other hand, when he will find the flesh tense and 
hard. Now if he will incline his arm towards his bodv, he wiH 
find, on grasping it again, that the muscles, that is the flesh, is 
relaxed and soft. This is, therefore, the proper position in which 
to have the limbs in reducing either a dislocated or a broken 
bone, instead of being extended as is always practised by bene- 
setters. 



■ 



"Or explanation of the principal technical terms used, in this volume? 
which are unexplained in the body of the work. 

Abdomen, The belly. 

Abscess, A tumor containing pus, as a boil, or other swelling. 
Acid, That which imparts to ike taste, a sharp or sour sensation. 
Acrid, Sharp; pungent; corrosive; or heating. 

Acute, Sharp; ending in a sharp point, when applied to disease, means 
one which is attended with violent symptoms, and comes speedily 
to a crisis. 
Affusion, The act of pouring a liquid substrnce, upon any other sub- 
stance; as of pouring water upon a diseased body. 
Alkali, A substance which is capable of uniting with acids and de- 
stroying their acidity; such as potash, &c. 
Alternate, In botany, branches and leaves are said to be alternate, 
when they rise higher on opposite sides, one after the other, come 
out singly, and follow in gradual order. 
Annual, Yearly; e^ery'yeaf. 
Anodyne, Any medicine which eases pain. 
Anthelmintic, That which destroys, or procures the evacuation ot 

worms, from the stomach and intestines. 
Antidote, A preservative against, or a remedy for, disease; and par- 
ticularly for poison. 
Anti-bilious, That which opposes or removes the too great accumula 

tion of bile. 
Anti-dysenteric, That which prevents or removes the dysentery. 
Ann emetic, That which removes, or opposes vomiting. 
Anti morbific, That which prevents, or removes disease. 
Anti-septic, That which removes, or tends to prevent putrefaction. 
Anti-syphilitic, That which removes, or prevents the venereal disease. 
Anti-spasmodic, That which removes, or tends to prevent spasms. 
Aromatic, Fragrant; A plant which yields a pleasant smell, or a warm 

pungent taste. 
Astringent, That which corrects looseness and debility by rendering 
the solids denser and firmer; known by its puckering effect upon 
the mouth. 
Axillary, In botany — the space or angle formed by a branch with the 

sipm, or by a leaf with the stem or branch. 
Belching, The act of ejecting wind from the stomach, by the mouth. 
Biennial, In botany, is applied to plants, which form their roots and 
leaves, the first year, produce their fruit the second year, and then 
perish. 
Bilernate, Having three . 
Bract, A small leaf. 

54 



426 



GLOSSARY. 



Bulbous, fn botany, root of a round shape; as an onion, &c. 

Bursa mucosa, A mucous bag, which secrefes and contains a substance 

to lubricate tendons, muscles, and bones, in order to render their 

motions easy. 
Calmli. The small gravel or stones, which form in the bladder and 

kidneys. 
Calyx, The external covering of an unexpended flower; not gene- 
rally green or the same color with the leaves of the plant. 
Capsule, A hollow vessel which contains the seeds of some plants. 
Carbonic Acid gas, Fixed air, compounded of carbon and oxygen. 
Carminative, A medicine wh'ch tends to expel wind from the body. 
Cartilage, \ white elastic substance, which serves to facilitate the 

motions of the bones, and to connect them together — often called 

prisMn. 
Cathartic, That which produces a purging of the intestines. 
Catheter, A small tubular instrument, to introduce into the bladder, 

to draw off the water, when the natural discharge is impeded or 

suppressed. 
Cauiex, In botany, the main head or body of a root. 
Caustic, A burning application. 
Chancre, A venerel ulcer, or sore. 
Choleric, Easily irritated. 
Chronic, When applied to disease, is one which is inveterate or of 

long continuance, and mostly without fever. 
Colliquative, Any excessive and weakening discharge from the body ; 

as colliquative sweats, &c. 

Coma, t a strong propensity to sleep. 

Comatose, \ ° ..... . 

Concrete, A collected miss; united in a solid form. 

Connate, Growing from one base; united together at the base, as the 

leaves of boneset. 
Constipation,) An obstruction, or preternatural slowness of evacua- 
Costiveness, ) tions from the bowels. 
Constriction, A drawing together, or contraction. 
Contagious, Catching; that which may be communicated from one 

person to another by contact, or by a subtil excreted matter. 
Cordate, Having the shape of a heart. 
Corymb, A cluster of flowers at the top a plant forming an even, flat, 

expanded surface. 
Cranium, The skull; the assemblage of bones which enclose the 

brain. 
Crepitus. A sharp, crackling sound. 
Cutaneous, Belonging to the skin. 
Cuticle, The outward skin. 
Decoction, A tea made by boiling any substance in water; the process 

of steeping or boiling medicinal herbs, &c. 
Decumbent, Declined, or bending down. 
Delirium, An alienation of mind, or wandering of the senses, caused 

by the violence of fever. 
Diaphoretic, That which, from being taken internally, promotes per- 
spiration. 



GLOSSARY. 427 

Digest, To dissolve; in chemistry, to soften, and prepare by heat; the 
action of a solvent on any substance; often applied to the infusing 
of any medicinal substance in spirits. 

Diuretic, That which, by its internal application, increases the flow 
of urine from the kidneys. 

Discutient, An application, which disperses a swelling or tumor or 
any coagulated morbid matter. 

Duodenum, The first portion of the small intestines. 

Efflorescence, In diseases, applied to a redness of the skin. — In bota- 
ny, applied to flowers. 

Effluvia, Exhalations from diseased bodies or other substances, whe- 
ther noxious or otherwise. 

Electuary, Powders, or other ingredients, mixed with molasses or 
honey, &c. 

Emetic, A medicine which provokes vomiting. 

Emmenagogue, That which tends to promote menstrual discharges. 

Epidemic, A contagious, or other disease that attacks many people 
at the same season, and in the same place, 

Erosion, The act of eating away. 

Eructation, The act of ejecting wind from the stomach through the 
m>uth. 

Errhines, Medicines which, when snuffed or taken into the nose, ex- 
cite sneezing, and increase the secretion, of mucous from this 
organ. 

Eruptive, The bursting forth of humors, on the surface of the skin, 
in the form of pustules, &.c. &c. 

Escharotic, Caustic; corrosive; eating. 

Excoriate, To gall, strip, or wear off the skin; to remove the skin by 
the action of acrid substances. 

Extrctive, Having the power of separating and ejecting fluid matter 
from the body. 

Exotic, Foreign; not a native. 

Expectorant, Medicines which increase the discharge of mucous from 
the lungs. 

Fauces, The back part of the mouth. 

Febrile, Pertaining to, or indicating fever. 

Fibrous, Consisting of slender threads; the small slender roots of 
plants*. 

Filter, To strain through cloth, paper, or other porous substances. 

Flacid, Soft and weak; limber; lax; yielding to pressure for want of 
firmness. 

Flatulency, Windiness in the stomach and intestines. 

Fomentation, A sort of partial bathing, by applying flannels, dipped 
in hot water, or medicated decoctions, to any part. 

Fmtanelle, A vacancy in the cranium or skull of infants. 

Formula, A prescription; a specified form. 

Fundament, See "Rectum." 

Fur, A coat of morbid matter collected on the tongue of a diseased 
person, especially in fevers. 

Gargle, A liquid preparation for washing the mouth and throat. 

Gas, A permanently elasticj aeriform fluid. 



128 GLOSSARY. 

Gland, In anatomy meons, a distinct soft bod}', destined for the secre- 
tion or alienation of seme peculiar fluid. 

Granulation, The act of forming into small grains. 

Hectic, Habitual; denoting a slow, continual fever, marked by preter- 
natural, though remitting heat, which accompanies the consump- 
tion, &c. 

Hemiplcgy, A palsy that affec's one-half, or side, of the body. 

Hemorrhages, Fluxes of blood, proceeding from the rupture of a 
blood vessel, or some other cause. 

Hemorrhoidal, Pertaining to the pills: consisting in a discharge of 
blood from the vessels of the anus. 

Hydragogue, A medicine thai occasions a discharge of watery humors 
from the body. 

Hydrogen, An aeriform fluid gas, of the lightest body known; and is 
consequently used for inflating balloons. It forms one of the ele- 
ments of- water, being about 15 parts to 100 of that liquid; and is 
fatal to animal life. 

Hypocondriasis, The vapors; spleen; a disease; which is attended by 
languor or debility, lownesj of spirits or melancholy; the sufferer 
of.e-i apprehending great evil to himself, &ic. 

Hyeterics, A disease of women, characterized by spasmodic affections 
of the nervous system and often attended by hypocondrical symptoms. 

Indented, Notches cut into any thing making sharp points, like teeth. 

Infectious, That which taints or corrupts; having qualities which may 
communicate disease from one to another. 

Infuse, To steep, in liquor without boiling, for the purpose of extract- 
ing medicinal qualities. 

Inguinal, Pertaining to the groin. 

Innoculation, The act of communicating a disease to a person in healthy 
by inserting contagious mater in his skin or flesh. 

Inspiration, The act of drawing air into the lungs. 

Inspissate, To thicken a fluid substance by evaporation, or drying. 

Intermittent, Ceasing for intervals, of time. 

Jagged, Uneven ; having notches or teeth. 

Lanceolate, Oblong, and gradually tapering towards each end; shaped 
like a lancet. 

Laxative, A medicine that relaxes the bowels; a gentle purgative. 

Lethargy, Morbid drowsiness or sleepiness; a continued or profound 
sleep, from which a person can scarcely be awaked, and if awaked 
remains stupid. 

Linea Alba, A tendinous expansion, forming a strait line from the pit 
of the stomach to the naval, and from thence to the pubes. 

Lithotomy, The operation of cutting for stone in the bladder. 

Local, Belonging to a part, not to the whole. 

Lupidine, The fine yellow powder of hops. 

Lymph, A colorless fluid, separated from the blood, and contained in 
small vessels. 

Materia Medica, That branch of morlical science, which treats of the 
nature and properties of substances employed for the cure of dis- 
eases. 



GLOSSARY. 429 

Membrane, A thin, flexible skin, serving to cover some part of the 
body. 

Menstruum, All liquors are called menstruums which are used as dis- 
solvents, or to extract the virtues of medicines, by infusion or 
decoction. 

Morbid, Diseased, sickly. 

Mucilage, A fluid of a shiny, ropy, and soft consistence. 

Mucus, A slimy, ropy fluid, secreted by the mucus p.embrane. 

Narcotic, A medicine which has the power of procuring sleep, by 
stupefaction. 

Nausea, An inclination to vomit, without effecting it; also,, a disgust 
of food, approaching to vomiting. 

Nervine, Any thing that affords relief from disorders of the nerves. 

Nitrogen, An elementary, gaseous fluid, incapable of supporting ani- 
mal life; composing about four fifths of the atmospheric air. 

Oblong, A figure or solid which is longer than it is broad. 

Obtuse, When applied to pain, means dull; not being sharp or acute. 

q V ' > Of the shape of an egg; inclined to the shape of an egg. 

Oxygen, Gas, composes about one- fifth of the atmospheric air. It 

was formerly called vital air, because it appeared to be the only part 

which exercised any stimulant effect upon the living power. 
Pancreas, A soft, supple gland, situated in the lower part of the 

abdomen, which secretes a kind of saliva, and pours it into the 

duodenum. 
Panicle, In botany, a species of inflorescence, in which the flowers or 

fruits are scattered on peduncles, variously subdivided. 
Parotid, The name of certain glands, below and before the ear. 
Paroxysm, 1. An obvious increEse of the symptoms of a disease 

which lasts a certain time, and then declines. 2. A periodical 

attack or fit of a disease. 
Pathognomonic, A term given to those symptoms which are peculiar 

to a disease, and without which the disease does not exist. 
Pectoral, Pertaining to the breast. 
Peduncle, In botany, the stem or stalk that supports the flower of a 

plant, and of course the fruit. 
Pendulous, Hanging down; swinging, suspended. 
Perennial, In botany, a plant which lives or continues more than two 

years, whether it retains its leaves or not. 
Perspiration, Evacuation of the fluids of the body through the pores 

of the skin. The matter perspire i, or sweat. 
Petioles, The foot stalks of a leaf. 

Phlegmonous, Applied to inflammatory tumors, such as boils, &c. 
Pinnated, In botany, a pinnate leaf, is a species of compound leaf 

wherein a simple stem has several small leaves attached to each 

side of it. 
Plethoric, In medicine, fullness of blood, &c. 
Polypus, A tumor which is generally narrow where it originates, and 

then becomes wider, somewhat like a pear. 
Prolapsus, A falling out or falling down, of some part of the body, 



430 GLOSSARY. 

Proximate, Nearest; next; A prominate cause, is that which lmmedj" 

ateiy precedes and produces any particular effect. 
Pubescent, In botany,, the state of being covered with either hair,. 

dowr, bristles, beard, &c. 
Purulent, Consisting of pus or matter. 
Pungent, Sharp; biting; pricking; stimulating. 

Purges, I Medicines which increase the intestinal discharges by 

Purgatives, j stool. 

Pupil, The round opening in the middle of the iris of the eye. 
Pus, Matter; a whitish, cream-like fluid, found in inflamed abscesses. 

or on- the surface of sores. 
Pustules, Small pimples, or eruptions on the skin, containing pus. 
Putrescent, Becoming putrid ; tending to putrefaction. 
Quartan, Occurring every fourth day. 
Quotidian, A fever whose paroxysms return every day. 
Racemes, Growing in clusters; In botany, a species of inflorescence, 

consisting of a peducle with short lateral branches, as garden cur- 
rants, &.c. 
Radical, Pertaining to the root. 

Radiating, Shooting or spreading out in the form of rays, as light, &c 
Rectum, The third and last of the large intestines. 
Refrigerating, Cooling; allaying heat of the body or blood. 
Remittent, To abate in violence lor a time, without intermission. 
Resolution, The dispersing of a tumor, or inflammation, without sup- 
puration. 
Respiration, The act of breathing. 
Resin, An inflamable substance, hard when cool, but soft and fluid 

when heated; flowing from certain kinds of trees, in a fluid state; 
Rigidity, Stiffness; want of pliability; the qualiiy of not being easily 

bent. 
Rigor, A sense of chilliness, with contraction of the skin. 
Rubefacient, A substance which, when applied a certain time to thte 

skin, induces a redness without bhs'ering. 
Sanguine, Abounding with blood; plethoric. 
Sckirrhus, A hard tumor commonly situated in a glandular part, and 

often terminating in a cancer. 
Secretion, The act of producing or separating from the blood sub*- 

stances .different from the blood itself, &c. &c. 
Sedentsry, Accustomed to sit much, or to pass most of the time in a 

sitting posture. 
Septic, Having power to promote putrefaction. 
Serum, 1st, Whey; 2d, The fluid which separates from the blood 

when cold and at rest, 

Slough, I Separating from the living flesh, as the dead part in 

Sloughing, ) mortification. 

Solvent, Having the power of dissolving. 

Spasm, ) t> t ■ ■ i 

pT t i "ertainm" to cramp or convulsion. 

Spasmodic, ) ° r 

Sphacelus, Mortification of the flesh; gangrene. 

Spleen, A spongy viscus, placed on the left side, between the eleventh 

and twelfth false ribs. 



GLOSSARY. 431 

Stimulant, Medicines which excite the action or energy of the system. 

Stool, An evacuation from the howels. 

Strangury, A difficulty in voiding urine, attended with pain. 

Styptic, A medicine, which, used externally, has the quality of stop- 
pins discharges of blood. 

Sudorific, A medicine that produces sweat, or sensible perspiration. 

Suppuration, The process by which pus or matter is deposited or 
formed in inflammatory tumors. 

Sutures, The seams or joints which unite the bones of the skull. 

Syncope, Fainting, or swooning. 

Syphilis, The veneral disease. 

Tenesmus, A painful, ineffectual, and repeated effort, or a continual 
and urgent desire to go to stool. 

J. €?ISP t 

m ' } Stretched: strained to stiffness: rigid. 
lension, \ ' . 

Terminal, Growing at the end of a bmnch or stem; terminating. 

Tertian, A disease whose paroxysms return every other day. 

Thorax, The chest. 

Tonic, A medicine that increases the strength or tone of the animal 

system. 
Tonsil, A glandular body, situated on each side of the fauces, and 

opening into the cavity of the mouth. 
Triennial, Continuing three years. 

Tumor, A morbid swelling or enlargement of a particular part. 
Typhoid, Resembling typhus; weak; low. 
Ulcer, A morbid sore, which discharges pus. or matter. 
Umbil, ) Flowers resembling in their form, an umbrella, such 

Umbelliferous, ) as the parsnip, fennel, &c. 
Ureter, A tube conveying the urine from the kidneys to the bladder. 
Uterus, The womb. 
Uvula, Commonly called the palate. 

Vaccination, The act of innoculating persons witli the cow pox. 
Vermifuge, A substance that destroys, or expels worms from animal 

bodies. 
Vertigo, Dizziness; giddiness of the head. 

Viscera.) A name commonly applied to the organs contained in the 
Viscus, \ thorax or abdomen, as the lungs, liver, &c. 
Viscid, Glutinous; sticky. 

Volatile, Capable of wasting away suddenly from exposure to the flii 
Whorls. Flowers, or leaves, which surround the stem in a ring. 



INDEX TO VOL,. If. 



— *■»*$ ® Q««- — 



The following Judex, contains only the Common or English names, o,f 
the different articles. For the Systematic, Technical, or Latin Names, see 
the Latin Index, which immediately follows. 



Of diseases, symptoms, and method 
of cure, 3 

Abscess, 8. Inflammations which 
terminate in, ib. Symptoms 
of, ib. Treatment, 9 

Ague and (ever, or Intermittent fe- 
ver, 1-. Causes of, ib. Dif- 
erent stages of, ib. Treat- 
ment, 14. Rattle root, a 
remedy for, 300 

Ague Pills, how to prepare, 377 

Asthma, 16. Symptoms of, ib. — 
Treatment, 17. Tincture, 
for, hj\v to prepare, 384 

Administering an Emetic, 416 
Cathartics, 418 

Apoplexy, 207. May be distinguish- 
ed from Palsy, ib. Causes of, 
and Symptoms, ib. Treat- 
ment, 203 

Abortion, Unicorn root a remedy 
for, 285 

Astringent Tonic, how to prepare 
and use, 373 
Compounds, 372. In what cases 
used, ib. 

Anti-Morbific Powders, ib. 

Antispasmodics, 379. In what cases 
used, ib. Antispasmodic 
Tincture, ib. Antispasmodic 
Aromatic drops, ^87. Blue 
Cohosh, 305. Assafetida, 320. 
Skunk cabbage, 327 

Aati-septics, 380. In what cases 
used, ib. 

Anti Emetics, 386. When to be 
used, ib. Anti Emetic drops, 
how to prepare, ib. 

Anti Dysenteric Powders, 371 

Anodyne Drops, 387 Preparation 
of, 389. Tincture of Hops, 
used as, 406 
Powders, 371 
Application to cancers and 

other painful ulcers, 326 
Root, valuable Indian remedy 
for pains, &o. 361 

Anthelmintics, 392. Their use, ib. 

Acetous acid, Vinegar, 283 

Agrimony, 2C4 

Alcohol, 284 



Alkali, 286. Different kinds of, ib. 
Medical uses of, ib. Alkaliae 
wash. 206 

Alder, (Tag or Black) 288 
(Winter-berry,) 348 

Amaranth, C88 

Angustura bark, 290 

American Senna, 304 
Valerian, 312 

Assafetida plant, 319 

Allspice tree, 341 

Anise, 341. Essence of, how to pre- 
pare, 388 

A spin, 348 

Aromatic Cordial, 396 

Adhesive Plaster, 397 

Appendix, containing cases of cures 
performed with Botanic Me- 
dicines, 219 to 279 

Bite of Mad dog, 18. Symptoms of 
disease, 19. Treatment, 20. 
A case, how treated, 250. — 
See antispasmodics, 379 

Breasts, (Sore) 398 

Bleeding from the Nose, 23. Under 
particular circumstances, it 
may be either beneficial or 
injurious, 24. Treatment, 25 
from the Lungs, ib Distin- 
guished from bleeding at the 
stomach, ib. Treatment of, 
26. Nettles, useful for, 359. 
from the Stomach, 27. Causes 
of, ib. Treatment, ib. 

Boils, Tag alder, useful to cure, 2£8 

Blood, to cleanse, 403 

Bilious fever, 154 
Physic, 407 

Bloody urine, 28. Causes of, ib. 
Treatment, ib. 

Burns and Scalds, 29. Treatment 
of, ib. Ointment for, 402 

Blazing Star, 285 

Bitter Dogsbane,) <„>, 

Bitter-root, \ ~ V ~ 

Bitter-sweet, 305 

Bitter herb, 

Balmony, 

Bitter Tonic Compounds, 375. In 
what cashes used, ib. 

55 



307 



4S4 



INDEX. 



337 



310 



Bitter Tonic, how to prepare and 
use. 3i5 

Bitters, [opice,] do. ib. 

[Restorative,] do. 374 
[Hot,] do. ib. 

Bone's celebrated, 408 

Burdock, 295 

Butterfly 297 

Barberry, 299 

Black Birch, 299 

Black Cohosh, ) ^QQ 

B;ack -->oaUe root, ) 

Black Root, ) 

Bnnton Root, > 333 

Bowman Root, ) 

Black Pep>;er, 345 

Black Alder, 348 

Black Cherrv, 349 

Black Elder, 354 

Blackberry, (High,) 352 

Blue Cohosh, or Cohush 

Blueberry, 

Blue Lobelia, > 

Bhie Cardinal fiower,$ 

Beloved Thistle, ) „ nfi 
Blessed Thistle, $ 1Ub 

g arm ' , , J 306 
Brewer's foam,^ 

Bindweed, 310 

Box tree, 

Boxwood, 

Button Snake root, > 316-17 

Backache root, ) ib. 

Boneset, 318-19 

Butternut 3-29. Syrup of, ib. Pills 
of, ib. 

Buckthorn, 350 

Button wood, see Sycamore buds, 
402 

Beech drons, 332 

Bavberrv, 339 Poultice of, 408 

Balsam Fir, 344 

Blood root, 355 

Birth or Beth root, 357 

Bathing Drops, how to prepare, 397 

Bunnells' Anti-bilious female pills, 
382 

Bone's celebrated Bitters, 408 

Bruises, Water plantain useful for, 
286 

Barns and Scalds, 29. Tag-Alder, 
a remedy for, 288 

Cancer, 30. Description and symp- 
toms of, ib. Treatment, 32. 
Poultice and Salve, for, 33. 
Plaster for, 396. A case of, 
how treated, 257. Anodyne 
application to, 326. Cancer 
root, useful, 332. Poke ber- 
ries, said to have cured, 334. 
Remedies for, 402. 
root, 332 
Catarrh, fee Influenza, &c. 114 



Cramp, see Convulsions, 45. Reme- 
dies for, 402-3 A case of, 
how treated, 262. A case of 
Cramp Colic, how treated. 
237. 
Chicken Pox, 33. Treatment, 34 
Cholera, Indian, Asiatic Spasuiodic. 

35 
Cholera Morbus, 34. Symptoms of, 
ib. Distinguishing character- 
istics, 35. Treatment, ib. 
Larkspur, a remedy for, 313. 
A case of, how treated, 237. 
Course of Med icine, 41 1 . Do. of In- 
dians, from Carver <fc Atwa- 
ter, 411-12-13. 
Repetition of, 420. 
Costiveness, 36. Causes and effects 
of, 37. Treatment, ib. Reme- 
dies for, 400. Vinegar useful 
for, 283. 
Colic, 38. Distinguishing charac- 
teristics of, 39. Different 
kinds of, ib. Treatment, ib. 
Cramp Colic, a case of, how 
treated, 237. 
root, 317. Drops, 388 
(Cold, 191 

iConsumption, 40. Predisposing cau- 
ses of, ib. Symptoms of, 41. 
Treatment, 43. Remedy for, 
401. Unicorn root, useful for, 
285. Rattle root, useful for, 
300. Man-root, useful for, 310 
Of the Lungs, a case of, how 
treated, 240 
Convulsions, or Fits, 45. Causes 
and sy r mptoms of, 46. Singu- 
lar circumstance attending 
this complaint, 47. Treat- 
ment, ib. Skunk cabbage, 
u^ful for, 327. See antispas- 
modics, 379 
Contracted Joints, 400 
Croup, 49. Causes of, ib.. Premo- 
nitory symptoms, ib. — Regar- 
ded as a dangerous complaint 
50. Treatment, 51 
Cocklebur, 284 
Cherry Cordial, 374 
Chalk, 287 
Chamomile, 291 
Clotbur, 295 
Canada root, 297 
Cayenne Pepper, j 
Cockspnr Pepper,' 
Cathartics, 381. In what cases used 
382. Preparations of, 382-3. 
329. Butternut Syrup; Cas- 
tor Oil ; Bitter Root, frequent- 
ly used as, (see throughout 
the book.) American Sen- 
na, 304. Man-root, 31Q' 



301 



INDEX. 



435 



314 



Charcoal, 303 

Caustic, for removing fungus flesh, 

&c 402 
Cpwhage, 
Covvitch, 
Cocash, 314 
Corn Snake-root, 316 
Clove tree, 317 
Crosswort, 318 
Colombo root, 320 

£] ivers ' l 321 
Cleavers, ) 

Chocolate root,) qoo 

Cure all, \ °~ Z 

Cow Parsnip, 324 

Camphor tree, 330 

Cinnamon tree331, 

Cyprus tree, 334 

Candleberry, 339 

Catnip ) 3 

Catmint, $ 

Curled Dock, 353 

Carolina Pink, 356 

Cobweb, 356. Useful to stop blood, 
421 

Compounds, 366 

Compound Tincture of Myrrh, 300. 
Of Vaienan, 378 
Anti spasmodic Tincture, 380 

Cough. Remedies for, 40J, 338 

Cough Drops, 385 

Clysters, 391 

Cleansing Beer, 403 

Cordials, Tonic, how to prepare 377 
Cherry do 374 

Diuretic do 395 

Aromatic do 396 

Conclusion of Part IT. 214 

Communication from Dr Ripley, 217 

Cures performed with Botanic Me- 
dicines, 219 to 279 

Deafness, 51. Causes of, ib. Treat- 
ment, ib. 

Diabetes, 53. Causes of, symptoms 
and treatment, ib. A case 
of, how treated, 256 

Diarrhoea, 54. Causes of, ib. Treat- 
ment's Blue lobelia, a re- 
medy for, 337 

Doses of Medicine, 368 

Dropsy, 55. Causes of, ib 

Of the Chest, Lb. A case of, 

how treated, 233 
Of the Cellular Membrane, 56 
Of the Belly, 57— Treatment, 
60. Tapping for, how per- 
formed. 61. Tincture for, 406 
Parsley root, a remedy for, 
292. Man-root useful for, 310 
Juniper useful as a diuretic, 
330. ' Remedy for, 400 
Drowning-, 62 — Treatment 64 
Dysentery 66, Causes of, ib. Pre- 



>96 



monitory symptoms, 67 — ■ 
Treatment 68. Vinegar use- 
ful for, 283. Water plantain 
useful for, 286. Spicewood, 
useful for, 330. Blue lobelia 
a remedy for, 337 
Dislocation, A case of, how treated 

248 
Dispepsy or Indigestion, 70. Causes 
and symptoms of, ib — Treat- 
ment 72. A case of, how 
treated, 231 
Dislocation and Broken bones, 422 
Dog Fennel ) 
Deilv, ,' 291 

Dill weed, \ 
Dragon Turnip.) Q( 
Dragon Root, $ """ 
Dogwood, 310 
Dock, 35? 
Dittany, 312. Kills snakes, ib—- 

Useful for their bites, ib 
Dewberry, 352 
Diaphoretics, izc. 368. In what 

cases used, ib 
Diaphoretic Powders, how to pre- 
pare, 369 

Dr Wells' formula of, 370 
Dr. Everett's do ib 
Elias Smith's do ib 
Drops, 388 
Diuretics 395. Effects and use of,ib 
Diuretic Beer, ib. Diuretic 
Cordial, 395. Diuretic de- 
coction, 408. Cocash, &c. 
315. Corn s iake-root, 3 16. 
Queen of the Meadow, 3j9 
Juniper 330 
Ear-ache or Inflammation of the 
Ear, 74 — Treatments. Cure 
for, 404 
Emetic, Manner of administering, 

416 
Erysipelas, see St. Anthony's Fire, 

166 
Epilepsy, see Falling- Sicknes, 77 
Eruptions of the skin, 75 — Treat- 
ment ib. Winter-berry, use- 
ful for, 348 
Emetics 383 
Emetic Herb. ) 
Emetic Weed,[ 334 
Eyeb right, ) 
Evan Root 322 
Elecampane, 328 
Elder, 354 

Expectorants. 385. Object of usim? 
ib. Tonic Expectorant, 377 
Everett's do 385 

Elecampane, 328. Unicorn 
root 285. Skunk cabbage 327 
Essence, how to prepare, 396 
- Of Anise, 388 



436 



INDEX. 



Eye Water, how to prepare, 393 

Everett's Sweating powders, 370 
Hot Bitters, 376 
Asthmatic Tincture, 384 
Emetic Compound, ib. 
Expectorant syrup, 385 
Bathing Drops, 397 

Fevers. — Inflammatory, 112. In- 
termittent, 12. Putrid or 
Typhus, 151. Nervous 
ib. Remittent or Bil- 
ious, 154. Scarlet, 172. 
Yellow, 203. Dr. Reed's 
remarks on, 267 

Female obstruction?, cases of, 
how treated, 241-43-45, 
46-47. 

Falling of the fundament, 76. — 
Treatment, ib 

Ftdhiig Sickness or Epilepsy, 77. 
Is divided into two class- 
es, ib. Causes andsvrop- 
toms of, 77, 78. Treat- 
ment, 78 

Fainimg or Syncope, 79. Caus- 
es of, ib, Treatment, 80 

Felons, 209, Treatment, 210. 
Remedies for, ib 

Felon Salve, 334 

Fits, see Convulsions. &c. 45 

Fistula, Salve fo< , 407 

Fit Root, 33 ( u 

Fennel 290 

Field weed, 291 i 314 

Fiy-uv. r? 292 

Flux Root, 297 

Fever-twig, 305 

Feverwort, 318 

Fever Bush, 330 

Fern-bush, i 

Ferngale, ) 

Frostweed, J 

Field weed, j 

Fresh Wounds, 421 

Giddiness or Vertigo, 81 — Treat- 
ment, ib 

Gout, 82. Different classifica- 
tions,^. Causes and at- 
tendant symptoms of, 83. 
Treatment, 86 

Gravel, 87. Symptoms and treat- 



309 
314 



322 



342 



ment of, 88. Remedies, 
89, 399, 402. Peach 
tree blossoms, useful for, 
290. Man-root, useiul 
for, 310. Hops, useful 
for, 325. Method of in- 
jecting solvents of the 
stone into the bladder, ib. 

Gravel Root, 319 

Ginger, 289 

Goldthread, 310 

Golden Sea!, 327 

Gamboge, 322 

Gentian, 

Ginson, 

Ginseng, 

Ginsang, ! 

Ginshang,) 

Ground Raspberry, 32T 

Gum Myrrh, 340 

Garget Root, 243 

Great Plantain* 346 

Glossary, 425 

Head-aehe, 92 — Treatment, 93 

Heart-burn, 93 — Treatment, 94 ' 

Hanging, 190 

Hydrophobia, see Bite of Mad 
dog, 1 8. A case of, how 
treated, 250 

Hemlock tree, 345 

Hemlock Fir, 344 

Heal-all. 308 

Healing Salve, 389-90, 407 

Honey-bloom, 292 

Ho,rse%-weed, 298 

Holy Thistle. 306 

Hops, 325. Tincture of, 406 

!Iore!ioufid,338 

Highhelia, 337 

Hemorrhages, Oil of the E. Can- 
adinseorborsp-weed. use- 
ful for, 3 1 5. Extract and 
syrup of do. useful for, ib. 
Infusion or decoction of 
do. useful for, ib 

Inflammation of the Ear, see 
Ear-ache, 74 
Of the Bladder, 94. Treat- 
ment. 95 
Of the Brain, 95. Charac- 
teristics, ib. Causes of. 



INDEX. 






43? 



96, -Treatment, 97 
Of the Eyes, 98. Treat- 
merit, 99. Remedies, ib. 
Of the Intestines, 101. Cau- 
ses ad attendant symp- 
toms ofj ib. Treatment, 
102 
Of uie Kidneys, 103. Cau- 
ses and symptoms of, ib , 
Treatment, 104 
Of the Liver, 104. Causes 
of, ib. Symptoms of, 105 
Treatment, 106 
Of the Lungs, 107. Causes 
and symptoms of, ib. — 
Treatment, 109. Vapor 
of vinegar, useful for, 283 
Of the. Urethra, a case of, 
how treated, 234 
Inflammation of the Diaphragm, 

a case of, how treated, 224 
Inflammatory Sore Throat, 109. 
Causes of, ib. Symptoms 
of, 110. Treatment, 1 1 1 
Inflammatory Fever, 112. Symp- 
toms of, 113. Treat- 
ment, 1 14 
Influenza or Catarrh, 1 14. Symp- 
toms of, and treatment, 
115. Remedy for, 399 
Insanity or Madness, 116. Cau- 
ses of, ib. Symptoms and 
treatment, 117 
Innoculatipn, 185 
Immoderate Sweating, 75. Treat- 
ment, 76 
Indigestion, see Dispepsia, &c, 70 
Indian Turnip, 296 
Sage, 318 
Lettuce, 320 
Paint, 327 
Tobacco, 334 
Pmk, 356 
Balm, 357 

Anodyne Root, (or Long- 
root,) 361 
Cup-plant, 361 
Fever Root, 362 
Sanicle, 36 1 
Indigofera, ) 
Indigo Weed > 298 
Indigo Broom l 



ice-plant, 339 

Injections, 39 1. Object of using, 
ib. How to prepare, 392 

Jaundice, 119. Causes of, <b. 
Symptoms of, and treat- 
ment, 121 

Jerusalem Oak, 308 

Jevvsharp, 357 

Joepye. 3 1 8 

Juniper, 329 

King's Evil, or Scrofula, 122 — 
Predisposing causes, < < d 
symptoms, 123. Treat- 
ment, 12 4 

Knot Root, 308 

Kussander, 310 

Liver Com plaint, n case of, how 
treated, 265 

Locked Jaw, 125. Causes o r , 
ib. Symptoms of, and 
treatment, 126 See an- 
tispasmodics, 379 

Lightning, 192. Treatment oi. 
ib.' 

Lady's Slipper, 312. 

Larkspur, 313 

Locust plant, 304 

Lobelia, 334 

Long root, 361 

Lovely Bleeding, 288 

Liquorice, 323. Wild do. 294 

Lime, 287 

Malignant, or Putrid Sore throat. 
127. Cause and Symp- 
toms of, ib. Treatment, 
129 

Madness, see Insanity, 116 

Measles, 129. Scarlet fever some- 
times mistaken for, 130. 
Symptoms of, 131. — 
Treatment, 132 

Mercurial Disease. 133. Treat- 
ment, ib. 

Milk Sickness, 212. Symptoms 
of, ib. Treatment, 213. 
Cases of, how treated. 
235,270 

Mortification, 135. Symptoms 
of, and treatment, ib. A 
case of, how treated, 223. 
Wsjter plantain, useful 
for, 286. Indigofera, use- 



438 



INDEX. 



310 



112 



fill for, 299. Yeast use- 
ful for, 307. Sassafras, 
useful for, 332. Winter- 
berry, useful for, 349 

Mumps, 136. Symptoms of, and 
treatment, 137 

Method of Steaming, 413. Do. 
of small children, 415 

Mayweed, 291 

Milkweed, 297 

Man root, 

Man in the ground, 

Mouthroot,310 

Mountain Dittany J c 

Mountain Mint, \ 

Mocasin Flower, 312 

Meadow Pride, 320 

Masterwok, 324 

Myrrh, 340 

Mandrake, ) M6 

May-apple, 5 

Medicines, Directions for the 
Gathering, Selection, and 
Preservation of, 303 
Doses, of, 368 
Pleasant one for bowel com- 
plaints of children, 351 ' 

Medical Recipes, 398 

Materia Medica, Introduction to, 
281 

Neuralgia, or painful affection of 
the face, 139. Symptoms 
of, and treatment, ib. 

Nightmare, 133. Causes of, ib. 
Treatment, 139 

Nervine Compounds, 378. In 
what cases used, ib. — 
Tincture, ib. 

Nerve Ointment, 404 

Nettle, 358 

Narrow Dock, 353 

Nutmeg tree, 340 

Oxbalm, 308 

Ointments, for swellings, 402. — 
Burns, &.c. ib. Nerve 
404. Scrofulous, 390. 
Rheumatic, 399. Tetter, 
165. For Scalled head, 
171 

Palsy, 140. Causes, and Symp- 
toms of, ib. Treatment, 



141 . Cases of, how treat- 
ed, 229, 239 

Piles, 1 42. Cause s of, attendant 
symptoms, and treatment, 
ib. Remedies for, 406-7 

Pleurisy, 143. Causes and Symp- 
toms of, ib. Treatment, 
144. Nettles, a remedy 
for, 359. 
Root, 297 

Polypus of the Nose, Remedy 
for, 404 

Poisons, 144 

Animal, ib. Symptoms of, 

and treatment, 145 
Mineral, 146. Symptoms 
of, and treatment, ib. — 
Vegetable, 147 
From Acids, 148. Symp- 
toms of, and treatment, ib. 
'' Alkalies, 149. Treat- 
ment, ib. 
Arising from taking the 
Vegetable, in substance, 
into the Stomach, 150 
Their divisions into Narco- 
tic, and Acrid-narcotic, 
150. Treatment, ib. 
Vinegar, useful for, 283. 

Putrid, or Typhus Fever, 151. 
Distinguishing character- 
istics, ib. Causes of, and 
symptoms, 152. Treat- 
ment, 153. Vinegar, use- 
ful for, 283. Snake root, 
useful for, 296. Yeast, 
- useful in, 307 

Phrenzy, see Inflammation of the 
brain, &c. 95 

Pappoose root, 305 

Parsley-leaved Yellow root, 353 

Pool root, 360 

Pearlash, 287 

Peach tree, 289 

Prince's Feather, 288- 

Parsley, 292 

Prickly Ash, ? oqc . 

Prickly Elder.j ^ 

Pepper Turnip, 296* 

Pyramid, 320 

Pennyroyal. 324 



INDEX. 



439 



243 



350 



Puke-weed, 3S4 
Peppermint, 338 
Pepper, (Cayenne) 30 1 .—Black,) 

345 
Pipe-plant, 339 
Pimento tree, 341 
Poke, l 

Pigeon berry,} 
Plantain, 346 
Poplar, 348 
Pipsise.va, 
Princes' 1 Pine, 
Purging Buckthorn, 350 
Purvain, 359 

Pills. — Tonic or Ague Pills, 377 
Vegetable Cathartic pills, 

382 
Bunnells' Anti-bilious, fe- 
male pills, ib. 
Reed's do. pills, 383 
Wells 1 Vegetable Cathartic 

pills, ib. 
Butternut, 329 
Powders. — Anti-Morbific, 373 
Expectorant, 385 

Nervine, 378 

Diaphoretic, or sweating, 
369 
Plasters. — Strengthening, 394 
Cancer, 396 

Adhesive, 397 

Felon, 210 

Queen of the Meadow, 319 
Quaking Asp,j 348 
Quiver Leaf, ) 

Remittent, or Bilious fever, 154. 
Causes of, and symptoms, 
155. Treatment, 156 
Rheumatism, 158. Distinguished 
into Chronic and Acute, 
ib. Symptoms of, ib. — 
Causes and treatment of, 
159. Remedies for, 398, 
401,405. Rattle weed, 
a remedy for, 300. Poke 
berries, a remedy for, 334. 
Powerful'remedy for, sug- 
gested, ib. 
Rickets, 162. Causes and symp- 
toms of, ib. Treatment, 
1:63 



Ringworm and Tetter, 164. — 
Description of, ib. — 
Treatment, 165, Washes 
and ointments, for, ib. 
Spikenard, a remedy for. 
295 

Rattle weed, 300 

Rich Weed, 300, 308 

Rich leaf, 308 

Rattlesnake's Master, 316 

Red Pepper, 301 

Red Raspberry, 352 

Red Root, 

Red Puccoon.,1 

Red Elm, 358 

Rheumatic Weed, 350 

Rhubarb, 351 

Reed's Anti-bilious Pills, 383 
Compound Bathing Drop?, 
397 

Restorative, Indian remedy, 361 

St. Anthony's Eire, or Erysipelas, 
166. Causes and Symp- 
toms of, tb. Treatment. 
167 

St. Vitus' Dance, 168. Causes 
and Symptoms of, 169. 
Treatment, 170 

Sore Throat, 109, 127.. A case 
of, how tieated, 229. Va- 
por of vinegar, useful for. 
283 

Sore Breasts, remedies for, 398, 
410 

Sore Eyes, remedies for, 393, 405 

Scalled Head, 170. Symptoms 
of, and treatment, 171. 
Washes and Ointments 
for, ib. 293 

Scarlet Fever, 172. Symptoms 
of, ib. Treatment,. 174 

Scurvy, 175. Is divided into 
three Classes, ib. Causes 
and symptoms of, ib. — 
Treatment, 176. Vine- 
gar, useful for, 283 

Shingles 178. Symptoms of, ib. 
Treatment, 179 

Small Pox, 179,217. Symptoms 
of, 180. Treatment, 181. 
Case ofj treated by Dr. 



■uo 



INDEX. 



V 5ir, 181. Squaw or 
Ra> oot, ' !y recom- 
mence as a re iedy for, 
183. i' n :ulation ?nd 
Vaccination /c-, 185. — ■ 
Communication, re;, -cl- 
ing, from D. Ripley, 217 
Sprains, 189: Tieairaen', ib. 

Vinegar, useful for, 283 
Suspended Animation, 189. 
from Drowning, ib. 
from Hanging, 190 
from Suffocation by inhjaling 
Carbonic acid gas, (or 
damps), hydrogen and 
nitrogen gases, and other 
noxious gases; burning 
of. Charcoal in confined 
rooms, &c. 190. Treat- 
raei 1 ), ib. 
from Cold, 181. Treatment, 
ib. 
. from Lightning, 192. Treat- 
ment ib. 
Scnlds, see Burns, &c. 29 
Scrofula, see King's Evil, 122. 

Remedy for, 350 
Scrofulous Ointment, 390 
Sick Stomach, see Milk Sickness, 

£12 
Sickness at the Stomach, vinegar, 

useful for, 283 
Swellings and Tumors, Remedies 

for, 402, 3, 288 
Swelling of the Testicle, a case 

of, how treated, 242 
Stone, see Gravel, &x. 87 
Swine Pox, see Chicken Pox, 34 
Sweating, see Immoderate sweat- 
ing, 75 
Plant, 318. 
Syncope, see Fainting, &c. 79 
Suffocation, treatment of, 190 
Salt Rheum, 405, see also, 122, 

390 
Stranguary, Remedy for, 400. 
Sumach, useful for, 351 
Salves. — Remarks on Healing 
s dves. 389 
Dr. Wells' Healing, 390 
Sumach, ib. 



Felon, 394 

Black, or Healing, 407 

Pile, 2*. 

Yellow, 408 
Strengthening Plaster, 394 
Soda, 286 

Spirits of Wine, 284 
Syrups — Tonic Expectorant, 377 

Everett's Expectorant, 385 

Wells' Vegetable, 386 

Butternut, 329 
Stickwort,284 
Star Root, 285 
Sweet Fennel, 290 
Sweet Birch, 



299 
1 



!>309 



294 



Spice Birch, 
Sweet Fern, 
Sweet Bush, 
Sweet Ferry, 
Spleenworl Bush, j 
Sweet Basil,) 
Stonemint, \ 
Sweet Liquorice, 323 
Sweet Gale, 339 
Sweet Elder, 354 
Stinking Chamomile, 291 
Stinking Weed, 308 
Spikenard, ) 
Spignet, ) 
Shot-bush, 295 
Silk Weed, 297 
Swallow Wort, 297 
Squaw Root, 300-5 

Mint, 324 
Staff Vine, 305 
Snakehead,j 
Shell flower 
Sione-root, 308 
Saffron, 311 
Scabious, ~\ 
Scabish, 1^14 

Skovish, | 

Squaw Weed, J 
Spotted Alder, ) 
Snapping Hazelnut ) 
Skunk Cabbage,) m9 „ Tinctur? 
Skunk Weed, \ °" ' of, 40b 
Spicewood, } g3Q 
Spicebush, j 
Sassafras, 
Sax'afrax, 



50" 



523 



331 



k^ItEX. 



441 



296 



Spearmint, 338 

Spearmint Sling, 387 

Scoke, 343 

Seneka Snakeroot ; 347 

Snakeweed, 

Snagrel, 

Sour Dock, 353 

Sumaek, 351 

Sumack Salve, 390 

Sheep Sorrel, 353 

Sarsaparilla, 355 

Spider's Web, 356 

Slippery Elm, 358 

Steaming, Method of, 413. In- 
dian do 413-14 

Sudorifics, 368. Tincture, 406 

Sycamore Buds, 401. Are a re- 
medy for cramps, bowel 
complaints, pain in the 
breast, flatulency, &c. ib. 

Snake bites, 145 — Treatment of, 
ib. Rattle weed, a reme- 
dy for, 300. Corn Snake- 
root, a remedy for, 316. 
Boneset,a remedy for 318 
Indian remedy for, 362 

Spitting of Blood, see Bleeding 
from the Lungs, 25 

Stings, 145 — Treatment, ib. — 
Plantain, useful for, 346 

Spasms, see antispasmodics, 379 

Tetter, see Ringworm, &c. 164. 
Ointment for, 165 

Tetanus, see Locked Jaw, 125 

Typhus Fever, see putrid or Ty- 
phus fever, 151 

Tumors, see swellings, 402-3 

Tag alder, 288 

Turllehead, ) 

Turtlebloom, \ 

Thorough wort, > 

Thoroughstem, ) 

Throat root, 322 

Tick-weed, 324 

Twin Leaf, 328 

Tulip tree, 334 

Toad Lilv, 341 

Tanzy, 357 

Tapping, 61 

Tinctures. — Nervine, 378 

Compound of Valerian . ib. 



307 



116 



Antispasmodic, 379 
Compound Antispasmodic, 

380 
of Cayenne, 379 
of Lobelia seeds, ib. 
of Lobelia herb, 384 
of iWyrrh, 381 
Compound, of Myrrh, 380 
Everett's Asthmatic, 384 
Hydrn.gogue, 406 
of Hops, ib. 

of Skunk Cabbage, ib. ■ 
Sudorific, ib. 
Tonic, Unicorn root, 285. Tag 
alder, 288 
Cordial, 377 
Expectorant Syrup, ib. 

Unicorn root, use- 
ful as a, 285 
or Apjue Pills, 377 
Ulcers, 193. Several kinds of, 
ib. Treatment, 194.— 
Water plantain, useful for, 
286. Bitter root, useful 
for, 293, Spikenard, use- 
ful for, 295. Indigofera 7 
useful for, 299. \east, 
useful for, 307. Bog- 
wood, useful for, 311. — . 
Cancer root, useful for, 
332. Winter-berry, use- 
ful for, 349 
Umbil, 312 
Unicorn root, 285 
Vaccination, 186 
Venereal Disease, 196. Symp- 
toms of, 197. Treatment, 
198. Bitter root, a reme- 
dy for, 293. Spikenard,, 
a remedy for, 295 
Vertigo, see Giddiness, 81 
Vomiting and purging, see Chsr 

lera Morbus, 34 
Vegetable, Cathartic, 382-3 

Syrup, 386 
Virginia Snake root, 296 
Valerian, 312 

Tincture of, 389 
Valerian, Compound Tincture of: 

378 
Vine Maple. 338 

5€? 



44£ 



INDEX. 



Vinegar, 283. Useful in dysen- 
tery, ib. in fevers, ib. in 
sickness of the stomach, 
ib. in poisons, ib. The 
vapor of, useful in com- 
plaints of the lungs and 
sore throat, ib 

Vervain J „„ 
xr ■ '} 3o9 
Vervine, ) 

Vermifuges, 392 

Weights and Measures, 410 

Weight of Fluids, ib. Measure 

of Fluids, 411 
Wounds, how treated, 42 1 . Case 

of, 238 
Whooping Cough, 199. Symp- 
toms of, ib. Treatment, 
200. Remedy for, 399 
Worms, 201. Causes and symp- 
toms of, ib. Treatment, 
200. Remedies for, 393 
404. Yellow poplar, a 
remedy for, 334. Reme- 
dies for, 410 
Worm Drops, how made, 393 
Wormseed, \ 
Wormwood, $ 60B 
Water, 293. Soft, ought to be 
preferred in preparing 
medicine, 294. How al- 
kalies soften, ib. 
Plantain, 286 
Wandering Milkweed, 292 
Wild Chamomile, 291 

Liquorice, 294 
Wild Turnip,) OQG _ 
Wake Robin, J 29& 
Wild Indigo, 298 
Senna, 304 
Potatoe, 310 
Horehound, 318 
Cherry, 349 
Lettuce, 349 
White Snake root, 296, 360 
Walnut, 329 
Wood, 334 
Horehound, 338 
Pond Lily, 341 
Elder, 354 
Lye, 396 



White Root, 
Wind,Rootf 



29? 



323 



539 



Witch Hazel, i 

Winter Bloom, \ 
Wax Myrtle, j 
Wax Berry, [ 
Winter Berry', 348 
Winter Green, 350 
Wood Sorrel, 353 
Well's Vegetable Syrup, 380- 
Cathartic Pills, 383 
Healing Salve, 390 
Diaphoretic Powders, 370 

do. Drops, 388 
Anti-Dysenteric Powders. 

371 
Anodyne Powders, ib. 
do. Drops, 389 
Anti-Morbific Powders, 

373 
Anti-Dyspeptic, Bitters, 

376 
Tonic, or Ague Pills, 377 
Compound Tincture of 

Valerian, 378 
Simple do. do. 389 
do. Antispasmodic 
Tincture, 380 
Vegetable Cathartic 
Pills, 383 
do. Syrup, 386 
Cough Drops, 385 
Colic Drops, 388 
Scrofulous Ointment, 390 
Worm Drops, 393 
Chronic Eye Drops, 394 
Ward's Salve for Piles, &lc. 407 
Wash, Alkaline, how made, 206. 

Useful for fever, ib. 
Yellow Fever, 203. Brief his- 
tory of, ib. Symptoms of, 
204. Treatment, 205 
Yeast, 306 

Yellow Lady's Slipper, 312 
Gentian, 320-322 
Puccoon, 327 
Root, ib. 
Poplar, 334 
Parilla, 338 
Dock, 353 
Yellow-wort, 
Yellow-wood, 
•'Yellow salve, 408 



359 



359 



INDEX, 

To the Latin or Botanic names used in the Materia Medico. 



Acidum Acetosum, 283 

Agrimonia Eupatoria, 234 

Alcohol, ib. 

Aletris Alba, 285 

Alisma Plantago, 286 

Alkali, ib. 

Almis Serrulata, 288 

Amaranthus Sanguineous, ib. 

Amomum Zingiber, 289 

Amygdalus Persica, ib. 

Anethum Foeniculum, 290 

Angustiira Bark, ib. 

Anthemis Cotula, 291 

Anthemis Nobilis, ib. 

Apium Petroselinum, 292 

Apocynum Androseemifolium, ib. 

Aqua, 293 

Aralia Racemosa, 294 

Aralia Spinosa, 295 

Arctium Lappa, ib. 

Aristolochia Serpentaria, 296 

Arum Triphyllum, ib. 

Asclepias Syriaoa, 297 

Asclepias Tuberosa. ib. 

Baptisia Tinctoria, 298 

Berberis Canadensis, 299 

Betula Lenta, ib. 

Botrophis Serpentaria, 300 

Capsicum Annuum, 301 

Carbo Ligni,303 

Carbonas Soda? Impurus, 286 

Carbonas Potassse Impurus, 287 

Carbonas Calcis, ib. 

Calx, ib. 

Cassia Marilandica, 304 

Caulonhyllum Thalictraides, 305 

Celastrus Scandens, ib. 

CentaureaBenedicta, 306 

Cerevisia? Fermentum, ib. 

Chelona Glabra, 307 

Chenopodium Anthelminticum, 308 

Collinsonia Canadensis, ib. 

Comptonia Asplenifolia, 309 

Convolvulus Panduratus, 310 

Coptis Trifolia, ib. 

Cornus Florida, ib'. 

Crocus Sativus, 311 

Cunila Mariana, 312 

Cypripedium Luteum, ib. 

Delphinum, 313 



, Dolichos Pruriens, 314 
Erigeron Philadelphicum, ib. 
Eryngium Yucefolium, 3'6 
Aquaticum, 317 
Eugenia Caryophyllata, ib. 
Eupatorium Perfohatum, 318 
Pilosum, ib. 
Purpurium, 319 
Ferula Assafetida, ib. 
Frasera Verticillata, 320 
Gulium Verum, 321 
Gambogia, 322 
Gentiana Perfoliatum, ib. 
Geum Virginianum, ib. 
Glycyrrhiza Glabra, 323 
Hamajnelis Virginiana, ib. 
Hedeoma Pulegioides, 324 
Heracleum Lanatum, ib. 
Humulis Lupulis, 325 
Hydrastus Canadensis, 32? 
Ietodes Foetida,i'6 
Inula Helenium, 328 
Jeffersonia Odorata, ib. 
Juglans Cineria, 329 
Juniperus Communis, ib'. 
Laurus Benzoin, 330 

Camphora, ib. 

Cinnamomum^ 331 

Sassafras, ib. 
Leptamnium Virginianum, 33C 
Leptandria Alba, 333 
Liriodendron Tulipifera, 334 
Lobelia Inflata, ib. 

Syphilitica, 337 
Marrubium Vulgare, 338. 
Mentha; Piperita, ib. 
Virides, ib. 
Minispermium Canadense, ib. 
Monotropa Uniflora, 339 
Myrica Cerifera, ib. 
Myristica Moscbata, 340 
Myrrh a, ib. 
Myrtus Pimenta, 341 
Nepeta Certana, ib. 
Nympha Odorata, ib. 
Panax Quinquefolium, 342 
Phytolacca Decandra, 343 
Pimpinella Anisum, 344 
Finus Balsamea, ib. 

Canadensis, 34.5 



444 



LATIN INDEX. 



Piper Nigrum, ib. . 
Plantago Major, 346 
Podophyllum Peltatum, ib. 
Polygala Senega, 347 
Populus Trepida, 348 
Prinos Verticillatus, ib. 
Prunus Cerasus, 349 
Pyrola Rotundifolia, ib. 

Umbellata, 350 
Rhamnus ( atharticus, ib. 
Rheum Palmatum, 351 
Rhus Glabrum, ib. 
Rubus Diliciosus, 352 

Procumbens, ib. 



Rubus Villosus, ib. 
Rumex Ascetosella, 353 

Crispus, ib. 
Sambucus Nigra, 354 
Saoguinaria Canadensis, 355 
Smilax Sarsapanlla, ib. 
Spigelia Marilandica, 356 
Tela Araneii, ib. 
Tenacetum Vulgare, 357 
Trillium Latifolium, ib 
Ulmas Aspera, 358 
Urtica Dioica, ib. 
Verbena Hastata, 359 
Xanthorhiza Apiifolia, ib. 



ERRATA. 



The following errata embrace the principal errors which have been dis- 
covered. Such as were considered unimportant, or which the reader will 
readily correct for himself, are omitted ; and if others of more consequence 
are met with by those who peruse the book, it is hoped that they may be 
viewed with an extenuating eye. 

Page 22, line 3 from bottom, after the word "against" read it. 



55, 
65, 

72, 
78, 
90, 
100, 
101, 
118, 
119, 

130, 

143, 
177, 
181, 

183, 

192, 
268, 
274, 
275, 
290, 
292, 
'J03, 
328, 
332, 
340, 
347, 
357, 
358, 
365, 
331, 



■• z ■* bottom, for me/entery, " mesenteTy. 

"16 " top, " leave out the word it, after the word 

blowing. 
" 12 and 17 from bottom, for viscious, read viscous. 

" do. " the words and in, read and end in. 
" do. " Convolvulus, read Convolvulus. 
" do. " appled, read apph'ed. 
and 18 " top, " naval, " navel. 

" do. " after the word such, read as, 

" do> " after the word think, leave out 

the word we. 
". bottom, " after the word make, read their. 
" do. " high is, read is high, 

top, " became, " become. 
" do. " after the word in, leave out the 

word of. 
wherever the word inoculate occurs, read innoculate. 



" 10 
" 10 
" 17 
" 4 
" 13 
" 2 

" 4 
" 8 
" 16 
« 16 



2 
" 15 
" 5 
" 15 
" 17 
" 6 
" 11 
" 9 
" 18 
u 4 

" 12 
" 13 

" 4 
" 16 
" 13 



bottom, for awd, read and. 



do 

top, " 
do. " 

do- " 

bottom, " 

top 

top 



rhubard, read rhubarft. 
after the word this, read he. 
he, read be. 
asually, read usually. 
ayi, " op. 

Cea, « C<e, 
tempory, " temporary, 
from bottom, " Lept?iamnium, read Leptamnium- 
bottom, " bes, " besf. 

do. " pole, " polZ. 
bottom, " hypochodria, " hypochondriai 
do. " Diocia, " Dioica. 

do. " sealing " celling, 

top " floridw. rt floricla-. 



AGRIMONIA EUPATORIA. 




Agrimony, Cockle bur, Stickwort. 
Seepage 284, 



■m 



ALFTRTS" ALBA. 




//// /TTW" 



Unicom, Star Root, Blazing Star. 
See page 285. 



APOCYNUM ANDROS&MTFOUUM. 




Bitter Dogsbane, Wandering Milkweed, Bitter-root, Honey 
Bloom, Flytrap. 

See page 292= 



ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA. 







Pleurisy root, Butterfly root, White root. CanaHa root. Silkweed, 
Wiiid root, Flux root, Swullow Wort. 

Sec page 297. 



BOTROPHIS SERPENTARIA, 




Rattle Weed, Squaw Root. Rich Weed, Black Cohosh, 

Black Snake root, &c. 

See page 300. 



CASSIA MARJLANDICA. 




I 



I 



w *w 






^ 



Agracrican Sgmwi, Wild Senna, Locust plant. 

See page 304. 



CAULOPHYLLU M THAUCTROIDES. 




Blue Cohosh, Blue Gohush^ Blueberry, Pappoose root, 

Squaw root, &,c. 

See page 305. 



CYPRTPEDTUM LUTEUM. 




Yellow Ladies Slipper, Moccasin Flower, American 

Valerian, Umbil, &c. 

See page 312e 



ERYNGIUM AQUATICUM. 







Colic root, Button Snake root, Backache root, 
■See page 317. 

58 



FUPATORIUM PUEPUKTUM. 




Queen of the Meadow, Boneset, Gravel root 
See page 319. 



FRASERA VEHTICILLATA. 




Columbo root, Indian Lettuce, Meadow Pride, Pyramid* 

Yellow Gentian, &c« 

Seepage 320. 



HAMAMEL1S VIRGINIANA. 




Witch Hazel, Spotted Alder, Winter Bloom, Snapping Hazel 

nut, &c. 

See page 323, 



HERACLEUM LANATUM. 










Masterwort, Gov.' Parsnip* 

See page 324. 



HYDRASTUS CANADENSIS. 




Golden Sealj Yellow Puecoon. Yellow root, Ground 
Raspberry, Indian Paint, &c« 

See page 327* 



LEPTANDim ALBA. 



li 4 

I It i * 

1 1 ^f . 17 k % M 




Black root, Culver root, Brinton's root, Bowman root, 
Indian Physic, &c. 

-See page 333. 



LOBELIA INFLATA. 




Lobelia, Emetic herb, Emetic weed, Indian Tobacco, 

Eyebright, Puke weed, &c. 

See page 334. 



MYRICA CERIFERA. 




Candle Berry, Wax Myrtle, Sweet Gale, Wax Berry. 

See page 339. 

59 



NYMPHA ODOR ATA. 




White Pond Lily, Toad Lily, &c. 
See page 341. 



TRILLTUM LATTFOLTUM. 




Birth-root, Beth-root, Jew sharp, Indian Balm, &c. 

See page 357* 



POOL ROOT. 




<*»= 



White Snake-root. 
See page 360. 



INDTAN ANODYNE. 




Seepage 361. 



INDIAN CUP-PLANT. 



i 



WKmk 



Xm 



1 1 1 §■ 




See page 361, 



INDIAN FEVER-ROOT. 




page 



362. 



INDIAN SANICLE. 




See page 362. 



i) 



A